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Big Think
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"2018-05-19 12:31:22"
The fascist philosopher behind Vladimir Putin’s information warfare
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"2018-05-18 19:18:04"
How to build an A.I. brain that can conceive of itself | Joscha Bach
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"2018-05-17 15:00:02"
Aboard the ISS: Why cross-cultural communication is a matter of life or death | Chris Hadfield
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"2018-05-16 15:00:01"
Michio Kaku: Who is right about A.I.: Mark Zuckerberg or Elon Musk?
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"2018-05-15 15:15:00"
Has our ability to create intelligence outpaced our wisdom? | Max Tegmark on A.I.
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"2018-05-14 15:00:01"
Why bankers are like time travelers who grab value from the future | Yanis Varoufakis
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"2018-05-13 16:01:13"
Ronan Farrow: How my mom inspired me to think beyond myself
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"2018-05-12 13:24:36"
How the NFL uses virtual reality to train for success | Jeremy Bailenson
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"2018-05-11 15:00:03"
Why a meeting between Trump and Kim Jong-un could backfire on the U.S. | Ronan Farrow
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"2018-05-10 15:00:01"
What brands can learn from the failure of Boaty McBoatface | Henry Timms
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"2018-05-09 15:00:01"
The incredible reason spotted hyena society is ruled by females | Lucy Cooke
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"2018-05-08 15:30:00"
Is your office full of strangers? How real talk can elevate company culture
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"2018-05-07 14:11:22"
How to build an A.I. brain that can surpass human intelligence | Ben Goertzel
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"2018-05-06 13:08:27"
A short history of knowledge, from feudalism to the Internet | Alice Dreger
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"2018-05-05 13:58:47"
A four-step method for giving foolproof feedback | Michelle Tillis Lederman
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"2018-05-04 15:15:00"
Why predicting the future is about to become cheaper: A.I. and economics | Ajay Agrawal
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"2018-05-03 15:00:06"
Why victimhood is attractive to white men, religions, and other majority groups | Bill Doherty
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"2018-05-02 17:00:06"
Why religion is literally false and metaphorically true | Bret Weinstein
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"2018-05-01 17:00:00"
How equal parental leave can help close the gender pay gap | Lauren Smith Brody
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"2018-04-30 12:54:29"
How skepticism can fight radicalism, conspiracy theorists, and Holocaust deniers | Michael Shermer
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"2018-04-29 14:01:25"
Why you’re probably reading the Bible wrong | Rob Bell
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"2018-04-28 12:57:48"
How VR can show us life, death, and the consequences we’re blind to
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"2018-04-26 15:00:01"
The death of democracy: Why the radical Left may end up killing what it loves
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"2018-04-25 18:59:16"
Why loneliness is a danger to individuals and societies | Andrew Horn
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"2018-04-24 17:00:03"
Would companies be more diverse if A.I. did the hiring? | Joanna Bryson
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"2018-04-23 14:01:05"
Shot by a disgruntled employee, I discovered the heroism of ordinary people. | Dennis Charney
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"2018-04-22 14:09:14"
How Spanish, not English, was nearly the world's language | John Lewis Gladdis
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"2018-04-21 14:20:17"
Why every mother should get 6 months paid leave from work | Lauren Smith Brody
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"2018-04-20 17:00:08"
Why the future of science depends on creativity and emotion | NASA's Michelle Thaller
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"2018-04-19 15:00:00"
Why populism is the greatest con in America | Martin Amis
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"2018-04-18 15:00:02"
How to spot high-conflict people before it’s too late | Bill Eddy
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"2018-04-17 15:30:01"
Why a more diverse workplace is a more talented one | Ram Charan
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"2018-04-16 13:51:30"
Why even CEOs need to ask for help: How Alan Mullaly turned Ford around | Dennis Carey
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"2018-04-15 13:36:02"
Is the Trump presidency a religious cult? | Reza Aslan
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"2018-04-14 13:57:01"
How to reboot your life with the Japanese philosophy of Ikigai | Rob Bell
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"2018-04-12 15:00:00"
Jordan Peterson: The fatal flaw in leftist American politics
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"2018-04-11 15:00:14"
3 new jobs A.I. is creating: Trainers, explainers, and sustainers | Paul Daugherty
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"2018-04-10 13:10:12"
Hungry for meaning: Why there is no conflict between science and spirituality | Rob Bell
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"2018-04-09 17:00:07"
Can you solve this riddle? How to overcome your mind’s rigid thinking | Leonard Mlodinow
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"2018-04-08 13:34:02"
How regulation today could avoid tomorrow’s A.I. disaster | Joanna Bryson
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"2018-04-07 13:57:14"
Who is God? One religion answers this question better than the others.
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"2018-04-06 21:00:00"
Sex and Power: How an Old Relationship Is Changing—Anita Hill to Harvey Weinstein | Esther Perel
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"2018-04-06 14:00:03"
Why People Cheat on Their Partners | Esther Perel
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"2018-04-05 17:00:04"
Jordan Peterson: Inequality and hierarchy give life its purpose
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"2018-04-04 17:00:01"
Why great sermons aren't just for the religious | Rob Bell
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"2018-04-03 17:00:03"
Bored out of your mind at work? Your brain is trying to tell you something. | Dan Cable
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"2018-04-02 21:00:00"
The communication error we all make, and how it intensifies conflict | Esther Perel
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"2018-04-02 15:11:51"
Agents of revolution: How 500 years of social networks shaped humanity | Niall Ferguson
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"2018-04-01 13:38:26"
Chris Hadfield: The astronaut's guide to flat Earth theory
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"2018-03-31 14:24:15"
How to make a great movie | Stanley Tucci on collaboration, creativity and thrift
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"2018-03-29 17:00:07"
Talent drives success: Why HR leaders are as important as CEOs | Ram Charan
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"2018-03-28 17:00:00"
Why being politically correct is using free speech well | Martin Amis
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"2018-03-27 17:00:11"
Huts for Peace: How homeless, ousted women in Uganda rebuilt their lives | Agnes Igouye
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"2018-03-26 12:00:01"
How the science community can end sexual harassment | Hope Jahren
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"2018-03-25 14:06:17"
The communication error we all make, and how it intensifies conflict | Esther Perel
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"2018-03-24 13:33:35"
Chris Hadfield: How looking at 4 billion years of Earth’s history changes you
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"2018-03-22 17:00:01"
How coders are creating software that's impossible to hack | Kathleen Fisher
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"2018-03-21 17:00:04"
The 14th Amendment: The best idea in humanity’s 10,000-year history | Van Jones
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"2018-03-20 17:00:06"
Kids on the Internet: Why parenting must keep up with the digital revolution
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"2018-03-19 14:07:17"
Why the First Amendment is America in a nutshell | Monica Duffy Toft
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"2018-03-18 14:00:02"
Why etiquette governs the art of writing: Lolita, Ulysses, and the arrogance of genius
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"2018-03-17 14:27:38"
Bryan Cranston to non-voters: Don’t let cynicism get in the way of your voice / your rights
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"2018-03-15 17:00:01"
How America’s celebrity obsession weakens the fight against inequality | Amy Chua
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"2018-03-14 17:00:04"
How success and failure co-exist in every single one of us | Michelle Thaller
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"2018-03-13 17:00:01"
The 13th Amendment: Slavery is still legal under one condition
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"2018-03-12 17:00:00"
The Fifth Amendment: Stopping American chaos before it starts | Amaryllis Fox
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"2018-03-11 14:58:03"
Every middle class worker should get a $6,000 raise | Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes
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"2018-03-10 16:50:05"
What makes you vulnerable to a gambling addiction? | Maia Szalavitz
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"2018-03-08 18:00:00"
The luck advantage: How sharing opportunities comes back to benefit you | Barnaby Marsh
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"2018-03-07 18:00:07"
Why libertarianism is a marginal idea and not a universal value | Steven Pinker
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"2018-03-06 18:00:04"
What is good luck? Weak Ties Theory, Charlize Theron, and luck circles | Janice Kaplan
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"2018-03-05 18:00:09"
Michio Kaku predicts asteroid mining will happen sooner than you think
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"2018-03-04 14:16:10"
We don't need God or religion to know right from wrong | Michael Shermer
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"2018-03-03 14:18:29"
What emotions does this music make you feel? It probably depends on your culture. | Anthony Brandt
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"2018-03-01 18:00:09"
Depression and anxiety: How inequality is driving the mental health crisis | Johann Hari
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"2018-02-28 18:00:02"
Revenge of the tribes: How the American Empire could fall | Amy Chua
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"2018-02-27 18:00:01"
How NASA averted the 2060 apocalypse | Michelle Thaller
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"2018-02-26 14:00:04"
If one person can change the world, imagine what a community can do | Chelsea Clinton
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"2018-02-25 14:00:02"
Why Michio Kaku wants to avoid alien contact at all costs
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"2018-02-24 14:00:05"
Why America is the world’s biggest cult | Rose McGowan
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"2018-02-22 18:00:04"
How Pakistan's Violence Against Women Center is fighting a deadly cultural norm | Hafsa Lak
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"2018-02-21 18:00:03"
How the Billboard Hot 100 explains the rise of Donald Trump | Derek Thompson
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"2018-02-20 18:00:04"
Political Extremism in America: Don’t blame Russia, blame Facebook and Twitter | Niall Ferguson
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"2018-02-19 15:01:57"
Loneliness kills: How to fight depression with social support | Johann Hari
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"2018-02-18 14:37:40"
How we'll find humanity's next home planet | Michio Kaku
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"2018-02-17 14:50:34"
Amazing astronomy: How neutron stars create ripples in space-time | Michelle Thaller
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"2018-02-16 18:00:07"
The Second Amendment: How the gun control debate went crazy | Kurt Anderson
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"2018-02-15 18:00:00"
The upside of rejection: How hearing “no” can lead to success | Matt Dixon
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"2018-02-14 18:00:03"
Embracing awkwardness: How to defeat social anxiety and embarrassment | Melissa Dahl
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"2018-02-12 18:00:07"
How great leaders develop their grit | Nancy Koehn on building resilience
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"2018-02-11 15:16:20"
What the best science really says about depression | Johann Hari
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"2018-02-10 14:59:22"
How Navy SEAL Hell Week builds indestructible teams | Brent Gleeson
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"2018-02-09 16:50:14"
Whole Foods CEO John Mackey on ending poverty, being libertarian, and more
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"2018-02-08 18:00:08"
The Black List: The incredible innovation that led to 48 Oscar wins
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"2018-02-07 18:00:07"
How virtual reality can make every kid a capable scientist | Jeremy Bailenson
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"2018-02-06 18:00:01"
Why certainty is a success killer | Poker champion Annie Duke
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"2018-02-05 17:37:38"
The Social Brain: Culture, Change and Evolution | Bret Weinstein (Full Video)
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"2018-02-04 14:48:59"
"Never Again?" How fascism hijacks democracies over and over | Rob Riemen
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"2018-02-03 14:22:22"
What people just don't get about abuse | Rose McGowan
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"2018-02-01 18:00:05"
What if you didn’t go to work, but your avatar did? | Jeremy Bailenson
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"2018-01-31 18:00:01"
Miscarriage: Why doesn’t anyone talk about it? | Ariel Levy
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"2018-01-30 18:00:01"
How astronomy makes neuroscience even cooler: brains, gold, and neutron stars | Michelle Thaller
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"2018-01-29 18:00:04"
How to ace the job interview question most people fail | Michelle Lederman
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"2018-01-28 15:52:22"
Game theory: Two key principles for winning negotiations | Kevin Zollman
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"2018-01-27 15:07:33"
Why elementary schools should teach poker | Liv Boeree
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"2018-01-25 18:00:01"
Why hierarchical power breeds paranoia: Stalin, Xi Jinping, Macbeth | Niall Ferguson
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"2018-01-24 18:00:09"
How to detect baloney the Carl Sagan way | Michael Shermer
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"2018-01-23 18:00:05"
Augmented evolution: Why the definition of “human” is about to change | Michelle Thaller
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"2018-01-22 18:00:00"
3 Brain Tricks That Will Help You Make Better Decisions | Dean Buonomano
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"2018-01-21 15:39:41"
Are You Cool or Are You Crazy? How Sociologists Define Healthy Rebellion | Derek Thompson
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"2018-01-20 14:56:57"
No Food, No Utopia: How Will Floating Cities Survive?
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"2018-01-18 19:22:21"
How Religion Turned American Politics against Science | Kurt Andersen
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"2018-01-17 18:00:01"
You Are Not Your Government. An Iraqi Is Not Theirs. | Former CIA Operative Amaryllis Fox
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"2018-01-16 18:00:01"
Why Your Self-Image Might Be Wrong: Ego, Buddhism, and Freud | Mark Epstein
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"2018-01-15 18:00:00"
Bryan Cranston's Unusual Method for Choosing His Next Role
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"2018-01-14 15:40:04"
“Beyond a Reasonable Doubt”: How Juries Get It Wrong | Richard Dawkins
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"2018-01-13 16:39:04"
Mind Fitness: How Meditation Boosts Your Focus, Resilience, and Brain | Daniel Goleman
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"2018-01-11 18:00:03"
How to Tell If Someone’s Bluffing: Body Language Lessons from a Poker Pro | Liv Boeree
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"2018-01-10 18:00:01"
How Comic Books Can Make Kids (and Adults) Smarter | Gene Luen Yang
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"2018-01-09 18:00:03"
Why Believing in Aliens Is Religion in Disguise | Michael Shermer
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"2018-01-08 15:00:01"
Hits and Misses: How Neuroscience Can Boost Your Creativity | David Eagleman
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"2018-01-07 15:32:21"
How to Win with Game Theory & Defeat Smart Opponents | Kevin Zollman
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"2018-01-06 16:46:48"
Decoding Popularity: What Best Sellers and Box Office Hits Tell Us about Success | Kevin Zollman
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"2018-01-05 18:00:01"
Can We Digitize the Voting System? Blockchain, Corruption, and Hacking | Brian Behlendorf
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"2018-01-04 18:00:00"
4 Keys to Telling Stories Everyone Will Love, from Cave Paintings to Star Wars | Joe Lazauskas
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"2018-01-03 18:00:01"
How Game Theory Solves Tough Negotiations: Corporate Tax Cuts, Nuclear War, and Parenting
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"2018-01-02 18:00:08"
From 300lbs to a Navy SEAL: How to Gain Control of Your Mind and Life | David Goggins
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"2018-01-01 18:00:01"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #1. Bryan Cranston on Why All Young People Should Travel While They Can
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"2017-12-31 18:00:05"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #2. How Jean Paul Dejoria Overcame Homelessness Twice and Earned Billions
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"2017-12-30 18:00:00"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #3. Adam Alter on How Goal Setting is a Hamster Wheel. Set Systems Instead!
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"2017-12-29 18:00:08"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #4. Po-Shen Loh on How Anyone Can Be a Math Person
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"2017-12-28 18:00:06"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #5. Steven Kotler on Dopamine Addiction Through Social Media, and More
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"2017-12-27 18:00:01"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #6. Richard Dawkins on Why Not All Opinions Are Equal, and Elitism
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"2017-12-26 18:00:07"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #7. Alan Alda on Why He Doesn't Like "Pro tips" and Teaching in Threes
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"2017-12-25 18:00:04"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #8. Kurt Anderson on the American Tradition of Delusional Thinking
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"2017-12-24 18:00:00"
Big Think 2017 Top Ten: #9. Neil deGrasse Tyson on Dark Matter
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"2017-12-23 18:00:04"
Big Think's 2017 Top Ten: #10. Tristan Harris on Addiction, Hacking, and Corporations
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"2017-12-22 18:00:03"
Why Do You Check Your Phone 150 Times a Day? | Tristan Harris
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"2017-12-21 18:00:00"
Sex and Power: How an Old Relationship Is Changing—Anita Hill to Harvey Weinstein | Esther Perel
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"2017-12-20 18:00:00"
Conversation Tips for Surviving the Holidays | Angie McArthur
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"2017-12-19 18:00:06"
How the Blockchain Revolution Will Decentralize Power and End Corruption | Brian Behlendorf
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"2017-12-18 18:00:08"
Could A.I. Write a Novel Like Hemingway? | Salman Rushdie
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"2017-12-17 16:01:35"
Bryan Cranston Explains What It Takes to Be an Artist
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"2017-12-16 15:52:34"
Richard Dawkins: How I Persuade People Who Disagree with Me
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"2017-12-15 18:00:08"
Why You Believe Lies You Hear More Often | Derek Thompson
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"2017-12-14 18:00:01"
Did Religion Start One of Humanity’s Worst Revolutions? | Reza Aslan
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"2017-12-13 18:00:06"
Middle America vs. The Liberal Elite: What Does It Mean to Be All-American? | Ariel Levy
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"2017-12-12 18:00:02"
How to Rebuild a Relationship After a Difference of Opinion | Angie McArthur
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"2017-12-11 18:00:04"
How the Confederate Flags Came Down at the University of Mississippi | Harold Burson
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"2017-12-10 14:30:01"
How Star Wars Helps Us Understand Authoritarianism | Cass Sunstein
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"2017-12-09 15:00:02"
How to Predict a Company Crisis: Uber, Lego, Marvel Comics
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"2017-12-07 18:00:00"
Why People Cheat on Their Partners | Esther Perel
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"2017-12-06 18:00:00"
Why Casting “Bigots” Out Doesn’t Move America Forward | Van Jones
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"2017-12-05 18:00:06"
Why Being Different at Work Is Risky Business: Diversity, Stereotyping, and Success
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"2017-12-04 18:00:09"
Why America Spies on Allies, Enemies, and Itself | Barry Posen
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"2017-12-03 16:47:13"
How Boredom Supercharges Your Original Thinking | Manoush Zomorodi
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"2017-12-02 14:00:04"
The Science of Successful Things: Star Wars, Steve Jobs, and Google’s Epic Fail | Derek Thompson
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"2017-11-30 18:00:00"
Why Coding Skills Alone Won't Save You From Job Automation | Scott Hartley
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"2017-11-29 18:00:03"
How to Accomplish More at Work by Slowing Down | Angie McArthur
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"2017-11-28 18:00:01"
How to Build Your Startup—and Grow It into an Empire | Chris Loose
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"2017-11-27 18:00:00"
5 Reasons Why Russia Is No Match for the US | Stephen Walt
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"2017-11-26 16:14:45"
Don't Look for the Upside of Suffering—There Just Isn't One
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"2017-11-25 15:42:59"
How Emotion Hides What You Mean to Say—And How to Listen for It | Todd David
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"2017-11-24 14:02:13"
Creativity Is the Next Economic Revolution | Christina Miller
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"2017-11-23 16:00:04"
Exposing Liberal Hypocrisy and Conservative Close-Mindedness | Van Jones
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"2017-11-22 18:00:04"
Want to Be an Effective Leader? Learn to Say "No" | Nancy Koehn
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"2017-11-21 18:00:02"
Stereotypes Threaten Your Brain's Well-Being: Memory, Anxiety, Motivation | Valeria Purdie Greenaway
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"2017-11-20 18:00:03"
Your Life in 2027: A Look at the Future | Vivek Wadhwa (Full Video)
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"2017-11-19 17:15:33"
America Is Preventing Nuclear Attacks in All the Wrong Ways
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"2017-11-18 16:25:12"
How Morally Outraged Are You? Well, That Depends on Who’s Watching | Molly Crockett
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"2017-11-17 18:00:01"
How the Foster Care System Fails So Many Kids—And How We Can Do Better | Sixto Cancel, Think of Us
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"2017-11-16 18:00:06"
Why America Doesn't Win Wars Like It Used To | William Ruger
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"2017-11-15 18:00:05"
How Suicidal Tendencies Spread Through Families and Classrooms
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"2017-11-14 18:00:02"
Is a New Draft a Solution to Inequality in the Military? | Michael Desch
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"2017-11-13 18:00:00"
How to Regenerate the Human Body: Hearing Loss, Baldness, Burn Wounds | Chris Loose
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"2017-11-12 16:05:20"
Why "Brain Hacks" Don't Help | Understanding Creativity with David Eagleman
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"2017-11-11 16:00:59"
Religion Has No Earthly Purpose, So Why Do We Cling to It? | Reza Aslan
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"2017-11-10 18:00:00"
Summer Vacation from School Can Erase Half a Year's Worth of Learning | Karim Abouelnaga
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"2017-11-09 18:55:13"
Why Religion Influences Politics More Now Than 50 Years Ago | Monica Duffy Toft
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"2017-11-08 18:00:02"
Leo Tolstoy's Lessons on Failure, Identity, and Asking "Why?" | Yiyun Li, Hope & Optimism
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"2017-11-07 18:00:04"
How America Creates Its Own Enemies: ISIS, Terrorism, Insecurity | William Ruger
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"2017-11-06 18:00:01"
To Be a Better Philanthropist, Think Like a Poker Player | Liv Boeree on Effective Altruism
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"2017-11-05 16:48:50"
How Meditation Can Manage Chronic Pain and Stress | Daniel Goleman
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"2017-11-04 16:32:32"
Why Can't We Find the Theory of Everything? Einstein, and Rogue Genius | Eric Weinstein
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"2017-11-03 17:00:03"
How Financial Innovation Is Giving Cities Jobs, Wealth, and Health
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"2017-11-02 17:00:04"
Strengthen Your Mind Like a Navy SEAL | David Goggins
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"2017-11-01 17:00:01"
Can Google Predict Who Will Commit Crimes? | Seth Stephens-Davidowitz
\\yeah so I I a big question ... if if any may seem I know our Europort where people are arrested for crimes before they actually commit them just because the data suggest are going to commit a crime I are we entering this world with so much data available a lot and are deathly are clues on the internet other people ... are considering committing a crime I mean people really do type how to kill your girlfriend on cool color I how to commit a murder I ands I so what we do with this information as a society I think we have to be really really careful I there is ... unethical and privacy reason to be careful I as a society I it's not supposed be illegal to have bad thoughts I but I think there's also a data science reason for this one of the things that you do see in this data is that a lot of people have horrific thoughts or make horrific searches without ever going through with a horrific action I so it may be that when we have all this data we think we're just gonna be able to figure out like exactly who's or a risk of committing a crime again selling bad but maybe that's just really really hard because a huge percentage of people look really really bad on paper up but never go through with the action there there is a study of prosper appear to peer lending a ... firm I so people can apply for a loans and scholars analyzed the loan application what people wrote in their loan application and whether they pay back their loans and they found that you could predict whether someone will pay back the loan based on the words that person used in their loan application so if a person uses the phrase I promise they're much less likely to pay back the loan ... I'm because I guess everybody lies so I promise is a is a clue they are not gonna pay back the loan ... and one of them one of the more striking indicators one last single highest indicators you're not gonna pay back the loan is if you use the word god in your loan application I and this is kind of a little bit eerie and suggest a potentially dark future it means that someone alang there would be wise to not give a loan to anybody who mentions god if someone says god bless you I in a loan application there put together in a large group of other people who tend on average not to pay back their loans as there's real danger to some of these big data where ... a lot of the correlation everything kind of correlate with everything else and sometimes for reasons that we have don't understand I had some words people use or like they have on Facebook I predict that they're gonna do bad things even if they're not really going to do bad things and they may be punished without even realizing why that one thing you see in the Google search data related to religion is the questions people have ... and they're usually concentrated I in the Bible belt other people have kind of loaded questions about a god so I'll why does god allow bad things to happen to good people are ... why does god allow suffering or why does god need so much praise I these are questions that people might not raise a loud because ... you know they don't want it I'd share their doubts I with others but they turn to Google I and ask some really feeling bloated a questions ... about some of the stories of the day here I related to religion //
