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"2018-05-18 19:48:22"
Straight Outta Stratford-Upon-Avon - Shakespeare's Early Days: Crash Course Theater #14
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"2018-05-17 23:16:21"
What is Engineering?: Crash Course Engineering #1
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"2018-05-17 22:16:27"
What is Engineering?: Crash Course Engineering #1
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"2018-05-16 21:00:00"
Geometric Distributions & The Birthday Paradox: Crash Course Statistics #17
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"2018-05-15 18:44:23"
Future Literacies: Crash Course Media Literacy #12
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"2018-05-14 22:00:49"
The Medieval Islamicate World: Crash Course History of Science #7
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"2018-05-11 22:23:11"