"2017-10-31 17:00:02"
Hope: Why We Invest All Our Energies into a Future We Can't Predict | Victoria McGeer
\\what is it about our way inhabiting our own agency that makes us Stowe directed towards future states of affairs ... and that we don't completely control whether or not they come about ... so you know these are things that may happen ... that things that we can work towards but we never have any guarantee that they will happen and yet we invest a lot of our energy and that I've come to think of that of that it's a very special and characteristic feature of our own human agency that we are structured in that way ... we just do not have very fulfilling our happy human lives if we are not directing our agency our energy towards those ... those anticipated events hoped for when we think about human development we're very atypical kind of species in so far as when we're born ... unlike most other species we have very little self standing capacity to survive in the world we need other people ... we need our parents we need other caregivers to help us develop the kinds of skills are capacities we need ... to be able to survive to be able to flourish in our world so we we rely on others to give us those skills to teach us those skills to enable us to become fully fledged economists individuals ... and that process is a long drawn out one and it involves a certain important relationship with our care givers ... that they're able to structure our environment in such a way that they bring us little by little into certain rather complex sorts of ... engagements with the world allowing us little by little to build up our capacities for ... linguistic engagement for the kind of skills we need to play with toys you know when you think about very early development of the way a mother may be interacting with their child showing the child how to handle you know a toy or something so the child now comes to be able to do it for him or herself those are very small axe but those are the way we build up all our skills through our long protracted development and that's what the psychologists who called parental scaffolding ... that we treat ... our inferences if they're capable of doing things that they're not quite yet capable of but we're structuring a world for them in which they're able to try explorer their limitations and maybe be frustrated at times but slowly little by little learn how to do things for themselves that they couldn't do ... initially mmhm //
"2017-10-30 17:00:05"
How Social Media Makes Us Angry All the Time | Molly Crockett
\\we live in a world now there there is an not all strongly in San says online platforms like Facebook Google Twitter to capture as much of our attention as poss the way to do that is is to promote content that is the most engaging and what is the most engaging moral content there was a recent study ... that came out of and why you recently that characterize the language in tweets and the study which was led by William Brady and Dave and they've all and colleagues found that each moral emotional word in a tweet increase the likelihood of a retweet by 20 percent so content that has moral and emotional qualities to it of which moral outrages the poster child is the most engaging and so that means that the algorithms that select for what is shown to all of us in our news feeds are selecting for the content that's gonna be the most engaging because that draws the most attention because that creates the most revenue through ad sales for these companies and so this creates an information eco system where there's a kind of natural selection process going on and the most outrageous content is gonna rise to the top so this suggests that the kinds stories that we read in our news feeds online might be artificially inflated in terms of how much outrage they provoke and I actually found some data that speaks to the so I there's a study a few years ago ... by well Hoffman Linda skit kind colleagues at the university of Chicago since I'm where they tracked people's daily experiences with moral and immoral events in their everyday lives and they pin people smartphones a few times a day and had them rates whether in the past hour they had had any moral or immoral experiences when they had people rate how emotional they felt how outraged ... they felt how happy and so on this data became publicly available and so I was able to re analyze the data because these researchers had asked them where did you learn about these immoral events online in person on TV radio newspaper etcetera and so I was able to analyze this data and show that immoral events that people learn about online trigger more outrage then immoral events that they learn about in person or through traditional forms of media like TV newspaper and radio so this supports the idea that D. algorithms that drive the presentation of news content online or selecting that content that provokes perhaps higher levels of outrage then we even see on the news and of course what we see normally in our daily lives it's an open question what are the long term consequences of this constant exposure to outrage triggering material one possibility that has been floated in the news recently is outrage fatigue and I think many of us can relate to the idea that if you're constantly feeling outraged at it's exhausting ands there may be a limit to how much outrage were able to experience day today that is 10 Chile harm fall in terms of the long term social consequences because if we are feeling outraged about relatively minor things and that's depleting some kind of reserve that may mean that we're not able to feel outraged for things that really matter on the other hand there is also research ... in aggression showing that you give people the opportunity to vent their aggressive feelings about something that's made them mad that actually can increase the likelihood of future aggression so in the literature on anger and outrage there are 2 possibilities one being this long term depletion out reach 15 the other being a kind of ... sensitize ation and we need to do more research to to figure out which of those might be operating in the context of online outraged expression and it may be different for different people social media is very unlikely to go away because it taps into the things that we find most rewarding connection with others expressing our moral values sharing those moral values with others building our reputation and of course what makes social media so compelling and so so addictive event is the fact that these platforms are are really tapping into very ancient neural circuitry use that that we know are involved in reward process saying in habit formation one intriguing possibility because the way these ups are designed or so stream lined you have stimuli icons that ... better so recognizable in familiar to all of us who who do use these apps and very effortless responses to like to share to retweet and then we get feedback and that feedback in the form of likes and shares is delivered at unpredictable times and unpredictable rewards we know from decades of research and neuroscience are the fastest way to establish a habit now how it is a behavior that is expressed without regard to its long term consequences just as someone who's habitually reaching for the bag of potato chips when they're not hungry they're eating this potato chips not to achieve some goal to satisfy their hunger but just mindlessly we might be mindlessly express saying moral emotions like outrage without actually necessarily experiencing them strongly or desiring to express those so broadly the way that we just do on social media and so I think it's really worth considering and having a conversation about whether we want some of our strongest moral emotions which so core to who we are do we want those under the control of algorithms whose main purpose is to generate advertising revenue for big tech companies //
"2017-10-29 16:05:38"
Why We Fear What We Can't Control: Airplanes, Hospital, Old Age | Tali Sharot
\\when we want to change people's behavior we often say do this I don't do that right basically we are a lot of times giving orders whether it is to our kids people in our family people that we work it with ... we are exerting control over others or at least attempting to exert control over others but what we find is that what the brain is trying to do it's trying to control its environment that's one of the the major goals of what the brain is trying to do and it's trying to do that in order to get rewards and avoid losses and because of that in the brain control has been associated with something good with the reward and it's something that people seek out if people can make a choice the same part of the brain that is activated when people get a piece of food like a piece of chocolate is activated when people have opted to make a choice where people don't have an opportunity to make a choice when they feel they don't have control what is triggered is anxiety ... and so what this means is that giving people a choice giving people a sense that they are in control that they have agency is more likely to motivate them is more likely to put them in the frame of every word rather than a loss ... and because control in and of itself is rewarding a lot of times people will be willing to give up other kind of thing where it's like monitoring what Hitler to have control for example in a study that I conducted with my colleagues out we gave people the opportunity to either make choices themselves about random shapes they can give them rewards Orin give another person an expert an opportunity to make a choice for them and what we found is that people stop optimally make the decision to have to keep the agency to keep the toys themselves rather than have an expert make the choice for them even if that expert was more likely to choose the correct thing to choose a thing that will get them more money so in a way to think about it it's a bit like the stock market is a lot of people ... like to pick their own stocks right instead of giving someone else the opportunity to choose for them experts or even better going according to an index made and the reason that people like to pick their own stocks it because it gives them a sense of control it gives them a sense of agency and that gives a reward and many time people realize that there might be a monetary loss some people over confidence they think well I'll pick the right thing and that's fine but they still ... are willing to lose parts said have a Montreal lost to make that choice themselves so in fact in in general people people prefer to make their own choices but that there are incidents where people would drop dead giveaway that choice and for example when the choice is so complicated the effort is so so much effort has to be put in it that I would rather not do it and give someone else the opportunity to make the choice for me or for example under high amounts of stress people sometimes realize that it's better to have someone else make the choice for them ... or for example when ... making a choice people are afraid that they will regret what they choose such as in medical decisions they sometimes actually prefer to have someone else make the choice for them ends in the book I talk about the things that people are scared off the mouse and the fear is that we have are not necessarily rational so people ... for example are a lot of people are scared of flying right so if you look at the numbers flying is not necessarily the most dangerous thing that you do ... driving your own car is more dangerous but people are afraid of flying because one of the reasons is that once you're in the plane you don't have control anymore you don't have control of the plane you don't have control of anything really of your environment so the sense of being in this space where you're losing control completely giving it to someone else is something that people feel anxious about now they don't want to take control I don't wanna fly the plane right I know I will be identical fly the pain but never the less I feel anxious and I think that's true in other domains like health ... one of the reasons that being in a hospital is anxiety provoking not only because you're sick and that's very you know inside running but also because again you lose control everyone's making the decision for you as a show at the doctors and the nurses I mean people should have some say but they realize that the experts ... are making the choices for them in that sense of losing control again can cause anxiety ... and one thing that it's ... studies have shown is that as we age as we go into older age we lose some of our control right especially if we go to nursing homes other people make the choices for us and that induces stress on individual as well because no longer can I choose what will I do when when will I do it ... and giving people a sense of control back can help them again with kids people tell tend to tell kids exactly what to do when to do it and so on ... and there's a lot of Leo glee as kids are not happy with that but we could change that you know in time instead of telling the kids we have to eat your salad maybe say well why don't you create your own salad here the different angry at the put them together create them and one study that we've done shown that when people and it's not only us we did one example of this there's many many studies showing that the when you create something you value it more so we did a study where people created their own converse shoes and they light a convert issues that they created a much more than a Congress shoes which look exactly the same that someone else created the same color the same shape everything was exactly the same but if I created it I liked it more moreover even if I didn't created but I thought I created it I believed I created I wrongly had a memory that I created the shoe I liked it better so if you feel like you had agency in something ... in whether it's a product whether it's an idea here ... then you feel like it's worth more and it doesn't actually have to be at true perception you just have to have a perception of an agency the perception of a control in order to value that thing more and that's what we've shown in our study them looking at how people create issues and how they value them mmhm //
"2017-10-28 15:54:59"
Impeachment 101: Why, When, and How the President Can Be Removed from Office
\\each one so Harry Sam of the United States meaning it's obscure people don't know about it but you probably was necessary for the constitution actually to be ratified by the American people you can see the impeachment clause and I'm gonna explain its content in a moment but you can see it as a part of the American revolution itself in the sense that the revolt against a king who was a leader who had authority over we the people was ... incomplete if we didn't have a mechanism by which we can get rid of our leaders including the president which was a way of ensuring we didn't have anything like a monarchy now the way impeachment worked is that in the early American colonies before America was America we started impeaching of people who were following orders from the can and what that meant was that now I have use of authority would be called out by some legislative assembly and in the initial phases what would happen would be there just be a vote that the person had abused authority and then if the thing ... fell to completion and this goes back to England there be a trial and in the trial the person would be convicted of the offense for which impeachment was had and if convicted the person would be removed from office so to bring this back to the American structure as it developed after the revolution after the constitution came into place and this was followed through with such care in Philadelphia when the constitution was debated the idea was that if there is a high crime and misdemeanor and we can talk a bit about what that means or if there's treason or bribery than the house of representatives by majority vote can impeach the president the vice president Supreme Court justices ... members of the cabinet and what that means is there's a kind of official of men judgment that the person has done something very very bad and after that priest the preceding moves to the Senate which is acting like a court and which decides whether to convict which means to remove the person from office the house makes the impeachment vote by a majority vote that doesn't mean anyone ask leave office it then goes to the Senate which if it votes by a 2 thirds majority ... to convict on the ground on which the let's say president was impeached than the person is ... as they say about baseball's that are hit very hard the president has gone yes so aren't because the were high crimes and misdemeanors seems to mean kind of felonies high crimes and misdemeanors the normal current reader would think though is their crime if you go back to the eighteenth century it's actually a lot more inspiring like that than that and ... kind of fitting with a system that's committed to us self government so if there's a crime let's call ed ... Jay walking or shoplifting or not paying your income taxes that's not a high crime or misdemeanor in the constitutional sense what is meant by high crime and misdemeanor is an abuse of official authority and shoplifting or income tax evasion that's a crime it's not an abuse of official authority if the president United States let's suppose ... decides I'm gonna pardon every police officer who shot an African American that's not itself likely to be a crime the president has the pardon power but that is definitely an impeachable offense in fact James Madison spoke of abuse of the pardon power as an impeachable offense if the president United States decides I'm going to go on vacation in Paris for the next 6 months because really beautiful that's certainly not a crime but it's an impeachable offense that's an egregious neglect of of the authority of the office so abuse of the authority of the office if it's egregious pardon power example would be one of them is the president starts invading civil liberties in that terrible way by well locking people up for insufficient reason by going crazy with in terms of security measures at airports and borders and by going crazy I'm using that as kind of a legal term of art really exceeding the bounds of the reasonable that is not a crime but that is an abuse of authority and there were right back in ... the impeachment clause which is I think first and foremost way of preserving our our our rights and liberties and way of calling out on the floor who has invaded them think now about a what the American revolution was fought for okay so I've spent a lot of last month's in the eighteenth century and ... ... the people back then were honest the impeachment issues and presidential authority issues they were ... off the charts good in the debate in Virginia are whether we should ratify the constitution one of really ... learn that person said we cannot ratify this constitution and the reason is the pardon power and it was urged by the skeptic the president could participate in something really sinister with one of his advisers then his advisers in legal trouble and then the president can pardon the person for engaging and illegal or corrupt activity that the president initiated how can we allow our constitution has that in it that's a fair question and that was stated with great precision as an objection to the constitution as I recall by someone who actually signed the declaration of independence and I know that person was out the constitutional convention and refuse to embrace it James Madison ... very quietly of responded and he said I think the gentleman has overlooked something isn't that a a sweet way of responding to someone when the stakes are super high whether we're gonna have a constitution is a gentleman is overlooked something and then Madison explained if the president uses the pardon power to shelter someone who's done something terrible are there something available in the constitution impeachment and Madison actually did his interlocutor one better interlocutor was saying if the president advises something terrible and participates in and then ... about pardons the person isn't that awful Madison said yes that's often that's impeachable Madison's words seem to go beyond that to say if you pardon someone who's who's done something terrible ... order one of your own people that's itself ... the legitimate grounds for impeachment which suggested that abuse of the pardon power in those words of James Madison it that's an impeachable offense and with respect to the meaning of the constitution ... it is hazardous to argue with James Madison the beauty of the impeachment mechanism is its connection with the principle that we have a Republican not a monarchy which means it puts we the people in charge that means that in vocation of the impeachment mechanism whether it's a democratic president a Republican president really depends on we the people so if you think of examples ... there was some interest in under President Bush and president Obama some interest in teaching them but I think you know thank goodness are we the people even if we didn't like either of those presidents didn't think there was an impeachable offense under president Nixon by contrast and I believe ... very unfortunately under president Clinton because he didn't commit an impeachable offense but under both of them there was a public demand for getting rid of them on the ground that a president Nixon had ... abused his presidential authority to ... cover up crimes and also had himself use presidential authority to ... invade civil rights and civil liberties ... that got people whatever their political affiliation sufficiently charged up and that they either ... were willing to go along with those members of the house of representatives who wanted to impeach Nixon or they fueled that in the Clinton case of there was a fog and again perjury and obstruction of justice which were the charges against president Clinton there's nothing good about them they're very bad but they weren't in his case impeachable offenses under the constitution none the less people were charged up a lot of people were charged up so whether the president is a Democrat or Republican whether it's president Trumper in the future know some ... left of center president if people think that there's something that really is beyond the pale and that's not the constitutional test but it's kind of colloquial way of getting at the constitutional task beyond the pale of a legitimate uses of of authority then we the people ... ... were the boss so the question who's the boss of the first 3 words of the constitution say it with the people and the impeachment clause kind of makes that real //
"2017-10-27 17:00:02"
How a Ugandan Is Fighting Human Trafficking in Africa—and in the US
\\in me make sure I went to school walking I I long distance and eat it because always been about challenging arm myself to go far so was really excited to be a student so fussed for and I had to work hard to get to university and ... of of being a student ... old all my life because even when I when I work I continue being a student and I still you know go off so my activism was is really anti pined ... because looking at our how it all began when I got into the field of human trafficking his annual Gondor I sing them very car leasing your bucket it might be to make manifest itself in different ways our as I was growing up IT tight you know for me I was out ... school fronted by the lunch recess on me use of children in armed conflict I have done state some states tours I have done is to 2 of Colorado you know New Jersey and I went to Las Vegas on whatever of gone ... I've seen one of the biggest problems in our in America's runaway children you know there's that age where traffic has no ... that they then they rely on that vulnerability you're that age when you know when teens think that their parents are not so cool and they ran away from home surveys alright somebody you know into the kitchen to grab them and take them through a different a different pot of days trafficking ... in it in another culture induced if in this country among the many immigrant you know populations but also among the clock was themselves such exploitation in a from city to city of OB up come across are victims of of trafficking but not spoken to Spokane I in various when yes it's an office job of Spokane Cindy's because especially you know come to me and confiding to me what happened to them and asked a question so it's several where we just have to pay attention we hope to lan and empower ourselves with knowledge in my country Uganda we have live like I said the use of children armed conflict which have 6 exploitation we how forced labor I use of you know children for street begging I would have removal of all guns you know that the trade in human in human organs we have in the removal of all guns for rituals and ... exploitation where you know somebody to construct a building like this you know the witch doctor tells you know you have to kill somebody and spill some plot so that you can become rates people believe in things like that so those things are real and they happen ... around the world we just have to pay attention see how we can be involved I when I got the opportunity ... to attend a Clinton global initiative and men that commitment of auction to counter human trafficking I knew I needed to do that we have the dish and Santa for survivors of human trafficking a new I wanted to take books us about deny children can have an indication I may remember then thinking okay how am I going to do this because I had really huge go close a I wanted to view that center I said that was going to train lifeforce mind and they started of ... I was going to train one because I'm life wasn't and I was a student and they knew you know to trade land for cement are out to take books and to create 100 different Sentai how to be creative because he has a steer that Abu comes from Africa you in America you don't have any minute to implement this huge projects but a in my university what I phoned out quickly was that there was a lot of food at the university so you go for a student in banks and many times the food just close to where I say say okay this is an opportunity for me to save money so I started saving up money which I would've used by food and I used to eat food from school events and of course you know you can't take takeaway and a some fun because on daughters and so we had the $1000 I went to books for Africa ... web based ... in Minnesota St Paul sigh I went to them I said listen I want to take a container of books team guy and that's 23000 books that's how I started and I had never done fundraising before but thank goodness when we had the Clinton global initiative they taught us you know how to raise money ... for your commitment to me if I knew it I raised money I took a container of books and one of the harpies type use moments in my life he's you know going to the border of between Uganda and Kenya and ... being in this truck huge truck ... I bet that lets foot 40 feet up full of books and navigating through the roads and eventually bed time I came to this village school the kids being just so excited of excitement of seeing children lifting boxes and carting them to that classroom every kid like having a book in our own a book and and flipping through the pictures like my takes made in using so that was really an exciting moment for me that's when I realized wow I cannot go into these and and and so ... that's how I approached it in my I. Barrino commitments one thing you know at that time and just being creative along that way you know find out what is happening in your community you know find out ... which which organizations and dealing with it with what we've got with the program and and I'm actually also find out on how you can help ... because believe it or not all of us have a stake in this I ticket telling people if you have a big mouth like I do yeah you learn about it and then you talk about it some people have money though supplicant eyes sessions ... which I'm doing this work in our so it's just about climbing you tell your neighbor are a bit and be mindful if you see something you know Ron I you know somewhere you know you talk to that you know to to their police on and and let the authorities know so trafficking exists I it exists everywhere and ... we just have to be United in action because crushed because I saw organize a very organized so they ... they have the operations we've been countries but they also cross borders and when they cross borders that's when we need to really you know collaborate you know in tunneling collaborate you know land Forsman social X. everybody is important but also internationally to know how they have because it's a lot of money you know to be mad within you know trafficking of human beings so to really pay attention on what is happening in your community I and what how trafficking in mind faced itself and to know that we have a problem we have black human trucking business and is always help I'm also speaking to somebody was out there ... because I work with them at all and they go through released so many challenges ugh that's the reason I I even decided to build a center for survivors of human trafficking because I know that they need rehabilitation they have rights are they need people to pay attention you know to them and to really listen to what they need you know I stay and go through in life ... to make I better life for themselves I mean I remember all phone one victim especially I when I talk to my house because I didn't have anywhere to a car and Joe circumcised and forced to marry someone even before she healed and when she fled from her husband's up home parents it wanted to come talk the court finance this H. Sanchez Jim deformity and I remember how calling me at midnight button nitpicking ha up from where she had run to bring to my house and after 3 days you know she disappeared and out never seen high again just because I do not have any have meat dishes sent out to pick up so pay attention to sub labels mmhm leann //
"2017-10-26 17:00:07"
How Alien Life Might Evolve in Outer Space: Dinosaurs, Kiwis, New Zealand | Jonathan Losos
\\so there's a lot of discussion of what might life look like another plan life is involved there we'll diversify in a way like the world today and up there's a lot speculation about that question but we actually don't need to go to other planets to ask that question and that's because there are different places on earth that have had at different evolutionary histories and so we can ask on different places in the world has life of all been the same way under similar conditions and it turns out that we're very well set for that because there are isolated islands it'd been their own evolutionary theaters if you well that life is involved very independently for a long time the best example that I think is New Zealand and New Zealand broke off from Australia about 80000000 years ago and this was before moderate most modern mammal groups had really diversified and in fact today there are no native land mammals on New Zealand there are some seals that commercial on the beach there few species of bats but there are no rodents are no carnivores and so on except the ones that humans have introduced in the last couple 0 years so the question is how did New Zealand involved in the absence of land mammals well it turns out that birds in particular have taken advantage of that and they've involve to do many of the things that mammals do elsewhere on in the world and there are carnivores and herbivores and all kinds of birds now if we thought that evolution is deterministic that we would expect New Zealand even though it's dominated by birds to have species very similar to those elsewhere in the world but that's not at all the case the best example is the key we the people no tea with a bird this big it turns out that it has no wings runs around on the ground it has an extremely good sense of smell which is very unusual for birds it also has little whiskers very similar to mammals basically a kiwi does the same thing that a hedgehog or maybe a badger our armadillo does it goes around rooting through the leaf litter looking for worms and other invertebrates yet it is adapted in a very different way infect the entire cast of characters in New Zealand is very different there are carnivorous parents there are parents that are completely flightless and walk around on the ground looking for seats there's a 10 foot tall ... mullah a bird that elan bird that can't fly that is the dominant herb of war that looks nothing like a DR a bison or its ecological equivalents elsewhere so New Zealand is an alternative world if you will almost an alternative planet in evolutionary terms and what has involved there is completely different from the rest of the world and this is true of other places Australia in at least some risk that respects is very different Madagascar or go back to the age of the dinosaurs well the dinosaurs came they went extinct if evolution is so deterministic why don't we have T. rex and brontosaurus type dinosaurs today because evolution has gone in a very different different direction so we don't need to go to other planets to see how deterministic evolution as we can just look in different places on earth and we can see the outcome often is very different I'm //
"2017-10-25 17:00:01"
Healthcare Is a Human Right—Don't Let Economics Tell You Otherwise | Nicole Hassoun
\\nnova years ago the World Health Organization declared that it wasn't cost effective to help people get treatment for drug resistant tuberculosis and there is an organization called partners and how that said simply refuse to accept this claim they said we're gonna do what ever it takes to help these people so they came up with a program for treating drug resistant tuberculosis in some of the world's most conflict ridden poorest places and they succeeded in doing it they had very good treatment outcome so they thought creatively about how to come up with treatment programs that worked and I was a result funding for drug resistant TB increased spectacularly and now many people around the world have treatment so what did they do I think what they did is that how this Roach you which requires 3 things first that we commit to fulfilling human rights second that we think creatively or imagine ways of doing that and finally that we act to do so so let me explain the virtue of creative resolve a little bit more and hopefully ... ... you'll see why I think it's really important so first to have the bridge you want us to question evidence against the possibility of the filling human right we can do this in many ways so we can question the Soros reliability or implications about evidence it's possible ... to acquiesce to quickly in the face of evidence that it's impossible to help people or to be so pig headed that we refuse 6 out the constraints of the game the second thing that we need to do is I think consider all of the options on the table and then use our imagination to come up with new option finally we should act to Ifill human rights and this requires a measure grit Weller resoluteness we can't be inflexible and process even when it is actually impossible to fulfill rights but at the same time we shouldn't be complacent since change ... is difficult people who don't think that it's possible or desirable to fulfill human rights probably won't try hard to do so so hope is important for the virtue of creative resolve hope is simply believing something that one desires as possible but not certain still even when we lack a kind of hope I think we should have the virtue of creative resolved as long as there is not conclusive evidence that fulfilling human rights is impossible so the kind of hope we need is a radical hope in the face of uncertainty which we must process and exercise our moral imaginations to help people meet their basic needs but the reason we should have creative resolves this the ground for the human rights is protecting everybody's ability to live a dignified human lives and it's really important that we do that so we should try hard I think imperative to try hard is particularly compelling given that there's a lot of psychological evidence that people don't try hard enough they tend to search to to are not far enough for a solutions to problems and many people seem to have a narrow view of possibility in feasibility assuming tight time frames and financial constraints when we imagine ourselves succeeding in tasks were often more likely to do so perhaps because our imagination spurs a sense of agency and lets us that plans for the future an act to achieve up the crux of my disagreement with critics of the human right to hall who think we have to ration and that the human right house to tell us how to do that is this I don't think that's what the human rights hall house to do or even that it should rather I think it does something much more important forest I think it inspires us to do our boss to help everyone meet their basic okay but if we do have to ration here's what I think I think creator resolve can help us do that I think it can help us find better ways of helping more people we can't though simply build hospitals in the city rather than also in the countryside because that's most cost effective to do that everybody has a human right to health and if we think creatively enough about how to do it we may be able to help average okay so there's 2 sides to this virtual the one side we should try very hard to help people the fill their human rights on the other side we don't have to try when it's impossible or impermissible to do that but I am gonna stress and I have been stressing the positive or commitment side of the bridge you for this reason millions of people around the world are suffering in die every year from poverty related causes and it's not as if there's millions of people trying to help them I believe we need to try harder try harder try harder I think we need to find both the resources and the political will to do this and like Martin Luther king we should refuse to believe that the bank of justice //
"2017-10-24 17:00:03"
Bryan Cranston's Career Advice for Millennials: Confidence, Hardwork, Pride
\\everything takes right I know very few very few if any who can just show up and be brilliant the rest of us we have to work hard there there is no magic potion there is no sauce it's work and it's a lot of work and not to be afraid of work but indulgent it take it a confident with it work hard I'm there are certain things that ... come in time you know and Sperry ants is one of those things that time you need the time but you can put yourself in a position to gain experience by allowing yourself to voluntarily be it a beginner ... I find that to be a very big character trait very admirable character trait ... when someone purposefully puts them in the selves in a position to be a beginner so the C. E. O. of a major corporation says you know I I don't know how to snowboard I'm going to go out there and and this person man or woman who is a commander of a legions of people perhaps is now on on the side of a mountain falling on his or her ass and having a 16 year old kid be the teacher a fantastic position to put yourself in and I think people should constantly look for ways voluntarily put themselves in a position of not knowing of being vulnerable saying I'm gonna learn something here I want to be open to this and admit I don't know how to snowboard please teach me and and have an experience and an empowering like a millennial a younger generation person to say you are my instructor you are my teacher please do it and it's like wow that's a beautiful thing for human beings to share is to reach out and say no you're the boss please show me the way there is power in confidence I'm well on the other side of the a table now a lot I produce and I direct and I write ... and I can really feel the difference when someone comes into a room with confidence but I want to draw the distinction between confidence and both fullness someone who is figuratively pounding their chests saying how great they are that's not confidence to me that's that's egocentric behavior and that makes me push away someone who boasts about how great they are I'm leery about that but there's a quiet confidence in what I try to to suppress too millennials 2 younger generation of actors writers directors artists of any kind is to is to value your talent and I would say to them might say are you talented and I hope you say yes that's not a boast it's it is being honest do you go out and tell everybody on the street Hey I'm talented I'm really talent now it's for yourself colonel and you can own that and you can value greatly value your own contributions is something your intellect your imagination humor whatever experience you have so far you're young you'll gain more experience it's great be confident in that ... when I sense confidence I want more from that person I read I do the reaching and ... I think that's a great lesson I just came back from you SO tour and talking to only models and you know millennials have been maligned a lot thinking that you know the bin you've been given the the bullshit line of ... you just want the trophy you just wanna show up and you'll get a trophy you're not really willing to work for it you know and it is I just don't buy into that just don't listen to any of that ... I was so impressed with these young men and women in the military in this case commanding great presence confidence nobility kindness my wife and I said a I think we're gonna be okay surely as like now if this is if this is the next generation of leaders we're gonna be okay we really are we're gonna be fine ... and I think every generation who looks to the next one and says ... they're not like us we were better thing now you guys are fine but there is there is definite value in work I knew that when I was starting out as an actor I was all about work it was like I still am I love it I'd but that's the that's the key if if you find something that you love to do then when Monday comes along you're not going Monday July Monday I get to act that was great for me I love Mondays get to love Mondays uhhuh //
"2017-10-23 17:00:00"
Is the World Returning to the Dark Ages? | Salman Rushdie
\\well I did I was sold really alarming for articles ... just but we can so go in which it was some survey ... had had shown that more than 50 percent of Republican of self identified Republicans believe that universities were bad for America her that we that that that universities right yet but negative harmful force in American life that was but I do have a I've never seen any group of people saying that before I know of so that was shocking and I do think this is not unique to England had a a disk adopted to not treat not unique to America because also in England there is a similar kind of distrust of ex I tease learn and I'm you know in the brexit vote that one of the things that came up over over again was a dislike of experts telling you what to think go up and up and so somehow this this mistrust of people who know things ... has has become okay internationalize did such a if it it's it's not just something about the American right note that out and obviously it's it's to somebody who has seen knowledge as being a great virtue but in the end who is spent his life trying to accumulate little bits of it Adam and somebody who thinks of knowledge is a kind of beauty no of it's it's very album very discomforting to say the least to have people who think of it as being specialists you know ... because what's happening it seems to me is strange distortion of the idea of the elite that that's take to me if you would you ask me what Sony leaked I would think more about the many many billionaires sitting in the trumpet ministration that are that that he has here's a a government with more super rich people in it than has ever been in any American go you know up I do that government calls college professors and journalists babies you know we're not the ones with private planes at golf courses in the Bahamas Overton with relatively few novelists you know I have just the eggs home at the idea that we're the whereas in that group of you know that that could appoint one of the one percent that considers itself to be in some way possessing the common touch but that's it just seems like a absurd comic conversion of of reality you know them and I think one of the things we see at the moment and I tried to you know a captured in the novel is this idea of a world turned upside down you know in which in which things that one photo of his being normal solid believable scriptures of reality you know are being stood on their head ... everyday a of the idea of reality itself the idea of truth the something verifiable objective of all these things are being armed inverted didn't and ... I'm but you know knocked off their pedestals well I mean you know there is a terrible thing which righteous sometimes say to each other which is that the worse it is the better it is because I would like when the world is in a terrible condition there's a lot to write about so and I mean one demonstration of this is that you know the literature very often underground literature the samizdat picture of the Soviet Union ... was all that extraordinary quality you know what when there was this colossal adversary of of of a Soviet authoritarianism many many rice has both in fiction and nonfiction ... rose to that challenge at and and ... uncreated extraordinary work you know ... and but I think it's not unfair to say that the literature of the post Soviet Union Lindland literature of Russia since 1989 that there is a soul somewhat of a falling off you know that it that it's it's not quite as intense ... and extraordinary as that earlier but but as that earlier work you know because because of them the lack of the adversary no it's in a way you know it or to put it another way took it seems to me that spy fiction was enormously damaged by the loss of the Soviet Union because suddenly suddenly Hoover the school with the enemy you know ... and so I do think that in in times like this which I very adversarial ... and in which the question of the truth has become so central note of there's a big place for a lot you know there's a lot of really big role for office and to speak up ... in in such a time a and I think I think Marlys every writer I know bought in America is is considering how best to respond but to to the to the place we find ourselves including me and I mean this is you know most of this book was written before them for the item in the of the the vast bulk of it was finished before the election I'm I mean I'm sorry to say that I guess strike you know that that's to say that that I always knew that if things have gone another way that that would have to be some reshaping of the US of a part of the book ... but I don't touch anyway that was I needed to do a bit of reshaping because things don't always turn out exactly as you foresee ... but some I wanted to try and capture this strange moment you know ... and a doctor to tell the truth think that that part of the novel is very much background outlook for growth is so so that the actual story line of the book what happens to the characters and and how they resolve that particular dilemmas that would not have been altered it anyway if the election to go another way with that's the story is the story but context of the story the way in which America developed in from you know from the beginning of the Obama administration to the present moment into what happened in that octave type but that start slow but it's the context against which the story takes place and and there I had to I had to guess and gamble a little bit and then and then try and ... things right up to the moment the book went to the press is so Melissa doom is a moment when they take your fingers off the keyboard they say we're printing the book today actually you called do anymore but until that moment I was trying to fix things //
"2017-10-22 15:06:11"
Inside Google's DeepMind Project: How AI Is Learning on Its Own | Max Tegmark
\\by the fine diligence and so good some he is goals it's human intelligence today is very different from machine intelligence today in multiple ways first of all machine intelligence in the past beads that always inferior to human intelligence gradually machine intelligence got better than you indulge in certain very very narrow areas like multiplying numbers fast pocket calculators are remembering large amounts of data really fast what we're seeing now is that machine intelligence spreading out limit from those narrow peaks getting a broader still have nothing with as broad as it is human intelligence you know where you mean child can learn this to get pretty good at almost any goal but that you have systems now for example they can learn to play a whole swath of different kinds of computer games or to learn to drive a car in pretty varied environments and ... where things are obviously going in the eye is increased breadth and the holy grail of AI research is the build machine that is as broad as human intelligence can get laid anything and once that's happened it's very likely is not just gonna be as broad as human also better than humans at all the tasks as opposed to some right now I have to confess that I'm quite the computer nerd myself I wrote some computer games back in high school and college and more recently I've been doing a lot of of ... Vic learning research with my lab at MIT so that's something that really blew me away like whoa was when when I first saw this Google beat mine system but learn to play computer games from scratch you had this artificial simulated neural networks didn't know what a computer game was I didn't know what a computer was it didn't know what a screen was you just fed in numbers that represented the different colors on the screen and them told that they could output the for numbers which correspond to different keystrokes to offer the know anything about that and then it's feeding at the score all the suffering knew what the tryna randomly do stuff would maximize that score so you say why member watching this on the screen the film once when Dennis a Sybase the CEO of go with my children and since the first time this thing really played total B. S. strategy and lost all the time gradually got better and better and then it got better than I was and then after awhile it figured out this crazy strategy in breakout where you're suppose to bounce the ball off of brick wall where would keep aiming for the upper left corner into lips punched a hole through there and got the ball bouncing around in the back just racked up crazy many points whoa that's intelligent and the guys who program this didn't even know about that strategy because they hadn't play that damn very much this is a simple example of how she'd intelligence can surpass the intelligence of its creator much in the same way as a human child can end up becoming more intelligent than its parents if educated well and ... this is just tiny little computers that it hoped that a hardware you can have on your desktop if you now imagine scaling up the biggest computer facilities you have in the world and you give us a couple more decades of ... algorithm development I think it's very plausible that we can make machines glad can not just learn play computer games better than us we can view life is a game and do everything better than us //
"2017-10-21 17:00:04"
Money Can Buy Happiness If You Know How to Spend It: Stuff, Experiences, Gifts | Michael Norton
\\call the relationship money and how it seems like a simple relationship which is we want more money and we want more happiness so maybe if we get more money will get more happiness and it turns out that the relationship is really a lot more complicated than that it's not too surprising to say that money can't buy you happiness we've heard that phrase a lot but that doesn't help us understand then what kind of spending well actually make us happy and what kind what what we tend to find when you look at the data is that the biggest category of things that people spend on his stuff for themselves of course we need to pay rent or mortgage we need to have a car we need to have food and clothes but it seems as though people are spending an inordinate amount of their money on stuff for themselves and the biggest problem from our standpoint a psychologist is the percent of money that you spend on stuff for yourself is completely uncorrelated how happy you are with your life it doesn't make you unhappy it's not like you buy a lot of stuff you're miserable which sometimes we think is the case it's just the case that it's flattened matter how much it seems you buy for yourself nothing really seems to happen and so in our research and other researchers well we tried to look at all the stuff yourself doesn't pay off are there other things that you can spend your money on that actually do pay off in more happiness and what Liz and I have focused on the most is this idea that instead of focusing on yourself all the time which doesn't seem to pay off in happiness when you focus on other people you sort of reverse the arrow from the to you it seems that on average when people give to others which can be giving to charity can be treating a friend a logically buying people gets those actions of giving rather than keeping seem to be associated with more happiness and when we send people out and give them money and tell them to spend it on themselves or spend it on somebody else people has been on themselves kind of have the same day they would have had anyway the people who spend on other people actually have a happier day so if you think about the idea that stuff yourself doesn't make you happy you can think of 2 opposites of that one is stuff for other people so that's kind of giving makes you happier than keeping but another opposite of stuff yourself is to think about changing you can still spend on yourself but change from stuff to something else and lots of research over the last decade has shown that on average when people die experiences it tends to pay off and more happiness then buying stuff for themselves if you think about it is a lot of reasons for that one of them which is really critical is often when we buy stuff for ourselves we end up by ourselves with our stuff think of yourself on your phone playing a video game whatever else it might be you're often alone with your stuff where's experiences yes we do some experiences solo but many many experiences have built into them that their social if we go out to dinner go see a movie or go on a hike whatever else it might be now where with other people and I even know people sometimes annoy us a lot it turns out that talking to other people makes us happy even casual interactions with other people make us happier than sitting by ourselves in a room so experiences are more interesting and all those things but they also actually kind of serve to commit us to spending time with other people and that's partly why experiences payoff and so much more happy //
"2017-10-20 17:00:04"
Conquer Life's Challenges by Looking Inside Yourself | Cornel West
\\no begins with the green on tonal ground she called a critical self inventory because hope is in fact the kind of notion you can never really wrap your heart mind and soul around it you have to give an account for the hope inside of you so it's S. system chilled it's very personal it may be groundless but it can be soulful which is a say what keeps you going how do you account for the brief track tween mama's woman to what has gone into the shaping and molding the situating in locating of yourself and sold in relation to others knowing that the self is always connected intimately shaped by others so I began and a talk about hope little lone justice with that knowledge in that I am who I am because somebody Love Me somebody cared for me why do I begin not this is not sentimental this is what I call revolutionary piety piety is acknowledging one 's indebtedness to the sources of good in one 's own life trying to account for the forces that have push one the win at once back in what ebel progress one has made in life and some kind of progress is simply negative not to commit suicide this morning that's a breakthrough how do you do that bag knowledge in the ways in which the indebtedness that you have allow the after life of those who came before to be manifest in your life if the best of what they are is enacted and body in the best that you attempting to be now the academic context let people call it a work number so any imperfection is omitted the kind of reliance on the self that forever rescinding it's always nonconformists always cut against the grain it's always contrary it's always acknowledge and agree to wit is sub verse sing the words and preserving the best now conservative but preservative a 2 very different things I am committed profoundly to tradition preserve the kind to preserve the best and it ends up being over against status quo I come from a tradition family I hate it chronically systematically 400 E. and yet peel auto world so much about how to love I could just turn on John Coltrane love supreme right now today will move super of those who pre goes back to the spirituals and Rinne shouted goes back to the blues it goes back to Robert Johnson goes back tomorrow Rainey and Bessie Smith that goes back to Charlie Parker you could feel that tradition through him and we're living in a trump moment the moment a spiritual black out the relative eclipse of integrity honesty decency across the board is not just him you don't isolate him you don't fetish eyes him with them individual he represents the worst of the American empire the worst of American culture the atavism that narcissism the xenophobia the white male mendacity in mediocrity that has a long history in the country and now the chickens have come home to roost what does that mean it means that when we look at him we also want to look inside of lost sales in our neighborhoods and our hoods in our communities and our mosques and synagogues and churches in the civic institutions because of the long history of white supremacy long history of the rule of capital believe a long history of vicious forms of patriarchy homophobia that at work in the history he doesn't just fall from the sky now why is that important wells because in de if you gonna count for the hope in society you you have to acknowledge you've been on intimate terms with catastrophe as echo the fluff Eccles Antigone all the forces social psychic cosmic or against you no serious talk about hope and if you tied to integrity why because the virtues themselves in and of themselves the too narrow courage is never enough because Nazi soldiers be courageous he'll be thugs and gangsters you need spiritual and moral dimension to your courage the old school Romans called it fortitude diffusion of courage and magnanimity diffusion of courage and greatness of character spiritual Florida too tight too revolutionary piety to be what in John Coltrane's language a real force for good so what are we talking about with automata discourse the hope we talk about being a hope hope becomes more like a verb action like the conclusion of a practical Aristotelian syllogism with to the next which is a little like a mode of being in the world //
"2017-10-19 15:30:02"
Why The Real North Korea Threat Isn't Nuclear Weapons
\\it states is remarkably secure but you wouldn't sort of get that sense if you ... listened ... to our president or the members of Congress ... who constantly are finding threats out there ... to America's security and I I don't want to be in the position to deny that there are challenges out there but you know I'd really ... strongly ... urge us to ... put these challenges in their proper context so what's talk about ... it one of the challenges day sure ... the north Korean regime ... under the odious dictator Kim jong-un's ... frenetic and ... so staying pursuit of a ... nuclear capability up there's no doubt ... that the north Korean regime ... is a terrible regime ... inflicting suffering mostly on its own people and I you know freely concede that the world would be better off if they didn't have a a nuclear capability and the question then is how much of a threat there's this ... posed to the United States and my answer contrary to the ... hyperventilating ... that you see on a lot of the discussion of this topic is that it really doesn't change things very much to begin with the United States ... is one of the largest ... nuclear powers in the world currently our arsenal consists of about 4000 nuclear warheads that are deliverable in a wide variety of very reliable package ... contrast that with North Korea which may have you know 20 to 30 ... atomic devices ... that may or may not be deliverable on anything other than short range ballistic missiles now most people would concede that the balance is a very much in our favor ... but say look ... this is ... crazy regime I mean couldn't this be ... a case in which a a a madman has his finger ... on the nuclear trigger and ... I don't wanna defend ... Kim jong-un's rationality or his ... sartorial ... stud choices but I would say that ... he's learned the lesson that many other dictators ... have learned from my Saddam Hussein and from ... Muammar Qaddafi which is if you don't want to be it invaded by the United States ... build ... whatever rudimentary nuclear arsenal you can't now you can't eat nuclear weapons and ... and ... residual nuclear arsenal I think is no guarantee ... that the ... ... North Korean regime won't collapse of its own internal rotten us ... in fact I anticipate that that's what all happened ... and that'll priests and its own set of challenges but they're a very different set of challenges than the ones that we've been talking about in the general political discourse about the north Korean nuclear threat in our country so the question then is of what the United States I should do about North Korea a challenge that the United States faces is when the regime goes south is it invariably will ... won't be tomorrow could be 5 years could be 10 years ... it's going to ... posed to the United States ... a challenge and the challenge involves 2 elements up first of all the United States are in the south Koreans will be tempted ... if a civil war starts in the north 3 even if there's just a large scale social unrest to intervene the south to reunify their country ... the United States to why try to clean up ... the nuclear capability but the problem is that there is another great power with the big equity in North Korea and that's China ... and the Chinese ... are not ... particularly ... find ... of the Kim regime are but they're sort of stock in a dysfunctional marriage with them ... they don't want a yeah reunited ... Korea under soul with nuclear weapons are on their border ... and so the real problem that we face is how we manage the inevitable end game ... of a collapsing North Korea ... with China in here the solution is ... a explicit ... side of discussions and agreements with the Chinese are about ... what will happen in this context and I think we'd be well advised to start now ... dialoguing with the Chinese ... about the future and I think a unified Korea but also one without nuclear weapons and ... nonaligned ... without a major U. S. military presence I could be the deal that would ... work for everybody //
"2017-10-18 22:30:01"
How American Foreign Policy Inspires Resistance, Insurgency, and Terrorism | Stephen Walt
\\the United States really since the end of the Cold War has launched a project to try and spread a you might call a liberal world order in many parts of the world started the 19 nineties thinking that democracy free markets and lots of other good things for spreading almost automatically but the Clinton administration decided to give it a shove with NATO expansion ... with a number of other programs designed to spread democracy in various places all and then of course the bush administration ... took it to the next level a with the invasion of Iraq all but this didn't stop under the Obama administration which of course tried to ... topple Muammar Gaddafi as well so this is a bipartisan product of democratic liberal internationalists and ... Republican neo conservatives and basic ideas to try and spread something like the American system in as many places around the world as we could well the problem is it doesn't work very well it failed in Iraq it's failing in Afghanistan it failed in Yemen it failed it and Libya and it's not looking particularly good in places like Hungary and Poland which are starting to show certain illiberal signs of more over the optimism people once had about Russia becoming a member of the democratic family of nations I think I've been disappointed as well now why is this fail well first problem of course is that spreading democracy into other countries inevitably means regime change you've got to get rid of the existing government and replace it with something new but of course when you take apart an existing order you can't be sure what the new orders going to look like and you're gonna create a lot of angry losers people who are resentful that their loss of power and status and in some places like ever rock or Libya they're able to take up arms to resist this have I'm so simultaneously you create an incentive for resistance an incentive for insurgency and by destroying the existing order you could also create an open space where terrorists and other extremists can flourish the big problem first as you're beginning by tearing apart a new order without knowing how to replace not really is the second problem we don't know how to create viable democracies in other countries and especially in countries that have never been democratic before with very deep ethnic divisions where they're not necessarily very ... prosperous and we ought to remind ourselves that it took 200 years or more for democracy to emerge in the west that was a violent and contentious process I'm and to believe as we did in say 2003 that we could invade Iraq and create a shiny new pro American democracy in 5 or 10 years was positively delusional ... and I think you see this in one final way ... when the United States ends up owning one of these countries past occupied us to try and keep order but it doesn't know enough about the inner workings of that society which people are reliable which people can be trusted ... to do the kind of social engineering that creating a new nation or creating a new system of government would entail so recently I'd Afghanistan at a local American commander had to apologize for issuing a propaganda leaflets which included the flag of the Taliban some Karan it versus and an image of a dog dogs are regarded in parts of the Islamic world as unclean and to associate that with the Karanth course was deeply offensive to many of the Muslims for whom it was intended ugh now I mention this only because the United States has been in Afghanistan for 16 years and we still haven't fully figured out how to operate in that society in order to have sort of reliable positive a fax the bottom line here is this well intentioned effort to spread American values American institutions into many different corners of the world has been an almost complete failure are and if the United States wants to promote its values it ought to devote much more effort to creating a exemplary democracy here in the United States so that other countries will look at the United States say I'd like to have something like that and then build their version of it I it's something that we can do leading by example a but not leading with the military edge you too more good illustrations of our inability ... to do nation building in many parts the world are the failed effort to create a New Democracy in Libya others are uprising in Libya as a consequence of the Arab spring and the United States and several of its democratic allies especially France and Britain decide to intervene on behalf of the the rebel forces at this was originally intended or so we said as a purely humanitarian act to prevent Muammar Gaddafi who was at that point still in power from conducting some side some kind of mass killing of the of the rebels but we quickly expanded beyond that and gave help to the rebels in the form of air power such that they eventually succeeded but of course once the good doctor gene which was by all accounts a horrific inefficient died despotism once it was gone there was no water left and instead of a stable effective democracy what you had instead was the emergence of warlords factions militants and essentially a failed state ... it also involved ... Libya's very considerable arms ... are still getting spread out and scattered to a variety of other extremist groups in other places including Syria so the bottom line here is a well intentioned effort to promote human rights and spread democracy ends up creating a failed state instead and that is essentially the same story one could tell in a place like Yemen with the United States has repeatedly intervened to try and promote more democratic outcomes and where it we now have another failed state one were Saudi Arabia has intervened with military force wears a cholera epidemic that spreading of vast human suffering and the country is further away from being an effective democracy today than it was when the United States first started meddling again this just teaches us the lesson that the United States has enough trouble making democracy work here in the United States itself trying to create it in other places that have never been democratic and especially trying to do that with military force simply doesn't work I think there are ... Senate humanitarian circumstances where the United States should think about intervene and primarily when we think there is going to be a large scale mass killing ... in the order of tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of people arm and in no circumstances we may or may not intervene depending on first of all whether or not we have strategic interests that reinforce the imperative to do more but also whether or not we are confident that intervention is actually going to make things better as opposed to making things worse non obvious case of this is Syria there's been a a horrific civil war going on in Syria now for more than 5 years ... upwards of 0.5000000 people have died and many Americans have wanted the United States to get more actively involved arming one side or the other perhaps trying to impose some kind of no fly zone the difficulty is it is hard to be confident that any of those measures are actually going to make the situation better why because there really no good guys in this particular fight and to the extent that there are some moderate forces within the Syrian civil war they are among the weakest and the least likely to seed so if the United States were to intervene it is as likely to bring in some kind of violent extremists some kind of al Qaeda offshoot organizations like isis to power as it is to bring a bunch of nice peace loving pro American Liberal Democrats ... so it would be nice to say remove the Assad regime ... you know put him on trial for war crimes but what we may be leaving behind would be something absolute at considerably worse so even in the case of a clear humanitarian incentive and those things those circumstances will arise from time to time and we want to be careful and only intervene when we know we can make it better and we also see a way to get out so that we don't end up having to be there for decades mmhm //
"2017-10-18 15:05:33"
Why Diversity Is More Important Than Meritocracy: Quotas, Talent, Wall Street | Sallie Krawcheck
\\in my experience most he goes and get power of diverse you know there may be some who are giving it lip service still out there but in my travels these individuals understand that not only is it the fair thing to do and it's really that tenets upon which our country was built but it's really at the smart thing to do ... financial results reaching different customer bases I think they get it ... sadly middle management is where diversity goes to die and I've been thinking about this a lot recently because there's research I've recently come across that says that diversity is actually worse in meritocracy it's really surprising right you thank you know meritocracy people will search out the best person will search out the best you know strategy and will judge them later and that capitalism the market forces will decide how but it's worse in meritocracy is and I think it is exactly that sort of hands off ... prospective if your CEO you get it you're hiring all the time it's better but you're in middle management here hiring what once a year twice a year for you know 4 times a year once every few years it's it can it not a regular part of the job and the research tells us that while there are these suppose it benefits to diversity that will tend to retreat to the comfortable we tend over value products that we already have we tend overvalued environments in which we are existing by the way the longer we have better exists in the more we over value them and so what you see in the middle management is I like working with people like me an incitement a maybe I read some research report one time this a diversity was better but cash I like Jim right gosh I like him compound that with that we tend to allow ourselves in this country to ask the wrong question and the question we usually ask when hiring people is can you help me find the best person for the job the best person for the job our cognitive shortcuts is typically someone who reminds us so darn much ourselves where is what we should be asking is can you help me fill out the best right build the best team with diverse skill sets at Sandra so as a CEO ... might face is changing my advice is to often over ride the maritime that this desire to lecture managers manage honey we tried it right nothing more meritocratic than Wall Street and look what happened there the most homogeneous of environments and ... financial crisis and so to put on metrics out there to pay manager's on diversity is I think the only way to drive it and as for the old diversity committee which you sort of did that 10 years ago and look we're working on diversity because we have it if you have something in place 45 and 10 years and universities not moving forward it's time to stop time to do something different change the tire mentoring program into a sponsorship program you know to set those quotas to I know hit the word quota to it to set those those goals to pay people on those goals to try to do something that's different PS it's not a pipeline issue it's not a lack of talent issue you know they're they're plenty of women there plenty of professional women there plenty of people of all kinds of divers cognitive perspectives out there it's not just letting bringing them in and letting the organization work the organization is working against you there is no doubt in my mind the financial crisis that the United States in the world suffered would have been less severe if we had more diversity on wallstreet there's no doubt we know this intuitively if all of us think about those cavernous trading floors where the individuals populating the trading desks looked the same that if those had been you know incredibly diverse or the United Nations of every different kind of person you could have we intuitively know that the crisis would have been less severe we intuitively know that if there were more women at the senior leadership tables at the crisis would have been less severe in all you do we know intuitively the research tells us this the research tells us that homogeneous teams tend to over trusting each other we cognitively finish each other's sentences I hope she's just like me or he's just like me so therefore since we look and talk and act alike can have a set of shared experiences I understand what you're thinking and what what you'll do next and so homogeneous markets tend to be miss price by tens of percentage points the other thing that the research tells us is that trading risk can be driven by testosterone and that as gentleman's testosterone increases they take on more trading risk is it reduces less trading risky no does it have a lot of testosterone women women ... and it's funny because we women get that rap for being so emotional and so hormone driven but in fact what the research tells us is you can crack the risk with test stroke not estrogen you know we're sitting here today in the early months of the trump administration ... and the pictures of the leadership are startling and striking in that it is not unusual to see a picture of all white males whether that's all white males huddled around into the oval office huddling around the president on the telephone or whether it's all white males making decisions about our health care sitting here in these early months of the trump administration I think you would be hard pressed to say that the administration is running efficiently affective way like a well oiled machine taking into account the complexity of what it's trying to do there have been several important missteps and there's no way to my mind those things are on related in the research with talus that they are indeed related //
"2017-10-17 17:00:01"
Richard Dawkins: Why Religion and Evolution Don't Mix Well
\\and very often lost for the women's religion I usually reply it may be the wrong they have to rephrase the question and it may turn out to be not the survival value of religion but the survival value of something else in the brain which shows itself manifest itself as religion on to the right second now a good analogy which I've used ... is a question why do moths fly into candle flames and you could describe that behavior as suicidal behavior in mosques self immolation behavior in Moscow because he behave in office that'd be one way phrasing the question but it's the wrong question if you actually look at the way moth I mean insect eyes generally work insects use celestial objects like the sun or the moon or the stars as compasses it's important it's valuable add there is survival value for any animal in moving in a straight line if anyone wants to move in a straight line a very good way to do it to keep a celestial object a fixed angle and that's easy to do it in sex because they have compound eyes well then I'm like our eyes that the the ISIS as a whole is not hemisphere riddle too looking outwards and so you can maintain a fixed angle to something like a star or the moon by keeping the moon in one on the tedium if you do that because raise from the moon come from optical infinity that parallel is if you keep the moon in one on the tedium you will fly in a straight line it might be say 30 degrees keep the moon at 30 degrees to your right and that works and that's valuable and that's what many insects do however candles and not have to optical infinity candles are close the rays of light from a candle on therefore not parallel they radiating out if you maintain a fixed angle of say 30 degrees to the rays that are emitted from a candle you will describe a neat logarithmic spiral into the candle flame kill yourself says he's also not killing themselves the not that's not suicidal behavior it's a mis firing all of a natural normal behavior which before the invention of candles would have worked is still does work the vast majority of time because most of the time in the dark Hamas is not subjected to artificial light so I ask the right question the right question is not what fifth revival value of suicidal behavior in moths the right question is what's the survival value of maintaining a fixed angle to a celestial object and then you've it's easy to come up with the right Johnson proximate questions on questions of which you answer with the form the physiology of the animals and have a system of the animal at the home runs of the animal things happen in the animals and have a system which caused it to do something that's a proximal answer the ultimate question is what's the survival value what's the benefit to the animal what the benefit of the animal's genes in particular to make it do that a I know teacher might at Oxford J. abeka use did use the example of breeding seasons in birds why do why to buzz we'd assessment times of year the out about answer is it's beneficial to them to have breeding seasons because they produce checks at the right time of year to cash in on the optimal food supply that's the ultimate counts approximate Hansson is that they breed at a certain time of year because day length is changing and there hormonal system that never system is geared to day length and that's the proximal a reason why they breed at a certain time //
"2017-10-16 14:30:00"
How America Came Apart: Global Trade, Wars, Prisons, Wall Street, Power Politics | Van Jones
\\when people ask me you know how we got here how do we come apart in the first place ... I don't blame anyone politician or party there was a bipartisan elite consensus I in the 19 nineties into the 2000 that really racks ... the middle class potential aspirations in the country both political parties that we could have these trade deals they'll be great for everybody is great for some people but the I. industrial heartland just got kicked in the stomach both political parties that we could deregulate Wall Street let the banks do whatever they wanted to and it led to this massive crash ... that wiped out about $0 worth of wealth millions how homes were lost both political parties that we could build prisons everywhere that would make the country better it didn't both political parties that we can get in these wars overseas and everything worked out fine it hasn't so when you have repeated it elite failure at the top of both parties a rebellion in both parties is justified and that's really what he saw in 2016 it's on the Bernie Sanders rebels and frankly the black lives matters ... rebels ... on the left and then he saw the trump rebellion on the right and as a result ... the political establishment got dumped on its but and ... that is the context that year they have tried to figure out a way forward unfortunately when you have this level of elite failure and crisis people can either turn to each other on each other some forces in American society really seem intent on having us turn on each other and I would put the band and in that carrot category output Donald Trump in that category that they see a path to political power Elise for themselves and maybe for some part their constituency that's based on having people turn on each other so turned on the immigrant community turn on the Muslims ... the Muslims are the most bizarre group for us to be attacking American Muslims they have they have the lowest crime rate of any by 9 states they have the lowest ... divorce rate ... highest level of our spring or ship one of the highest levels of female education in the country are American Muslims are awesome ... in fact they should be used as a propaganda weapon against the idea that America hates Muslims because an American Muslims are killing here but which must be mad at them was was made me mad at at the dreamers black lives matter turn Americans against each other and as long as you're black is big enough to win gerrymandered elections then you get to be in power that's the the band then trump strategy now what you get and power you can get a thing done but who cares when you have more failure more dysfunction you can blame more people home and stay in power and so this is I think a very very dangerous development mainly because it means that conservatism which is ... age a noble tradition in our country that has a lot of positives to say for itself I'm a liberal so I I think I can be objective there are there have been some great conservative leaders in contributions has now been hijacked and turned into anti liberalism well anti liberalism is not conservative it is a a a political strategy to ... tactic to attack certain constituents to defame certain ideas for the sole purpose of keeping your base riled up to keep you in power and anti liberalism is not a basis to govern the country and so on that's on the right on the left you have another set of failures in the aftermath of all this which is a simple failure of progressives to recognize the ways that we have sometimes accidentally created a market for a Donald Trump because there is a will a style of politics it's become fashionable on the left that would rationally lead you to conclude if you are a straight white male conservative from a red state that you were no longer ... a part of the moral concerns of progressive that yours you are and other you're kind of an outsider maybe even the enemy ... and that which you need to do is to own your privilege and to give up a lot of of of standing in power that you have you shouldn't have and when you have that approach it really opened the door for Donald Trump do they will these guys don't like the idea these guys don't watch idea these guys see as unworthy I see is worthy these guys want to put you down I want a lift you up and ... we have an opportunity I think as progressives to ... draw our struggle a little bit bigger again and just to make sure that it's not just that we have the policies that would help a white working class folks we would always at the policies but we also have a politics this is we need you you're part of this we want to lift up the America we're trying to build actually will have more success in war ... good things for you when it then the country we have right now ... it also have more good stuff for the Muslims the transgender folks in the legend of the black folks but you are a part of that parade of people that we want to see drive in win in America did it to the extent that you don't hear that a lot from progresses you can then be mad when those folks don't vote for you when they vote against him so both parties have fallen victim and I put him war fought on one than the other but both parties have fallen victim to add very easy mistake of just drawing your circle too small and pointing your fire at frankly poor people in the other party we see the Republican Party all those dirty Mexicans in those black folks in those people and then you know and then that becomes a weighted cheaply rally your base and then sometimes out on the left you see liberals those stupid red state voters those hex those you know racist and bigoted truck people bubble block sometimes not take into account at some of those trump voters ... may have some legitimate grievances or anxieties ... that ... we don't talk about with my sympathy or much sympathy or with much skill anymore and so ... both parties at the Catholic and the mayor //
"2017-10-15 15:44:28"
Your Brain Is an Illusion Factory: Time, Color, Causality | Dean Buonomano
\\time is because more so than the bow arm the name in cousins call animals have a fairly good understanding of space in the sense that they know where a predator is located behind a tree or if my dog loses its treated nose to go behind the couch beside the couch or over the couch time we navigate space right I mean we take left turns we write to we have a map of space within our hands and we know that if somebody's goes around the corner where we can go after them but time we don't navigate time right time is this one way street and I think in part because of that time is something that we never involves to manipulate to map out because we have very little options time doesn't have any branches are right turns our accents or ... 80 degree ... wrap arounds so I think the brain of of of most mammals I'm didn't involve to manipulate think about time as much as some space no I think humans are unique in the sense that we and perhaps we alone have this notion of the past present and future being fundamentally different from each other and ability to map out time in any analysts say was true by the way in science if you think about what's probably the first ... field of modern science lets them say that's geometry right geometry as formalized by Euclid over 2000 years ago is probably the first field of modern science and why I think the reason is is because the universe is a simpler spank place if we can ignore time so geometry is basically the study of a universe in which nothing changes it Sam space and objects that don't change in time it took another ... took another 2000 years for people great scientists like a layer in Newton fully incorporate times into mathematics and physics and and shoe further bring physics into its renaissance in which it fully embraced time in its complexity biology as well and up until the 18 hundreds biology was fairly static content alone Darling came along playing the role of Galileo and said look species change their emotion there are mutating in adapting I think neurosciences just reaching that stage now in which this fully coming to embrace that time in its full complexity along with dynamics on and look at the brain as that time sheen of sorts so the brain is indeed an illusion factory many of the things that we experience in the world around us are an illusion in one sense of that word so common example is caller so color we perceive in this vivid arm this evade array of different sensory experiences I'm is something that in many ways an illusion because color doesn't exist in the physical what exists in the physical world is wavelength the wavelengths of and visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum the brain if you will imposes a sensory perception top of those wavelengths which is subject to many allusions the intensity of the green or intensity of blue that we see often doesn't exactly match the wavelengths that we're seeing anyways so it's reasonable to ask well maybe our sense of time our sense of flow of times I think there's an important difference between those 2 subject X. so our sense of color correlates very tightly with something in the external world with the physical part and which is visible light and that's why it's adaptive so color involved our perception of color involved because it was adaptive it was evolutionarily adaptive to provide some information about the external world the color of a snake make talents very important commission whether it's ... poisonous or not now presumably our sense of the flow of time should be adaptive as well on most of our subjective experiences presumably have some evolutionary advantage to if on if our sense of the flow of time is an illusion in the deepest sense meaning that it reflects something that doesn't exist in the physical world and then it's a bit hard to understand what would be the evolutionary purpose of our sense of the flow of time so I think there's there's reasons and went to which physicists and neuroscientists half to collaborate more in to resolve these mysteries should we look at the sense of the flow of time are subjective sense of of time which is very profound right virtually every human on the planet has this unmistakable feeling time flowing in we have to decide if that unmistakable feeling of time flowing by is something that involved because it offered a selective advantage about what's happening in the world on and that S. it's correlates correlates with Amy property of the universe that really exists or if in contrast it's an illusion that doesn't ... correspond to any property the physical world and then in that case physicists armed don't have to explain the basis of the notion of consciousness and I mean the notion of that of the nature of the flow of time but neuroscientists have to work on June resolve that mystery another hand if we accept that are sense of the flow of time is Anne valid empirical observation about the external world then physics physics asked you I'm attempt to explain what we are perceiving I'm //
"2017-10-14 15:26:58"
Your Face Makes the First Impression—What Does It Say? Bias, Evolution, Trust | Alexander Todorov
\\so in the early days including from the time a forest auto and let it ... and see steam and 17 century most of his own and may consist of this whimsical comparisons between the physiome if humans and animals so for example ... you would have a drawing of a human who presumably looks looks like a cow and from there you will make all kinds of influences that perhaps the character of the person matches the character of the cow whatever that might be in fact if you look at ... the Houston area of European history most of the 19 centuries novels a standard feature of this knowledge is that you have Islamic descriptions of the characters so it was a big hit very very popular image of an influence not only marginal writers but ... big names like both sock ... Stendhal and many others now interestingly enough in the early twentieth century people no longer talk about zoning they talk about character analysis and in fact a lot of the references are no longer to lava terrorists whimsical ideas but there to evolutionary ideas and the so called character alis they were quite influential and they were involved heavily in business in the creek month Alfa employees well but this is exactly the time when the new science of psychology arises and then psychologists the kind of skeptical about ... the claims of the character on the list or read the new fees Euonymus the fact that you again this impression was discovered over 100 years ago in psychology but psychologists at the time were really focus on the accuracy of the impressions and paid very little attention to the extent we interesting psychological fact that you actually agree on this impressions very often in psychology and am in many and generally in the social sciences lately if you observe that there is a pervasive bias that is it something that feels failure to Martinique and we can all do it there is a kind of almost an immediate assumptions that might this might be a actually why I asked that it's something that ... ... we are born to be able to duel course you can easily think of ... counter examples like Lynn driving which essentially becomes a tomato can this whole thing evolutionary about driving cool reading ... but nevertheless with things that seems to have been present always somehow environment like faces that seems like a natural assumptions it's interesting actually have done us some star this it's as they say then many many different imposed impressions right oneness emotional expressions there's so stereotypes about gender ... there's so excuse about H. in facial maturity all of this go into our impressions another one that is very interesting kiss to pick cotton so as it turned out we tend to like faces that the typical that means faces that the closer to what you perceive is typical in our social environment now the lesson interesting wrinkle but yes deep ecology salsa culturally specific especially if if the different cultures selling to different ethnicities and and there's distinctive fees Janovitz and that makes it worse we've done a study where we created more so the typical Japanese face and a typical Israeli face and then we can in terrible Inc interpolate the more so we can imagine like a typical Japanese phase gradually timing and the typical Israeli face now if you ask Israeli in Japanese sports disciplines to avoid the faces what happens is that as the face become more Israeli looking the Israelis believe that the face is becoming more trust worth it and the other way around for the Japanese so in a sense to a large extent what Ripper sophistical is shaped by our natural environment and it's something that you're very rapidly extract we learned via incredibly good laments about faces and and and most likely people who live in New York City in it's a hugely diverse face will have a different notion of typically to if you live in a small rural town no where there's not so much diversity and in this case are it's another so in this because this this can lead to different kind of soul pop to stop optimal outcomes because naturally we wouldn't trust people that do not look like us not having to any of the information the reason why week we will never be able to get through the first impressions is because they serve important psychological functions that is in the absence of any other information we're trying the best we cooked figure out what the other people are thinking that doesn't mean that ... that we wouldn't change our minds on the call today when you have a good diagnostic evidence about the person or when you know about past behavior that would change so you inferences based on appearance ... but most of the time if you don't have any other information people will act on this and that may not be in their best interests are starting back without xylem but also who'll rolled books like the criminal man and the criminal woman and he claimed that she can identify this inferior types of based on their facial features to Francis Galton who invented the composite photography and in fact all of the today smart thing that that's a based on this method of composite photography and the first application of the mat that I was to identify the criminal types who has a very long history I think that's a very reasonable argument could be the 3 a kind of hot wired to figure out the intentions of father people of the people around us but here's what is the most important thing in our social life it's other people and and interactions with strangers you're always trying to figure out what a damn tension so they go out are they bet what a day going to do can they hurt me whether that's physical and non physical way so this of things that the I have always been a concern for us no but let's think in terms of evolutionary history well for most of our evolutionary history basically lived in extended families typically between 5 to 8 individuals all of these changes in the last 50000 in fact even less made in the last 20000 cheers when you have large scientists that is if you imagine the human evolution compress within 2004 hours we have been living treat strangers surrounded by stands in the last 5 minutes so it is not all gross and all that you're kind of in dial to freezing the character so far the phone faces I think there's very good evidence to be ... there's good comparative evidence that in fact we have very good at picking up on social cues in the immediate situations so if you look for example of comparative studies to look at across all primates turns out that you're the only primate which tests whites of the eyes very sour itis is dark then you have that whites Clara and then have a darker skin then all the prime what's with this kinds of coloration so why is that kind interesting or important well the fog groups are you have the will of the wife of the sclera makes it super easy to detect Thai Jase and I guess is very important force us sharing social attention ... we can communicate from a long distance on similar emotional expression so very important the fact that you have kind of a man that you that one of the naked ape I and the fog that thou a faces some not completely covered by here makes very detection too of makes it very easy to detect changes in skin coloration switch off one indication of from out different kinds of emotional or mental states so we are very sensitive to changes momentary changes in what you're observing business momentary changes syndicate if of what is important and the situation what is happening right now ... but it is hard to make the argument that somehow we can dial toll so to return to the faces the character fathers I think we have the natural propensity to trying to figure out what this other people are thinking or feeling cry now but that doesn't mean and I think the problem with his only me and and the modern version is this assumption that because you can make disrupting Francis they're also informative about this people across time and situations mmhm //
"2017-10-13 17:00:02"
The Most Important Letter Abraham Lincoln Never Sent | Nancy Koehn
\\one of the most powerful covered in writing this book was it each of these 5 people that's Ernest Shackleton the Antarctic explore ... that our sixteenth president Abraham Lincoln the abolitionist and ... civil liberties crusader at Frederick Douglas the resistir to Nazi Nazi Germany's evils Dietrich Bonhoeffer pastor and the environmental activist Rachel Carson discover is that sometimes doing nothing is the most powerful the most significant the most influential thing a leader can do and they discover again mostly by making mistakes of acting quickly decisively rationally in a high stakes moment when they are highly charged when they are motion only very hot in terms of their temperature and when people around them are emotionally very hot in terms of their emotional temperatures they discover the power and waiting of doing nothing when the stakes are high an emotional temperatures are high and they discover this lesson because they make the mistake of acting of writing of speaking out of making a decision when they are very very hot under the collar right when their when their hair on the back of their neck is really on it and they realize this is not my best mode this is not my strongest south I can actually do a lot of damage to my mission my followers what what I'm trying to accomplish if I make choices when I don't see myself as clearly when I'm not as temperate and careful and thoughtful and reflective and emotionally aware as I might be and so one of the best examples of this is an example occurred right after the battle of Gettysburg and I told my conclusion to the book Abraham Lincoln has just learned that the union army commanded by general named George Meade has won a decisive battle in 3 days of blight bloody fighting in southern Pennsylvania in Gettysburg against Robert E. Lee's army of northern Virginia we immediately after the third day in the defeat retreats south our for Virginia and George made makes a critical decision at that moment not to pursue Lee's army even though Lee's army is weakened suffering from great casualties and emotionally demoralized George made makes decision he thinks it's very well found his troops are to tire I can't risk really really taking any more losses than his big army the army of the Potomac has all retaken losses on both sides at the battle of Gettysburg were enormous Lincoln Lawrence of this a day 0.5 later by telegraph in the White House and he is so so frustrated so angry so beside himself he's pacing the halls on the second for the White House in anger and frustration and he writes 4 page letter to George Meade suppressing his dissatisfaction the satisfaction then gives way to anger the anger gives way to red hot frustration on the pages as Lincoln's no pen gather speed and his emotional ... his emotional temper gather speed and he writes is lighter you are you have no idea how disappointing him you could have you could pursue Italy crushed army and ended the war and now countless deaths are still to come and the end of the war is nowhere in sight I cannot express adequately my disappointment the situation he writes is lighter folds adopt he puts on an employer and it's found after he died George meet says that says that signature on the on the front written but never signed or sent July 1860 3 and I teach this letter to my executives like talk about when I do leadership coaching Ordway presented to my students I say a match if Lincoln had had email because what Lincoln did in that moment I can see him doing lives from a lot of time with Mr Lincoln over the I can see him sitting back or maybe getting up from his writing desk taking a long perambulation walk around his big office and say wait a minute I don't really have very many generals that I can call fighting generals in reserve if I make George Meade angry and he peels off the union war effort I've already gone to ally generals that disappointed me and lots of them are very are my friends so I think he made a very calculated decision this frustrated as he was and as disappointed as he was he was going to sabotage or do some damage to his mission save the union and slavery if he alienated George meet who would up ultimately talk about and alienate other generals for Lincoln and so he never sent that letter and I always say to executives imagine Lincoln had just hit send in the heat of the moment if he had email or send a Twitter message off quarry aiding me course of world history certainly of US history might indeed have been different so when can gain a great deal by not sending that letter the union was preserved great fighting generals came out of the west by early 1864 Sherman grant to fight the war Lincoln knew that need to be prosecuted and the story turned out in the end of a trial for Lincoln's mission but he had to exercise the discipline he had to realize that doing nothing was the best thing he could do and we have to learn that lesson today we live in an age when world leaders are expressing vitriolic hatred in their immediate reactive white hot the motions in all kinds of media channels because they're not waiting they're not processing they're not taking a yoga breaths and they're not considering that those emotional all shipments are doing more damage to the world and their followers and a noble cause then simply remaining quiet and doing nothing in the heat of the moment I'm //
"2017-10-12 17:00:08"
Are We Born Optimistic? Or Is It a Coping Skill We Learn as Adults? | Lori Markson
\\as a developmental psychologist who studies cognition in children and we were really excited to be able to focus on a particular aspect of ... a cognitive bias which is the development of optimism in children somewhere often studying cognitive mechanisms and how children are using these to reason about various aspects of the world around them including other people's thoughts and preferences and we also ... are are looking at how children are choosing to learn from other people as well as I'm gonna talk about 2 lines of research one is ... that ... mostly which I'll talk about looking at the development of optimism in children which we were really grateful to the hope and optimism initiative on to fund so that we can do that and another thought is looking out outside of children how we're thinking about society and how children's own optimism might also apply to groups and society as well okay so for the purposes of operationalize in how we were going to go about studying optimism and where to start looking at this in children we took a working definition that's come from tali Shapiro was gonna speaker later as well as others working in this field thinking about optimum optimism is a cognitive bias and this is the bias to overestimate the likelihood of positive outcomes and underestimate the likelihood of negative outcome there's been a lot of work on this adults which ... Mike already talked about Intel is gonna speak when I'm not gonna go into detail on it but typically roughly we see 80 percent of the adult population is optimistic so what about kids I mean our kids optimistic in the same way as adults do we see this optimism by bias it what we have seen in the data that we knew today was that kids are very positive they seem to be very positive about themselves and interpret it expectations for themselves very positively especially up to about 6 years of age or so but if you ask children and you ask them to evaluate themselves they tend to do this really positively so here's an example of watching a bunch of kids in a race and one girls pointed out that she can't run very fast and another girl over there is point out she can run fast in a child simply ask which girl are you more like Hey this is the way we can ask simple questions and get data out of kids and here's a 6 year old girl it typical ... answer would be something like her I'm more like the fast girl okay and kids will evaluate these on different scales but they tend to ward off to now you might were positive at least having positive interpretations you can also look at this in the academic realm and something that can be evaluated much more relative rep rep easily because you can ask for an adult evaluation the situation so that your is a child ... again up to roughly 6 or so years of age you ask how do you do in school is I'm really good I get mostly ace and I get lots of stars on my papers if you ask the teacher they have a different answer student sometimes gets a star in what you see is this escalation in ... initially escalation in being positive and then this starts to become more realistic the child's own view of himself comes more in line with reality so we were asking the question our children optimist or realists because all of the previous work didn't really look at optimism looked at only about positivity self how about applying these kinds of things 2 different likelihoods of expectations out there in the real world now you might wonder can be beaten kids even do that what about if kids can't do the math you can give them is complicated math problems that 8 out of 1000 or 3 out of 27 people are likely to get can you know whatever these things are and expect them to weigh that in putting stopped babies already by the end of the first your life are really good at doing these kinds of mental statistics and evaluating likely her probabilities here's one example but there are many many that I could take free of this comes from ... my colleague phase you at Berkeley who'd looks at probabilistic reasoning in babies and here is a test that was just looking at whether babies have any expectations about what sample should come out of whatever the sample that presented with ... and whether they so surprise or not given what that is so you show them a box full of balls in this case there's 3 different colored balls and there's about a third of each and you choose randomly sutures a random sample okay you would predict as an adult I think that one third roughly of the time you should get each fall color okay that's not the sample that came out in this case and so we can do is see whether babies are surprised that that sample was withdrawn from there or whether they just don't pay any attention any difference to that whether the expected apple was coming and in fact what they do is they're pretty surprised when the sample doesn't match population from which it was drawn and we have collected data with 158 kids so far from a very ... up wide range of sample of children in the Saint Louis area where I live these are kids of different racial and ethnic backgrounds coming from different ... economic populations so one last task I wanna tell you bout ... for this this set is looking at how children view people who are optimistic versus pessimistic kids were much more likely to choose the optimistic person not just the optimistic outcome but they wanted to be friends with the person that had the positive response in this often happens even in the face of accuracy so we're looking at this now too for learning and who they might rather learn from an optimistic person or over correct person and this is something that is also another field on that's had a lot of attention recently developmental psychology that children really like to learn from an attack like better people who are reliable so we but looking at how liking optimism and wanted to learn from someone who is optimistic has to reconcile with learning from somebody who is accurate and realistic in that sense okay because we do want to make proper sense of the world about what I want you to take home from that though too is that children already in the first few years of life do seem to have a propensity ... for op be optimistic ... viewing of things they tend to be optimistic and that we might be able to learn something basing that children are making the same sort of mistakes are having the same kinds of biases as adults we might be able to learn something about the trajectory of this get some insight into how we as adults got the way we are uhhuh //
"2017-10-11 17:00:05"
Everything Is Made of Quarks—Why Are Only Some Things Conscious? | Max Tegmark
\\of all the words I know no word that many my colleagues more emotional and prone to foam at the mouth and then when I'm just about to say consciousness a lot of scientists Smith this is complete B. S. polio element in it than other lot of others think this is like the central thing have to worry about machines getting conscious and so on what do I think I think consciousness as both irrelevant and incredibly important let me explain why first of all if you I chased by heat seeking missile quickly irrelevant to you whether this heat seeking missile is conscious whether it's having a subjective experience whether it feels like anything could be the head missile because all you care about is what the heat seeking missile does not how it feels and that shows that the complete red herring I think that there is safe from if you're a I'd if it's not conscious his behavior you wanna make sure has a line with your goals on the other hand there is no way in us consciousness is incredibly important I feel and ... it is also way in which is absolutely fascinating sweep rewind for new years of so you know Galileo he could have told you that if you throw an apple and a hazelnut they're gonna move exactly in this shape of a parabola and you give you all the math for it we would have no clue why the apple was red and they'd love was brown or white apple with soft amazement was hard that seemed in beyond science and science back 40 years ago could only really say sensible things about this very limited domain of a phenomenon to do with motion then came the Maxwell equations and told us all about light than colors and that became within the realm of science then we got quantum mechanics that told us why of the apple is soft there than the hazel not and all of the properties of matter and science is gradually conquered more and more of the natural phenomenon if you ask now what science can do with actually lot faster scribe what little it is that science cannot talk about sensibly and I think the final frontier actually is consciousness people mean a lot of different things by that word I simply mean subjective experience Spain's of colors sounds emotions and so on but it feels like something to be me which is quite separate from my behavior which I could have even if I were a zombie and didn't experience anything at all potentially so why should you care about that I care by the first of all because fundamentally the basic thing I know about the world makes appearances and I would love to Stan scientifically while it is and not just leave it throughout philosophers and second it's incredibly important also in terms of purpose and meaning in the laws of physics there is nothing about meaning has no equation for it and I feel that we shouldn't look for our universe to give meaning to us because it's us to give meaning to our universe because we are conscious of experiencing things I I you know it didn't used to be conscious that used to be just that much of stuff moving around and gradually this incredibly complicated patterns got a range in their brains we woke up in our universe is aware of itself we have galaxies out there they're incredibly beautiful wireless beautiful because we are consciously aware of them we see the men are telescopes if in the future we screw up with technology and all life goes extinct and I universe will go back to being meaningless and just a giant waste of space as far as I'm concerned and when it a colleague tells me that they think science clenches be yes I challenge them to tell me what is wrong with rape and torture and explain that to me without using the word consciousness of the work experience because if we can't talk about that it's just that the whole profanity you're saying so bad is just a bunch of electrons and quirks moving around in some particular way rather than some other particular way and what's so bad about that I feel the only way we can actually for have any logical scientific foundation of ethics morality purpose and meaning is precisely in terms of experience in terms of consciousness and this makes it really important as we prepare for a future to understand what this is and I for one think that this is actually something but we can also ultimately understand scientifically I don't think that the difference between a living bugging the dead bug is that the living bug has some so Secret Life sauce in it I think of the Boggs's mechanisms in the dead bug is the broken mechanism similarly I think that what makes my brain conscious the food I ate which W. range into my brain not wasn't conscious isn't because they're made of different kind of stuff at the same quirks we arranged right the pattern into which they're arranged and I think it's a scientific question what what property is that this pattern of information processing have to have for there to be subject to experience their I could imagine building a brain scatter actually have pretty good ones at MIT where work and having some software in its which tests out whatever theory you have think that for consciousness and makes predictions for what you experienced and if I'm sitting this machine and and computer screen tells me okay right now I see information processing in your brain indicating that you are consciously aware of the thought of an apple yeah that's right click correct Bennett says I see information about your hard to beat the new brain when you're aware of this no like no I was not conscious of that any number of ruled out the theory that was implemented in this software sets falsifiable them either with the scientific theory we can when they find a theory like this and there are some candidates on the market like Julia to known as integrated information theory for example if ever find any theory that passing cussed like I'm we start taking it seriously and we can use it to build the consciousness that Hector that's first of all gonna be that really useful physicians in the emergency room with love it that they get an unresponsive patient coming and put it in the clutches a scanner and figure out whether they have locked in syndrome and just can't communicate but they're conscious or whether there's nobody home and this also let us understand whether future AI systems we build our conscious and whether we should feel guilty or not about switching them off some people might prefer that their future home helper robots is an unconscious zombie so they don't have to feel guilty about giving a boring chores are powering it down some people might prefer that it's conscious so that they can be a positive experience in there and so they don't feel creeped out by this machine just faking it you know and pretending to be conscious even though it's a zombie and most importantly in the longer term future far from now we have them we have life's have that spread out from earth the other galaxies and when the whole cosmos is alive and doing amazing things and they'll vote F. this life becomes the descendants of humanity wouldn't it suck if it turns out that this is all just zombies with no consciousness and the whole thing that we felt so good about before we passed away was just the play for empty benches I feel that ... should really really tackle this final frontier of scientific ignorance the problem of consciousness and get the stuff figured out so we can shape the future which is truly awesome not just come from the outside that pool stuff seems to be happening but that there's actually someone home though to experience all this //
"2017-10-10 18:30:01"
How Rebel Victories Stop Civil Wars While Foreign Intervention Prolongs Them | Monica Duffy Toft
\\11 country intervenes in another country's civil war on 1 of the things that happens is it extends the war and if you think about it what's happening is you're having more resources coming into that conflict and it's bringing in new resources bringing in new interests basically complicating and complex find that war that was already apparent complex war there are ways in which intervention might be good which is you try to pull the parties apart not trying to pick sides 1 side picking the other side on and and that can sort of stop the killing but typically before that happens if outside states are getting involved in the civil war it tends to extend it so history is mixed on how to best solve civil wars ... it it turns out that the international community has a strong recovery promote negotiated settlement so you want the parties to both on lay down their arms and negotiate an end to the civil war where each of them feels as if they have a part to play in the configuration of the new state that is the absolute preference ... ... that the international committee has and it pushes that we're pushing for that today in Syria Afghanistan there's no discussion about negotiating with the Taliban because we understand we may not be able to force an an and to this war and that the Taliban are not coming anywhere and that we might not we might have to negotiate with them the problem is in order for a negotiated settlement to to resolve a civil war up requires both sides to stay absolutely committed to that and to remain committed to that for a long time and that requires for both sides or if it's more than one side you can think about the former wars in Yugoslavia more than one side that if they reneged on the negotiated settlement that it's gonna be harmful to them and to their interests so you want to be thinking about how to ensure that both sides or all sides to feel compelled to stay aligned with what the negotiated settlement brought on a lot in order to end the war and one way to do that is to ensure the security service though they armed forces are configured correctly and that the representatives of the broader nation another waste of outside peacekeepers there to keep the parties apart so you can think about the former Yugoslavia or even cypress their peacekeepers there and they've been there now for decades in both places in Bosnia ... they're supposed to be there for 1 year bill president Bill Clinton said we're only gonna be there for a year and that was in 1995 it's now 2017 and similarly in Cyprus in the 19 seventies peacekeepers were supposed to be there temporarily all and they're they're somewhat permanently the good news is you haven't had many deaths as a result because the peacekeepers of kept them apart so negotiated settlements are one way to sort and wars and to keep them ended but actually they're quite they're they're they're not the most common on an alternative is thinking about military victories which and today about half of civil wars part of the in the Cold War the end of 3 quarters of all civil wars so a military victory just means that once I prevails on the battlefield and it turns out historically that they're more robust that 11 side wins and prevails in civil war you're more likely to have a longer lasting settlement ... and the question is why is that sort of research that and it turns out I believe the reason is is because 2 for 2 reason it turns out that rebel victories are even more ... a robust up one is is that by defeating the other side you've demonstrated that you have the capacity to beat the other side right that you actually have the military might so anything about those negotiated settlements that's what a third party is providing is the capacity to keep the players apart and secondarily particularly when it comes to rebel victories why they're more robust is they have legitimacy so they defeated the government and they usually can bring the population behind them to support the configuration of the running of the new government in effect the rebels quite often bring opposition into government in order to more effectively govern so military victories are an option they have been an option historically the issue is the international community's sort of doesn't support it because it sounds as if we're advocating the use of force or the continued use of force aw I'm I'm a pragmatist when it comes to these kinds of things I look at the international community are and where it wants to go and whether it wants to go into different corners of the world and it's not willing to go into every corner of the world the international community particularly large actors the Soviet Union in the old days now Russia and the United States and its allies are going to go everywhere so they're not going to commit to bringing peace to every corner of the world think about Myanmar today and there were handle being targeted Myanmar has had a number of civil wars raging for a number of years with the international community does not have the will ... to go in there and negotiate separate pieces to bring peace to that country and therefore we have to acknowledge and recognize that military victories are out there ought they have concluded civil wars most recently aren't they concluded to one was Sri Lanka where the governor prevailed over the tunnel Tigers after decades of fighting and now yes it was a horrific and to that civil war there's no denying it there were fears of genocide but now the international community can step in and say to the Sri Lankan government you need to treat the Tamil population are ... equitably fairly justly and and perhaps ... I will work with the Sri Lankan government ought to have them behave to not sort of ... ... take out vengeance OB revenge against that that the town the population and then the other one issue is a south Sudan with south Sudan was actually rebel victory all and basically that was a rebel victory that resulted in the partition and the creation of a new state which again partition is quite where the international community doesn't support the idea of making new states in part because most states in the international system our multinational and multi ethnic and they don't want to set that precedent allowing one state to have an idea about one state to allow for pieces of it to break off on oil and because they fear that all set off a set of dominoes not only within their own state but but globally so so ... victory is a possibility as well as negotiated settlements I am when I look at these cases historically and then also contemporaneously on what I'm looking at is is there will in the capacity of the international community to get involved and if there's not then we might want to countenance victory for one side or the other who the good guys who the bad guys honestly in most civil wars is a little bit about on polls on some cases a lot of bad on one side a little bit about on another ... and so you want to look at ... ... that the conditions are about whether victories even a possibility and then negotiate a settlement is there a commitment from one party the United Nations a coalition of states to go in and to help keep the peace or to make peace and then help keep the peace later because without that commitment it's very hard for the parties to not be susceptible of 2 fighting down the road it turns out if you one civil war your chances the biggest indicator of it had a civil war in the past your chances of having another civil war is much greater in leann //
"2017-10-09 18:38:25"
Why Your Brain Loves Feeling Outraged and Punishing People's Bad Behavior | Molly Crockett
\\one hallmark of moral outrage is sing it feels so good and brain imaging studies have shown that when we punish bad behavior you see activation in the striatum which is a brain area that we know to be involved in signaling were words it's receiving input inputs from the dopamine system one of those strands of research that I've done over the past several years is looking at how so brain chemicals like serotonin regulate our desire to punish bad behavior and so we've done studies where we bring people into the lab and we manipulate their serotonin levels drive them down or drive them up temporarily I look to see how likely people are to punish unfair behavior and and what are the brain Ste correlates of those decisions I one thing that we found repeatedly is that when we temporarily lower serotonin this makes people more likely to punish unfair behavior and what we see in the brain concurrently is that the striatum is more active when people are punishing so by changing the levels of the sinner transmitter we can actually change the motivational value of punishment this is interesting because serotonin is inner transmitter whose raw ingredient you can only get from your diet so the building block of serotonin is tryptophan tryptophan is an essential amino acid which means you can only ... intake tryptophan by eating enough proteins so this means that this neurotransmitters system may be very finely attuned to ... the relative abundance or scarcity of resources and the environment it may be the case that when resources are relatively scarce this could affect serotonin levels which then could sensitize people too unfairness lack of cooperation and make them more likely to punish and the proximate mechanism for that is it makes the act of punishment perhaps more valuable a reward he also made him game is a situation where 2 people have to agree on how to split the sum of money or some other resource or neither person gets any money so it's a 2 step game in the first step ... the proposer gets the resource and makes a proposal to the respond are the second person about how to divide that up so it could be let's say $20 and the proposer makes an offer to the responder of say $5 out of the 20 they respond ... then has the option of accepting that offer in which case both players are paid those amounts or they can reject the offer in which case neither player gets any money so they can essentially straw a the whole pie if they're unsatisfied with all hundreds and hundreds of studies have been running with the ultimatum game when it was first as published in the eighties our economists were very surprised that the average person was very likely to projects any offer that fell below around 30 percent from a rational choice perspective that takes only money out comes into account this is your rational in the sense that some money is better than no money so why would you reject any nonzero offer in the game but of course that the beauty of this game is that it demonstrates very powerfully that people care about a whole lot more than just money they care about being respected about fairness and they really dislike being in a situation of of dissent bed and tedious inequalities so it's ... for someone who's offered a very small portion of the total pie it's worth it to them to forego that small amount in order to say screw you to the other person the ultimatum game is I think relevent for a lot of the political events that we've seen over the past few years because economic arguments have not seem to work this was one of the big failures of the remain campaign and breaks it they continually argued and and tried to persuade that these the economic costs of breaks it would be great if and of of course they're correct on that but what we know from the ultimatum game is that when faced with a choice between accepting a little bit of money verses suppressing one this identity expressing one 's dissatisfaction with the current situation a lot of people will prefer the expressive behavior even if it comes at an economic cost and so one could talk but one possible explanation for why that argument was so effective is because again people care a lot more about their identities and their communities then simply economics we are living in a time of dramatic economic inequality where the top one percent or however you wanna carpet up has captured the lion share of economic gains over the past several decades and people on the losing end of the steel are pissed off about it this is very unfair and so I think what we're seeing all around the world with the rise of populism is a kind of global large scale society level version of an ultimatum game where the offeror that has been belts to those in the bottom half of of of that the economic ladder are unsatisfied and needs expressing that dissatisfaction with their votes and this is a wake up call that this level of inequality really is not sustainable //
"2017-10-09 15:00:04"
How Rebel Victories Stop Civil Wars While Foreign Intervention Prolongs Them | Monica Duffy Toft
\\11 country intervenes in another country's civil war on 1 of the things that happens is it extends the war and if you think about it what's happening is you're having more resources coming into that conflict and it's bringing in new resources bringing in new interests basically complicating and complex find that war that was already apparent complex war there are ways in which intervention might be good which is you try to pull the parties apart not trying to pick sides 1 side picking the other side on and and that can sort of stop the killing but typically before that happens if outside states are getting involved in the civil war it tends to extend it so history is mixed on how to best solve civil wars ... it it turns out that the international community has a strong recovery promote negotiated settlement so you want the parties to both on lay down their arms and negotiate an end to the civil war where each of them feels as if they have a part to play in the configuration of the new state that is the absolute preference ... ... that the international committee has and it pushes that we're pushing for that today in Syria Afghanistan there's no discussion about negotiating with the Taliban because we understand we may not be able to force an an and to this war and that the Taliban are not coming anywhere and that we might not we might have to negotiate with them the problem is in order for a negotiated settlement to to resolve a civil war up requires both sides to stay absolutely committed to that and to remain committed to that for a long time and that requires for both sides or if it's more than one side you can think about the former wars in Yugoslavia more than one side that if they reneged on the negotiated settlement that it's gonna be harmful to them and to their interests so you want to be thinking about how to ensure that both sides or all sides to feel compelled to stay aligned with what the negotiated settlement brought on a lot in order to end the war and one way to do that is to ensure the security service though they armed forces are configured correctly and that the representatives of the broader nation another waste of outside peacekeepers there to keep the parties apart so you can think about the former Yugoslavia or even cypress their peacekeepers there and they've been there now for decades in both places in Bosnia ... they're supposed to be there for 1 year bill president Bill Clinton said we're only gonna be there for a year and that was in 1995 it's now 2017 and similarly in Cyprus in the 19 seventies peacekeepers were supposed to be there temporarily all and they're they're somewhat permanently the good news is you haven't had many deaths as a result because the peacekeepers of kept them apart so negotiated settlements are one way to sort and wars and to keep them ended but actually they're quite they're they're they're not the most common on an alternative is thinking about military victories which and today about half of civil wars part of the in the Cold War the end of 3 quarters of all civil wars so a military victory just means that once I prevails on the battlefield and it turns out historically that they're more robust that 11 side wins and prevails in civil war you're more likely to have a longer lasting settlement ... and the question is why is that sort of research that and it turns out I believe the reason is is because 2 for 2 reason it turns out that rebel victories are even more ... a robust up one is is that by defeating the other side you've demonstrated that you have the capacity to beat the other side right that you actually have the military might so anything about those negotiated settlements that's what a third party is providing is the capacity to keep the players apart and secondarily particularly when it comes to rebel victories why they're more robust is they have legitimacy so they defeated the government and they usually can bring the population behind them to support the configuration of the running of the new government in effect the rebels quite often bring opposition into government in order to more effectively govern so military victories are an option they have been an option historically the issue is the international community's sort of doesn't support it because it sounds as if we're advocating the use of force or the continued use of force aw I'm I'm a pragmatist when it comes to these kinds of things I look at the international community are and where it wants to go and whether it wants to go into different corners of the world and it's not willing to go into every corner of the world the international community particularly large actors the Soviet Union in the old days now Russia and the United States and its allies are going to go everywhere so they're not going to commit to bringing peace to every corner of the world think about Myanmar today and there were handle being targeted Myanmar has had a number of civil wars raging for a number of years with the international community does not have the will ... to go in there and negotiate separate pieces to bring peace to that country and therefore we have to acknowledge and recognize that military victories are out there ought they have concluded civil wars most recently aren't they concluded to one was Sri Lanka where the governor prevailed over the tunnel Tigers after decades of fighting and now yes it was a horrific and to that civil war there's no denying it there were fears of genocide but now the international community can step in and say to the Sri Lankan government you need to treat the Tamil population are ... equitably fairly justly and and perhaps ... I will work with the Sri Lankan government ought to have them behave to not sort of ... ... take out vengeance OB revenge against that that the town the population and then the other one issue is a south Sudan with south Sudan was actually rebel victory all and basically that was a rebel victory that resulted in the partition and the creation of a new state which again partition is quite where the international community doesn't support the idea of making new states in part because most states in the international system our multinational and multi ethnic and they don't want to set that precedent allowing one state to have an idea about one state to allow for pieces of it to break off on oil and because they fear that all set off a set of dominoes not only within their own state but but globally so so ... victory is a possibility as well as negotiated settlements I am when I look at these cases historically and then also contemporaneously on what I'm looking at is is there will in the capacity of the international community to get involved and if there's not then we might want to countenance victory for one side or the other who the good guys who the bad guys honestly in most civil wars is a little bit about on polls on some cases a lot of bad on one side a little bit about on another ... and so you want to look at ... ... that the conditions are about whether victories even a possibility and then negotiate a settlement is there a commitment from one party the United Nations a coalition of states to go in and to help keep the peace or to make peace and then help keep the peace later because without that commitment it's very hard for the parties to not be susceptible of 2 fighting down the road it turns out if you one civil war your chances the biggest indicator of it had a civil war in the past your chances of having another civil war is much greater in leann //
"2017-10-08 16:00:02"
How America Got Divorced from Reality: Christian Utopias, Anti-Elitism, Media Circus | Kurt Andersen
\\Americans have always been will think passionate believers in the untrue ... we were started by ... the Puritans in than in the New England who wanted to create and then create a a Christian utopia and theocracy as they waited for the imminent second coming of Christ and the end of days and in the south by a bunch of people who were convinced absolutely convinced that this place they've never been was full of gold just to be plucked from the dirt in Virginia and they stay there looking and hoping for gold for 20 years before they finally finally ... face the facts and and the evidence and decided that they were going to get rich overnight there so that that was the beginning and then we had ... centuries of of what ... buyer beware charlatan isn't to an extreme degree and medical quackery to an extreme degree and increasingly ... exotic extravagant implausible religions over and over again from from Mormonism to Christian Science to Scientology in the last century up so and we have this this this anti establishment I'm not going to trust the experts on knocking trust delete from in our character from the beginning know all those things came together and were were were super charged in the 19 sixties when you were entitled to your own truth and your own reality ... then a generation later when the internet came along ... giving each of those reality is no matter how false or magical or not a very they are their own ... their own kind of media infrastructure we had entertainment again for our whole hit last couple 0 years but especially the last 50 years ... permeating all the rest of life including presidential politics from John F. Kennedy through Ronald Reagan ... to Bill Clinton so it would but that the the the the thing was set up for Donald Trump to exploit all these various American threads and are astonishingly become president but then you look at this history and it's like wow we should've seen this coming the idea of America from the beginning was that you have come here reinvent yourself be anybody you want ... live any way you want it believe anything you wanted I'm into hell for the first few years like everywhere else in the world celebrity and fame were a result of some kind of accomplishment or achievement sometimes not a great accomplishment achievement but but you did something in the world to earn ... ... Brenau I'm where is America really was unlucky place that invented VOA the modern celebrity culture which was beginning of entry go more and more not necessarily about having a one a war or let people or written a great Booker ... paid a great painting but about being famous famed for its own sake ... we we created that we created Hollywood we created ... the the the whole culture industry will and and and that then became what I call the fantasy industrial complex where certainly in the last few decades more than ever more than anybody thought possible before famed for its own so fame itself however you got it was a primary goal for people in and again as so many of the things I talk about a fantasy land more not uniquely to America but more here than anywhere so and and then you get reality television which was this on holy hybrid of of the fictional and the real for the last now generation where that that blurb between what's real and what's not ... is is is pumped into into our into our media stream ... Willy nilly they're now more reality shows on television then there were shows on television 20 years ago ... and and and that's another way for nobody's to become famous overnight YouTube another way for nobody's to become famous overnight for doing almost nothing or nothing rock so a it it and so again ducked back to Donald Trump he had the advantage unlike any normal politician in the person or or business normal business person for that matter who might Bob presume to run for president he was a celebrity he was a show business celebrity he had been a he was a member of the WWE hall of fame after all ... and then also had this prime time show apprentice and celebrity apprentice on of which she was the star playing himself for 15 years so he was pre marketed in a way that in the past would have been disqualifying for president of them yes we elected a former actor governor of California and president night states but but not all at once and and and and and only 20 years essentially in Ronald Reagan's case after he gave up his Hollywood career this is a different thing this this is I I will go directly from this ... up playing myself on a on a reality television program to being president and at work ... proving that the sheer power of any kind of celebrity when and again yeah he was celebrated for having made a lot of money but but if he was sober but he made a lot of money in a whole kinds of ... dubious ways rather than normal forms of ... business achievement and but he's famous he's a star he was a star and that's why he won the nomination and that's why he became president like all humans Americans suffer from what's called confirmation bias which is ... I believe this I will I will look for fax or pseudo facts or fictions that confirm my pre existing beliefs Americans long before psychologists invented that phrase can of confirmation bias I had that ... pendency again at the very beginning up I've never been to the New World nobody I know has been a New World I never really read any first hand accounts of the New World but I'm gonna go give up my life and go there because it's going to be awesome and perfect and I'm gonna get rich overnight and or create a a a Christian utopia so we we began that way a and that has has kept up I I just wanna believe what I want to believe ... and and I'm not gonna let up and don't let your ... lying eyes ... I tell you nothing different on and and again that that was always there in the American DNA how but kept in check by by the needs of survival by reality checks of various kinds in this softer age where most people you know are aren't gonna probably die tomorrow as a result of believing fantasies an untruth ... they became we became freer to believe them so believing whatever 90 thing you want to believe her pretending you are whatever you are or having even kooky conspiracy theories or speaking in tongues whatever it is fine as well if it's private the problem is when that as it has in the last couple of decades especially we extend to the public sphere in the policy spear not Matt there's no global warming will have to worry about the seas rising or or now I don't I I scientists say that ... ... vaccines are safe but I think because autism so I'm not gonna backseat my children and so on and so on and so on that's when the rubber hits the road ... we'll hit the road and and and people will start saying whoa whoa wait a minute I'm not and tell them not to tell there's a consequence and not until there's a price to pay and and not and tell the the Donald Trump Ian fantasies for instance of that they're more short term ones of ... I'm gonna make your life I'm gonna make every dream come true that you've ever had your country actually one of his promises during the campaign or I'm going to create a healthcare system that is better for the and cheaper and and will cover everyone well that's probably not going to happen it and and so once once the once these these fantasies are taken into the public sphere in the political sphere and really in the short term turn out to be fantasies and falsehoods that will will persuade some people but not everybody I mean according to the ... a recent survey 98 percent of the voters who voted for Donald Trump in the primaries which is to say his real base 98 percent of them are in the in late 2017 still absolutely supported so I don't think that's gonna fall a lot and that those are true believers back in the 18 hundreds ... back before the twentieth century eh especially in the 18 hundreds of American journalism was a very very factional allies partisan thing ... political parties had their own newspapers in their own magazines and and everyone was gave its version of of political spin interpretation twentieth century offer a variety of reasons not just because we got smarter or more rational maybe somewhat that up were there began being more of a shared set of facts in in in our in our media people's disagreed violently left right center whatever but the facts were agreed upon what has happened what has been enabled in the last 30 years burst through deregulated ... talk radio where you didn't have to be fair and balanced anymore ... then ... national ... cable television fox news comes to mind are and then of course ... the internet as well where where where these more and more not just politically different points of view but these alternate factual realities could be portrayed in depicted we had we been in that state now for 4 more it for 20 years or more bomb ... eh so eh we again we were softened up as a people to to believe what we want to believe but then this we have this new infrastructure that I think is new that I think is a new condition so there's a history of all I believe this or I believe this or where or or were slavery is good no slavery is bad although those are those those are disagreements but but ... in 1860 southerners didn't say another earnestly no no there's no slavery that's the commission we have now that is the kellyanne Conway Donald Trump situation where where and Republican Party situation before Donald Trump ever came along where we say no there's no climate change or or or or ... or all the this this this factual truth is not true that's the new thing and and and and the the technology that get crates and the technology at and this new media infrastructure is a new condition now it may not be the hit the end of things as a result but we don't know yet it's it's it's morally 20 years into it and and maybe we'll learn a new protocols of what to believe and whatnot will will will will will will will grow up and be able to learn the new ... accommodate ourselves to this new ... media situation but I worry that we won't and I'm worried that up up a significant fraction of us for now mostly on the right but is no no reason it should be limited to the right will will will be in their bubble and their silo and and and with their own reality and not ... and not be able to be retrieved into the reality based world //
"2017-10-07 15:34:47"
Why Skepticism Is the Right Approach to the Afterlife, Immortality, and Utopia | Michael Shermer
\\well that happens on earth covered the afterlife in a tale ... from my previous books on the paranormal the supernatural religion god I'm morality and so this is sort of a natural extension of well if you're skeptical of all these other things what about the afterlife and you know my standard one liner is I'm for it ... but the fact that I'm for doesn't make it true ... in fact if anything the more passionately we want something to be true the more skeptical we should be of our own beliefs because we know ... how powerful these cognitive biases are did lead us to want to find evidence for what we already want to be true so I really kind of went in search of just all the standard religious ... theories of the afterlife in heaven I go through the mud great they've been 3 monotheism is Judaism Christianity and Islam and ... yeah right right there all of them have a history in the sense of all the different versions that there are of the afterlife in heaven and they're quite different histories than say if you read a history of cosmology which so it shows a progression from the ancients up through the scientific revolution and the you know through the early modern period all the way up to today of us getting closer and closer to a a understanding of the real nature of the cosmos and there's nothing like that and religious histories of the afterlife there they all scattershot this theory this theory there's no but there's no sense of progress that alone tells us that these are ... culturally determined geographically located ... like ... reincarnation the belief that we come back not in this world are soul somehow gotten migrated into other bodies why did they seem to hover all those souls in the sub continent of India there's very few other places around the world were the sole seem to go that's an indication that these things are not real out there in the in the real world sense but real inside people's heads as determined by other cultures the core of heaven's on earth really is ... the scientific search for the afterlife ... and so this is what I do science writing and research in scientific areas and ... believe it or not this is no longer a fringe idea this idea that we could live forever that there are there are scientists today who say that the first person to live 1000 years is alive today okay I'm skeptical of it but still these aren't friends knots of these are put up billionaires like Peter Thiel Jeff Bezos of Amazon the Google guys Larry and Sergey have invested ... you know hundreds of millions of dollars in this company calico ... you know rakers while is their chief engineer and who believes in the singularity so this whole idea of radical life extension cryonics transhumanism ... us you know the singularity were gonna upload our minds into a computer ... vis a form the core center of my book and why am skeptical white really all of us should be skeptical because first of all though it's not impossible that that these that researchers and scientists are wrong very unlikely because the problems of say duplicating your soul whatever that would be in science that would be your pattern information your genome and then the equivalent of that your connect on that is that tracings of all your memories everything that's you this is their theory you you copy at me up loaded into a computer let's say you haven't backed up every night when you die use put it into a club owner inside a computer or something like that that's the idea ... and I think the the underestimation of the complexity of the problem is is orders of magnitude off of we are not even close to do in like this I mean rakers while projects 2040 is the singularity and after that you know we we might be a live forever how is that going to happen and who's the we okay so then I have a chapter on who are we who are you what what does it mean to be you and it is so that their ideas that if we just copy your memories it would be you stop right there which memories at what age 203050 it's the the memories are not stored in there like video tape like you just play it back on the theater your mind and there is what really happened when or 15 or whatever no they're they're constantly edited and change those neural networks are re re worked up constantly so there's no real you in any snapshot sense of that moment right there is the time when you're you know thank and then finally there's the through your eyes perspective what's called the point of view self to the memory self ma'am self is what I just described is the point of view self which is you know me looking out of my eyes at you right now and you you you looking at me and I want to go to sleep tonight there's a disruption in my conscious point of view but comes back in the morning and if I go under general anesthesia it's gone for a couple hours comes back a groggy at first but it comes clear if I died and then copy my brain to put a new computers for the computer I am I suddenly inside the computer looking out the little you know camera hole I don't think so and here's why because if we did this while you were alive let's say the current technology would be that after you die we take your brain out slice it and scanned every single synaptic connections and then take that big data mass and put it into a computer in the future we maybe maybe in 500 years or something we could scan your brain while you're living and and scan through sophisticated MRI type technology every single neural connections let's say we can do that now and get your connectome and put it into computer while you're standing right there are lots so we turn it on who's that in there in the computer when you're standing right there okay easy the problem because you're not gonna be standard going yet there I am in the computer know you're gonna be standing on not me no more than a twin would look at the other twin and go yeah they're right there I go now so I don't think even that even if they could accomplish the technology of still not you beam put into the future ... in terms of a of an afterlife and by the way I think religions have the same problem you know when to Christians talk about you're gonna wake up which eases up in heaven up okay but but I'm actually still down the ground there no no no that's your body your soul weight was the sole what so your memories and your you know it's you yeah which part of me is is going to have and what what age and so on same problem it's just a copy going to heaven I'm still on the ground some still dead it's just some copy of me and not waking up in heaven through my okay so that's the core of the book ... and then ... it the sub the subtitle the book of the scientific search for the afterlife ... immortality and utopias I I do I do approach the the problem of creating happens on earth like if okay if we can't live forever maybe we create a perfect world here no I haven't no you can't can't do it this is why they've always failed utopias always fail because ... there is no such place that's the very definition of utopia know where there's no such places perfect because we're so variable and people differ in their need wants and desires that ... this is if anything been ... dystopia the search for utopias led to dystopia because we all very self even that doesn't work so I conclude that the end sort of a discussion of what is it all mean what we find meaning and purpose in life if this is all there is if you think about it even if there is an afterlife even if there is a heaven this is the most important thing now that the here after but the here and now and the relationship you have and how you engage with the world and other people that's what counts now so make the most of I'm //
"2017-10-06 17:00:00"
Libertarian Paternalism: Mental Nudges That Help You Save Time, Lives, and Money | Cass Sunstein
\\so a number of years ago sailor hi we're talking about public policy and also about human behavior and the idea developed that you can have a form of paternalism that preserves freedom of choice so insists first and foremost on people being able to go their own way if they want but it acknowledges that some of us maybe don't know how to get where we want to go or that some of us may be focused on today and not next year or that some of us might be unrealistically optimistic or some of us might not know a whole lot for example about ... health insurance or savings plans or about how to manage your credit card so the idea developed which ... wouldn't have sold any books that we use it anyway called libertarian paternalism and did the change that to a simpler form knowledge and the idea behind libertarian paternalism more knowledge is that you have things that are like a GPS device so a GPS device is a form of libertarian paternalism if you don't like the instructions are getting from the ... little voice that's coming in your car you can say I want the scenic route or by prefer direction which is more familiar to me and I know better than you do given what I care about but it's steering you in a direction which it has information suggesting is the best way to get you where you want to go out now we can all use a GPS device and a lot of places and this is the idea of a libertarian paternalism so if you get a credit card bill and it has some information about what happens if you don't pay the full amount meaning you're gonna start getting charged interest or heard as information that tells you something about the ... cost of late fees that is like a GPS device in the sense that it doesn't force you to do anything but it tells you a little better about how to get to what is probably your preferred destination which is saving money you might have also a warning on cigarette package or warning on ... medicines and those things are liberty preserving because you can ... to everyone really but it is ... steering you like a GPS device in one direction rather than another some of the most powerful forms a libertarian paternalism which in a way here changing the world are using automatic enrollment in something so that if people don't want that thing they have to opt out rather than saying often if you do want the thing and one that's really taken off all over the world is automatic enrollment savings plans the idea is that ... once you were working in many places you're just in a savings plan feel wannabe you can opt out but the result of automatic enrolment has been to increase massively participation rates and savings plans while preserving freedom of choice and that's going to mean that people all over the world are going to have more comfortable retirements now the idea of more comfortable retirements is important it may not be the sort of thing that gets peoples ... juices flowing but when I worked in the White House between 2009 and 2012 we thought a lot about this about things they could help people while preserving their freedom of choice and one little example does get at least my juices flowing witches there's a program to allow poor kids to have free school lunches and breakfasts and it's something that isn't politically inflamed everyone things if you're below a certain threshold of poverty should I get a nutritious meal at school and it's ... it's free you got it but a lot of kids haven't signed up maybe because the parents are scared if they get some form from the government maybe because the form of government is kinda daunting and complicated maybe because the parents are busy and focus on other things rather than some bureaucratic note from the department agriculture the local school so we did is basically just shift of the default if the locality knows the you're eligible for the meal you are getting the meal if you don't want to be in the program you can opt out they are automatically end and the at last count that mandates that means that about 11000000 kids in the United States are getting school meals for free to which they're entitled and 11000000 is a statistic but if you think of some small fraction of those kids you know a 26789 ... and imagine them having something that's gonna ... produced no hunger and nutrition ... that's a small intervention that has having a real impact okay so one of the exciting things about the last 10 years is that the interest and libertarian paternalism or nudging has been intense and strong and it's cut across partisan lines so when I worked in the White House there are a number of things I worked on that ... Democrats like then Republicans not so much a climate change regulation Republicans were not that excited about and president trump not so excited about it and Democrats were ... ... approving but libertarian paternalism we can use the name but things like information disclosure about credit cards information disclosure about mortgages of automatic enrolment in savings plans ... simplification of forms which is a way of preserving liberty by insuring that people aren't just drowning in complexity which prevents them from taking advantage of something all of these things were ... ... able to attract bipartisan enthusiasm so Americans don't like their freedom being intrigued me intruded on they don't like the idea of public officials saying no we know better than you do but so long as their freedom to go their own way is maintained ... they are good with things like warnings reminders information switching the default rule you can imagine some examples of those that would get people's hackles up the general a and this is the kind of excitement I think of that era were ran these ideas are informed by behavioral science for decades of task that our our changing people's lives saving in some cases literally billions of dollars us saving in other cases a significant number of lives per year these are things that don't really catch the I think salutary American antipathy to ... mandates from a self appointed in some cases a lead and in other cases an elected elite of the opposition to mandates does not apply to libertarian paternalism at least so long as the word libertarian ... doesn't merely have too many syllables to be kind of the friendliest word but his sons and least so long as it really means freedom than were ... then were doing something that's compatible with American culture //
"2017-10-05 17:00:06"
How Capitalism Hijacked Our Emotions to Sell Stuff—and How We Can Reclaim Our Lives | Andre C Willis
\\first voiding the superficial hoax like I hope that my domino's pizza will arrive on time or even the ambitious I hope my career is 6 these things all portend to a future realizable desire and they situate that desire as probable we think about deep hope we're thinking about something that's not linked 2 a desire to the future to an ambition or to probability thinking about every relationship to the president in that particular kind of discipline as one faces depressed because when one faces the present one realizes things like life is short even though I'd like to live long I have no idea whether or not I will my friends my animals what we are all very contingent relationships too much to the to life itself and to me in that we walk not on concrete letting quicksand so when you face those are real facts about what life is and you say how do I relate to these the answer I think that comes out of the work I study is that one faces these fat depot it's not an aspiration it's not a probability it's not a future orientation it's a ground in this in the present fax unfortunately our culture has emphasized the trivial hopes because those are hopes that link to markets 2 achievements are always going to market linked because markets are about growth there about ambition there about apple compass meant there about expansion so therefore culture really generates pensive T. trivial and soup chel hoax right counters that has made a deep hole famished when it sort of anorexia when it comes hope right we sort of decides to and accentuated in this idea of ourselves as consumers participants in the market that venerates instant gratification and of the satisfaction of our desires in immediate kinds of ways to generate the depot the kind of hope that I think comes out of and I study one has to believe slowdown face a different set of in those facts are about the fundamentals of the experience of life that is to say like fish tragic once promises will never be completely fulfilled and one 's desires can never ultimately be met that is just what life is so how do we cultivated depot in the face of culture it was to sensual way right Instagram evocation then over stimulation well I say it requires us take some steps out of the market culture step away from kind of the interests of global capital compass growth and I do more work around quiet to do more interior work do more work in communities that a firm togetherness and the collective sense of what can go on outside of market so things like gentleness passion you know there's a marvelous work that's being done in schools and community centers and in ... art workshops artists workshops where people come together and engage in they'll talk about hope they just sort of quietly face president with a sense of being there right and a deep hope comes from a rich engagement in those kinds of routed tasks a kind of grounded in this that we get from community and collectives and relationships that have little to do with market values but are more about more organic connectedness fundamental linkages with true facts of life and one another I'm //
"2017-10-04 17:00:05"
What Makes Us Human? Paleolithic Emotions, Medieval Institutions, God-Like Technology | E.O. Wilson
\\when we address human creativity I think what we are dealing with right from the start is what makes us human and there's been a great short coming in the humanities and explain himself all in order to ... improve the creative powers of the humanities about I mean of motion considerations all human behavior its origin and its meaning was in the humanities stop about the time of the origin of literacy when we can deal with symbols and ... and with the first written languages and understand them or perhaps goes back to 10000 years to the beginning of neolithic civilization but that's just an eye blink of time in the origin of the emotion and of the setup of the human brain other permitted our understanding UMass is and then ultimately flyin 2 of the bottom of their debts all and listen bring or to what I like to call in Akron them Poppin P. A. P. E. N. and that's is a designation of the areas of science that are most relevant to the humanities when they address the origins especially of the human species the apparent of modern homo sapiens some several saw 0 years ago and happen P. A. P. E. N. plans for paleontology anthropology psychology evolutionary biology and in the rural biology the eserver branches of science let me the information only origin of human our and the deep history of free human existence are needed to explain the origins all of creativity in modern human being and of the wave and the reasons are emotion exist and rulers leading are cool the way that I have tried to put it in saying that our modern humanity is distinguished Bob paleolithic emotions aw and ... do you volition crucial of like thanks and religion and god like technology we're all mixed up and ... in many ways archaic still archaic species in transition all we are what I like to call come Mira of evolution all we walk around it exist ... in this fairly newly made civilization that we created compound of different traits of different origin and different degrees of forward evolution //
"2017-10-03 17:00:00"
Want to Boost Your Career and Income? Develop a Side Project or Hobby | Dorie Clark
\\don't I love it you want to keep doing I would actually encourage everyone to think about how they can develop multiple income streams in their own life and in their own business when I started my professional career I was a journalist and I had been doing it for about a year and one day hike I called in to the HR office and I got laid off without warning and they gave me a week's severance pay technically I had actually already work Monday so it was 4 days severance pay and I somehow had to figure out what to do with myself and that at age 22 was my first realization things that we take for granted the things that we think are stable are not always if you take the initiative to develop multiple income streams in your business if you even just spend a couple hours a week developing a some kind of a side project for yourself here a host of benefits first of all heaven forbid something happens with your day job but if it dies you've been cultivating something that over time hopefully you've been able to ... to create to bring in additional revenue which creates a cushion and gives you something else that you might have to be able to pivot toward that's great but let me make another case even if you feel 100 percent sure that things are good with your employer and are going to stay that way which is that when you do entrepreneurial experimentation on your own time you're making yourself more valuable to your company in my book entrepreneurial you actually tell the story of a guy named Lenny at Sean no Lenny was somebody that I got to know because I was consulting for his employer the if if the time used to work for Mount Sinai hospital in New York and I kept hearing about him people were sort of whispering about him because he had risen so rapidly in the organization and so when I met him I was curious I said Lenny what's you know what's your story tell me and it turns out he had started his career as a nurse at the hospital and by the time I met him he was running communications for the hospital that is not a traditional career back the vast majority of nurses are not doing that but the way he was able to dramatically transform his career and his income was that he had become interested in the side on his own time with apps and so he learned what he needed to learn in order to create a couple of apps on the side his boss found out about it call them into the office one day Lenny was worried because he thought maybe he had violated some policy he wasn't aware of but instead of firing him punishing him his boss had Lanny I hear you've made some apps and when he said well yes true I did in the boss said we need someone to run social media for the hospital I think it should be you and so we got that promotion and he did so well with it ultimately they gave him the entire communications portfolio when you are learning and experimenting on your own time you are able to pursue your interests deep in your passions and gain more skills and then bring all of that back to work for your employer when they see that you've taken the initiative to do that it sets you apart the vast majority people are not doing that and it ultimately is likely to lead to you being rewarded even more in your current job and making you that much more secure //
"2017-10-02 17:00:07"
How Prison Sets Inmates Up for Failure: Racism, Mental Illness, Poverty | Shaka Senghor
\\it was only 20 second 2010 one day after my birthday beautiful sunny dandy's story and I walked out of prison would allow optimism despite being so by the officers that I will probably be back in 6 months and when I work now I thought that I was returning to society there will be a lot more forgiving a lot more open to the me given the second chance if I was willing to follow the rules ... out of society so get out look for a job you know prove that I'm going to work ... violence here mark community you know figure out ways to add value and Sally unfortunately our society is not really forgiving and and not really as open a second chances of up or they will be and it is really sad in the sense that 90 percent of people or cars rated well at some point return home and we have a choice and how we welcome men and women back to our community ... I personally believe that there's not a human being and that isn't without flaws that that hasn't had a bad moment and nobody will want to be held hostage to that moment for the rest of their life once a person I served their time that means that they should come out with a clean slate an opportunist are over and if we want them to have a successful transition it means we have to be willing to give them a true seconds hands and not keep bringing up the pads ... unless there you know repeating that behavior but in most cases most one is get our move on with their lives find employment found a safe place to live and be free sins away ... the fullness of life sadly the systems that are currently in place are very I mean and this is one of the reasons we have almost 70 percent recidivism rate because prisons are doing a horrible job to prepare me and when it's real and society and when you think of borrow the reality of somebody being go for decades the world has completely shifted when I walked out of prison after serving 19 years I walk into a very different world the language was different everything was about technology and digital one online a social media and so when you think of borrow walking out of somewhere 20 years and has been dropped and so that and then so the move along with life without being prepared it basically sets a person up to return to prison because they just can't cope with the reality of the world as it exists and we don't have the minutes so psychological services in place to help people process Metronomy just experience ... as they returned to the side like prison is a very traumatic environment is very vomits on environment and so to take somebody Lindy from prison and drop them into ... the world as it exists now without giving them the tools that they need to cope is really just poor ... management and poor process that we have to really kind of re think and you know the level mental illness and Sarah prison into something people factor ran is that when men and women who admits will this get out back to society they all have more support in place to help them Matt is ... whatever their mental illness is I sort of have been the right back in prison so the mental illness component you know when I was in solitary confinement probably the most shocking thing to me was the treatment of the men who have mental illness men who were incapable of defending themselves against of the onslaught of police brutality are the starvation rituals the been denied access to ... psychologists or psychiatrists like that was shocking to me that we're allowing this to happen in a country that's supposed to be the leader of the free world yet we basically are torturing people who are mentally incapable of defending themselves and you know you don't walk out of environment without suffering from that trauma even when it's not directed towards you but you've been exposed to it for extended periods of time the so there are some prisons that are taking steps toward doing stuff that is meaningful that really prepares men and women to return to society and I would like to see more of those type of programs there's really prepare people for how the world works now as opposed to our work you know 101520 years ago so not not my personal views on a systemic components of my cursor racing and even prior to that are are very very deep you know I think about when I got Saddam 17 years old and I'm saying for the hospital I was basically process through as if out of a car and the car factory ... no was stepped in to see it you know how do you feel even though you expanses deep deep trauma no said Hey here's a outlet for you to manage your emotions ... and emits a reaction to the environment and so the systemic nature of that is that young lives of black inner city kids have no value in our society ... and the expectation that this is going to happen for the moment over and that it should happen ... has been accepted as a norm S. society when I think about my car serration you know I want when I was taking college courses and I was absent for Plano and then under the present day Clinton administration they changed everything around with this crime bill in the past and it's a college on that so trades on it so counseling out is so basically in essence it was preparing of the young men who are was incarcerated we to go right back out with no resources no assets are its we eventually become a liability of society because we're just want being prepared for life after of the racial dynamics of our prison system is no secret ... into reality ... Polish which album that we see our current within our communities ... Avenue alarming rate and sadly the fact that there's no justice on the other side of these actions US speaks volumes about the systemic issues that tribute to a lot of my experience is a set of prison ... and a lot of things I experience once I got out of prison you know not having access to housing because I'm from them a record and apartments can legally discriminate against you when you have a family having to check a box ... about my past even though my pass was 20 years prior to me trying to get a ... and played an opportunity you know so systemically there are so many different things ... that occur within the scope of our criminal justice system that is dysfunctional is just reversing the gear it's or of minorities and people who live ... either right at all well below the poverty line and those are things that we have to fix ... ... system agree I just think there's so much that needs to be done to correct of the department of corrections //
"2017-10-01 15:36:01"
Your Brain Is Hardwired for Love—Meditation Helps You Fully Express It | Daniel Goleman
\\perhaps most startling findings for many beginners comes with what's called come passion or loving kindness meditation this is a practice that often accompanies the mindless the breath for example people will do at the end of a session they bring to mind people have been kind to them ... they think of themselves I think people a lot of people they know everyone everywhere and wish them well may they be safe happy healthy free from suffering but it turns out that the repetition of those phrases is psychoactive anxiously changes the brain ... and ... how how you feel right from the get go ... eh we find for example the people who do this meditation who just started doing it I actually are kinder the more likely to help someone in need there are more generous and they're they're happier turns out that the a brain areas that help us or that make us want to help someone that we care about also ... connect with circuitry for feeling good so it feels good to be kind and all of that shows up a very early in just a few hours really of total practice of ... well loving kindness or compassion meditation so we feel that the the brain is somehow biologically prepared to learn to love better of the brain area of the ... become stronger in its activity is the same as a parent's love for a child it's the mammalian caretaking circuitry that scene that we share with all other mammals and in humans ... it's extremely important for the third of 3 kinds of empathy there is empathy that allows you to understand better how someone thinks to take the perspective that should be a good communicator there's the empath seeing where you connect emotionally you feel what the other person feels immediately you sense in your own body what's going on in the other person this allows report chemistry it's also very important but the third kind of empathy is what's called empathic concern it's the feeling of caring about another person wanting to help them is the basis of compassion you can have the first you will not be particularly concerned a caring but if you have all 3 then you've got the whole package of empathy and we find that of loving kindness meditation strengthens that third both in terms of how you behave how you feel and and what's happening in the brain one of the paradoxes so we found when we started looking very closely at all of the research is done on meditation was it a kind of a disconnect between what the classic traditions from which these methods come are saying is important and what scientists are studying one of the most important things whether you're looking in the Christian literature or the Buddhist literature Jewish literature Hindu Letitia doesn't matter all of the meditative traditions within those ... classical schools of thought are sending the most important thing is that you become less focused on yourself caring only about yourself less selfish as it were and more open to the needs of others more compassionate more caring more present to other people ... and even though the classic tradition say this is what counts in terms of the scientific interest it was minimal we found maybe 3 or 4 studies remember out of 6000 that really were tight but logically and spoke to this but here again the news was good if you look at longer term meditators people who've done more than say one or 2000 hours of meditation over their entire life in this happens naturally you know let's say you do a half hour's sit every morning before you go out for the day well after a decade or 2 it does add up and it it seems that ... that cumulative amount does make people less selfish laughs just caring about me and more open to other people around the more more caring more able to tune in more able to empathize ... and ... this also shows up in a brain change which we think is quite significant which is that the nucleus accumbens which is the focus of a craving of of you know I don't have that a drug addiction for example becomes actually become smaller in the longer term meditators in this seems to be related to this lack of a I mean mine in how people behave and how they think in their emotional life and we see it most strikingly of course in Olympic level meditators where a these are people who've done 10000 or more 10000 at 6 2000 hours the meditation and ... very are genuinely self this people but they're very nourishing very enjoyable to be with because they pay attention to you they really focus on the person they're with and how they can be of service so what do you mean now I it is very refreshing mmhm //
"2017-09-30 17:00:02"
This Psychological Trick Will Make You Love Paying Your Taxes
\\started studying real pain point that people have if you think about what's the worst day of the year for you often the worst day of the year is when you have to write that extra check to the IRS and of course it's partly we hated just because we have to give money away that we wish we could keep without that might be some other underlying psychology going on for why we hate paying taxes so much if you think about it when you send that check off you kind of have no idea what happens with it I mean you know it's going to your state or federal government but you don't really know what it's being used for you look outside and you see roads and there some link between those in somewhere another but you don't really know exactly what's happening and that decoupling between what you're sending in and what is the outlet is is actually pretty aversive for us we kind of like to know when we do something what's gonna happen as a result and so what we try to do in our research is re couple those 2 things closer together so imagine for example when you pay your taxes you right in the amount and then you can allocate where you want things to go you can actually say I want more of my taxes to go to schools verses roads versus the military or the reverse if you wanted to support the military more and the idea there was surely still when like paying taxes that much because we wish we could spend our money on ourselves but recall playing that cost and the benefits might actually help us hated a little bit less we've talked to a lot of governments ... local governments state governments ... federal government's ... in the US and around the world about implementing this idea of re coupling tax payments ... with the benefits that citizens gas ... politically is quite difficult so you can imagine that if you ... talk about leading citizens allocate all of their money wherever they want you might not get funding for really basic things like infrastructure that aren't really that exciting for people to think about so politically there's a real risk to kind of opening up democracy where instead of taxes going into a pool where elected officials decide what needs to be done each individual citizen has a voice when we've tried to deal with that is to think about media no need to allocate 100 percent of your taxes wherever you want what if I said at the end of the year you know you're gonna get to allocate 10 percent where everyone so most of your taxes are still going to be the old way where they go into a general pool and then the people elected Julia in theory trust will decide where the money goes but we still I citizens get to say a little bit more about what we want to do and some say the United States have started doing this I'm through something called participatory budgeting the idea there is that a city can take some tax money it could be a small amount of could be a large amount that city of Cambridge where I live has done this and let citizens vote for where that money should go so they're not getting access to all of the tax revenue for the entire city but the city is saying we want to set aside some money where citizens can actually tell us where it should go and we will follow through and make sure the money goes there and again that help citizens see that there it's called participatory budgeting they're actually participating and getting to make specific decisions about what happens with their taxes one of the things that we've I thought about is how taxes are big so if you think about changing the entire tax system that can be a politically difficult ... it sort of changes the nature of the relationship between our money in the federal government but you can think about smaller sort of initiatives where it's not the entire tax revenue for a city or for a country but imagine my my Akali Kate Lamitan at Pittsburgh has shown for example that if you can allocate your parking fines so you get a ticket on your car and you're furious because of course you park in the right place and it's you know unjust that you never get a ticket what if even just on a parking ticket could be 25 or $50 even there you might be able to say just a little bit on the margin and like this fee to go to this in my city instead of that in my city now you're not changing kind of the whole political system around taxation but you're still changing the relationship between citizens and government on a real pain point which is of course paying fees and fines that you incurred but I can now sort of tell the city at street I parked in the wrong place and I will pay you but I'll give you a little voice in where that money goes I might feel a little bit better about paying //
"2017-09-29 17:00:05"
Seasteading 101: How to Build the World’s First Society-at-Sea
\\quite often is what is go stating started out I guess in 2008 it's ... it's a movement started out is ... is a nonprofit it's because he's dating institute based in California but I think just a couple months ago it system is actually a word of this recognized by the Oxford dictionary and what it means is so living now on platforms that don the open oceans and it ... with new forms of society so the way I got involved in C. stating as ... I was a government minister in French Polynesia so a lot of people know my country by the name of Tahiti and when I left the government ... I was looking at interesting opportunities of war and what we could do ... into especially in terms of ... sea level rise mitigation it's a it's an issue that's quite ... friend of mine for a lot of Pacific islanders specially now and ... I'd come across this ... this institute of read about them they were very as a lot of media focus on the back and 2000 82 0 1012 so basically I reached out to to the institute and said ... my understanding was that they had built a huge network of specialist of aqua prisoners of ... scientists researchers investors but what the movement was was missing was a support strong support ... of the government ... the album that was willing to have a light hand on on regulation and allow a such an ambitious project as ... as a first the world's first ... sustainable self sustaining a floating island so French Polynesia I had the advantage when when I reach out to to see steady now have several things that ... the institute was interested in one of the first questions they asked was about connectivity so you know what is your country connected to the internet backbone now ... conductivities out obviously crucial for big data that's gonna be generated by the researchers assigned to so they can first thing was you have submarine cable so we check that one off 2010 ... French Polynesia connected to a whites who were right on the internet backbone huge unused capacity 99 percent and use so obviously available for research and ... the second major concern was about ... hurricanes cyclones and tsunamis so basically alright we're gonna be doing this so this pilot project a floating island obviously the weather and ... the situation your country is is important to us so we did some research I already know from from being from France by is that this was a very rare occurrence ... I think we've had 2 hurricanes you know the last 0 years that had significant ... damage service property damage very light of loss of life and ... tsunamis are not really an issue for us were in middle of the South Pacific so we get at least an 8 hour a window ... before any tsunami where hit us but just given the job are followed you the islands we don't get these highways that you get though when you have a continental shelf the objective of the pilot is to get all of these technologies tested on a smaller scale it's small yet we should be able to support around 200 people Sir objective is to 250 people living full time there'd be about a third research and scientists are third ... will be people who just love to live on C. stats and we got a long list of people who want to come live on on a C. stead another third we believe are gonna be start ups and entrepreneurs that are building on ... technologies around the ocean ... so basically all sort of blue teke you've got underwater drones you got all these ... different types of start ups that they're linked to to the space we also have the issue of ... energy now obviously we we need internet on board ... the these platforms will have some ... low energy ... lighting low energy pumps and we're gonna be very careful with everything that goes on board the city structures ... what we feel fairly confident that they're enough ... ways for us to to generate energy so we're looking primarily at floating solar panels ... there's a company where discussions within Francis got some interesting technology of this not just as simple as putting our solar panels on the water it so you know it's the corrosion of resistance it's a wave you know how how you mitigate ... for wave action ... but here's the interesting part about solar panels on the water as opposed to solar panels on land ... the water actually cools a solar panels the back of the solar panels and it increases ... the yield by about 20 percent so we got some advantages to that so we're doing calculations as to exactly what surface area we would need we're going to be using some sort of panels of course on some of our our roots but ... in addition to that we're looking at other some pretty modern wave ... we've generation ... techniques so we're inside the reef but there are ways right outside of the reef so these are units had actually are under water I think about 8 to 1012 feet under water so they they won't disrupt ... normal commercial ... no boats are going out there on leisure or commercial ... there's not these are under water they just basically our buoys fairly complex and they'll they just taken that wave energy is a little bit less but they're still quite a bit of wave energy and that will create ... addition to justice or so on a pilot project ... we we have an idea of what we're doing for power but ultimately the objective of these platforms is to go to the open sea the research has been done now I think it's a matter of funding and a focusing all of this on one major project and that's our objective is a first let's do this this pilot let's prove that these technologies work together let's prove that people can now live ... in on these platforms in ... it into social weight and that's that's something that politicians are very interested in as well I mean we ... where the original a cease debtors in the sense that we've you know colonizing migrated throughout the Pacific for 1000 years and covered doe and one of the largest oceans in the world so living on the ocean is something the Polynesians know about and I think we have a lot to contribute to the project as well I ... //
"2017-09-28 22:30:01"
How to Laugh, Reflect, and Embrace Positivity in Judaism | Rabbi Levine on Yom Kippur
\\humor relief directed upon category in the in Tory of street characteristics we know that humor which makes us laughing we desire to be around people who are funny because it raises our senses of positive emotion and that has a lot of value the US open and Yom Kippur generally fall during the same season of time yucky poor is the day of forgiveness it happens in the very early fall and the US open happens in the late summer early fall and it just so happened that one year the men's final and Yom Kippur happened on the same exact day so this child said it was father dad you know I can't miss the US open is the most important tennis match of the entire year and the father said well that's what video recordings are for and the child said you mean we can take you'll keep for we can always choose to live with a pessimistic mind set a lot of people ask Judaism and positivity can lead sink together and we can despite the fact that individuals have faced anti semitism and oppression and there have been many times in Jewish history like the pogroms when Jewish individuals and Jewish communities were oppressed and that is true for lots of different groups but at the core of religious thought it is about resilience and it is about hope about joy it's about positive living it's about spirituality deepening relationships and seeking to have a positive impact on one 's life on their community and their family and in the world hi tifa is the Jewish national anthem hi tech for means the hope and at the core of the Jewish mind set 3000 years has been hope I'll tell you a story about hope which is attributed to the mug need I do but I've it's not even to dive tells a story of a king who had a perfect diamond and the king loved this diamond and he would Marvel at this time and every single night one day he dropped this time and we picked it up he noticed that there was a crack from the crown to the base of this time and and the king was crestfallen he called out to all of the master craftsmen in the entire keen to come and see if they could repair this but one after the other said to the king king once a crack is in a diamond it cannot be repaired days later a very humble jeweler team to the palace gates and said I would like to see the diamond and the king welcomed admin said humble jeweler greatest crafts Minnehaha of this land have tried to fix this time but it each had said it's impossible to repair but this humble jeweler said I would like to have a chance and so the king gave him the diamond and under the eyes of the watchful guard for the next few weeks this jeweler got to work a return to the kingdom and presented the king with the diamond and the king took it out and what did and said full there are still a crack in my diamond send this man to the gallows but the humble jeweler just stood there calmly and said king turn the diamond over and they can turn the diamond over he noticed that the juror had placed 2 pedals at the crown of the diamond and together this crack with those pedals no longer was broken but it now form to this beautiful rose and now the king had a diamond that was more perfect and more beautiful than before moral of this story is that we can choose any day to think of our lives is broken only seeing the cracks but with a little dose of hope and choosing to be optimistic we can turn any crack into petals and to shift the way that we think about broken this into perfection and turn our lives into beautiful flowers that we get from Judaism that we get from wise teachings they come from Jewish past and Jewish lore that inspire us to live our lives in the best way for ourselves for our families and for others mmhm //
"2017-09-28 17:00:01"
Theater & Philosophy Rehabilitate Prisoners Better Than Harsh Sentences | Sabra Williams
\\I grew up and now a very abusive environment ... taught me to think that violence was a way of dealing with problems getting your respect ... it became normal to me so I thought with the cultural influences I got in the gangs and that created ... bad way of destructive behavior that led me to get enough I and another person got hurt from another person which was ... self defense situation but because at and testify ... the ended up giving me 16 years to life in prison so my mentality even then was I had to own up to it and as much as I could understand it I've died fighting was normal and I thought I was just going to be a normal fi in California it's the felony murder rule and you can you can be sentenced to life in prison under the heat in the betting and so I had this pessimistic view living in nam in prison thinking that I'll never get out and I ended up giving the life sentence on top of another life sans in nam Max come maximum security housing which allowed me to sit myself for 8:00 hours a day or sometimes even 12:00 hours a day just studying philosophy psychology history languages and I came across this passage from meat she that said for thou has had a bad day but still see that it works evening does not overtake the and why he wrote that was when he entered into the German prisons he seen all his fellow German ... sitting around not really trying to do anything with their lives and so he talked about the move would manage which under my interpretation was to try to be the best person that you can be and so a ... even even that during that time I was studying the Bible and when I came across the subject today where were to speak of whole an optimism our home I mean hope to me in my opinion is the main component to one of the main components to a successful prayer and because I had a whole came optimistic believe that I'd get out I ended up getting now I visualize a lot of things in everything I visualize everything I hoped for has come at night I was sitting in the audience and and having the philosopher stand here and talk about the poll I mean be in there telling 50 other lifers I'm not I'm not gonna be died in prison I'm gonna end up getting now that's the poll especially when it comes out your mouth but I'm a strong believer of curses and blessings rather than curse my life a rather blessed my life and now a and I believe if you think it you're gonna behave it and if you behave in it's gonna become an attitude and because of that attitude it allowed me not to think that I know it all but an even though when I was young I knew I didn't know nothing at all was uneducated I want to live my life that I don't know it at all and I want to learn and so when I came across the actors gang I took it I went with it even asked me to put makeup on the man called it man take and non it's a humbling experience and there's beings that such as we live by a motto in the actors gang which is where a master of our thoughts not a victim of our minds and I talked with my girlfriend about that all the time where when we're in discussions I mean it took a long time to become that person that I was it took around a good 10 years to become the person I was but it it it took 22 years of my incarceration to make me the person that I am today and so transformation and this magnitude isn't a revolution but an evolution and so with the actors gang allowing me to witness anger allowing me to witness fear sadness and happiness and as you can look in the video happiness and anger is easy to accept in prison but when it comes to fear when it comes to sadness we live this much a small thing in in prison and it's looked down upon him among the men but actually in some cultures to it's it's also looked as much he smoke but arm the real much she's mall except those emotions well ... changed to kids diapers will cook and so when they came to the actors gang allowing me to face fear acknowledge fear acknowledge sadness it made me more humane it made me more human so when I have to cry out cry and that's proposition those emotions it's not allowing me to being numb with with with things that are going on because suffering it's inevitable you're gonna witness broken relationships going to witness death you're gonna witness hello losing a job but now when I deal with these things I mean there's a lot of things that are not just dealing with your emotions but like ... Chris being the was saying it's understanding how to work as a team to that helped me to survive out here in society for the last 2 years and help me to be successful because in the actors gang you better just be ready to pick up the slack you better be ready to pick up the slack and because I was able to pick up the slack it allowed me to get into a union and construction allowed me to be successful in the construction field and made me humble to accept the teachings of other people and now I'm I'm very grateful for the actors gang for allowing me to be a student and non and I look forward to having smart Gage was like this thank you these are the people wearing costs racing 4 ridiculous amounts of time why we have to stop and that's not allow what's happening in DC to let us go back to tough on crime and never whacked and it will never work this is what lacks I coming //
"2017-09-27 17:00:02"
How the LGBTQ Community Taught America to Have Compassion: Service, HIV, AIDS | Judith Light
\\for the community LGBTQ for those of us who fired by the way the community operated during the the height of the aids pandemic there was a world that we were living and where people were dying in in droves and we were at several funerals a week and when we were looking at a government that has talked about how compound they are and there was no compassion coming to this community I was so there were pieces that were being written places in which you were beginning to see that people were looking at this community in a new way I mean you look at Elizabeth Taylor and how she dealt with rock Hudson and and how she would go to Congress and talk to them about getting money and funding and and that was Larry Kramer and my friend Paul Monette who wrote the book ... borrowed time aids memoir and becoming a man half a life story and you're watching up community but Khan force of kind of banding together to operate at a level of community and commitment to each other when there was no help forthcoming from anywhere else you saw Cleve Jones create the the aids quilt yeah then you know the names project gates memorial quilt you ... you saw the normal heart Larry Kramer's the normal heart ... and then you saw it brought back to Broadway years later and then Ryan Murphy turned it into the H. B. O. ... movie you saw Ellen Drury degenerates talk about being gay and coming out on television willing grace ... Ellen on the cover of time and what what happened was the community began to take itself as a profound powerful not a victim US started in the world you saw Larry Kramer and that you saw act up get created you watched people take care of their own you saw families torn apart ... and parents not coming to the deathbed of their sons book house they when they found out that they had aids that meant that they were gay and they cut them off so we were alone living in a world in which a community was turned upside down and became this magnificent example to the world of how to be service and I said to myself I want to be there to be a port in anyway I can and when watching that and seeing that and knowing that I wanted to be part of a community that so inspired me with the way that they were operating and you began to see all of the stories coming up in our business you know on Broadway plays and television and films and and of and and movies I mean Tom Hanks winning the Oscar for Philadelphia you were watching something happen where you I began to see that we were by a the example of the LGBTQ community we were one human family we were all of us in and everybody said if one of us has aids everybody has and everyone took that seriously and then you began to see it organizations popping up all over the place I mean in Los Angeles we were cooking up for people and delivering meals and it was parked angel food in and here you are gods love we deliver and you watched people rallied to each other and care from the death compound that had not been seen before and so those were the examples that I would say really started to move a out from a community out into the world and I don't think we're far enough yet I think we have farther to go ... I the fact that we have same sex marriages just wonderful and due to the absolute diligent work of so many people in the community ... that the demonstration to me about Howell we remove bigotry and prejudice and divisiveness and cruelty from the system all of our system around the world this is the demonstration of where it is hot and we're not there yet and that's why we went for me being not why like that the fact that I am on a show like transparent ... that you can see on Amazon prime and some people know it and some people don't know and and people laughed at me when I say that just come on the show and they go yeah yeah we know but when you see that the time has come it is an idea whose time has come like Victor Hugo set all of a sudden we're in this new zeitgeist if something is happening and every damn or describe it he said that the when we were transparent came on he said the bow of the the the arrow had already been shot from the bow we were riding on the blow it had already happened in this like iced and when you have somebody like Jill Soloway whose parents comes out a at 70 years old and has actually this is who I really am and what does it mean tell your family member the person you thought I was that's not a way I will be brave enough courageous enough out in the world enough longing to not be on my death bed and think what if I don't do this will I regret it I want to live the life I want to live I want to live free and I wanna live true to myself I want to be authentic and that to me is the villa new most remarkable courage in the community because they are saying well I am this per this is what and will you still Love Me if I tell you who I really am and isn't that what we all want that we want to be loved for who all of who we are and so I think more work needs to be done ... we're still doing it to the degree that we can ... somebody in our community ... Michael Friedman that genius who wrote bloody bloody Andrew Jackson just passed away from aids complications a few days ago where where bush still in it and we are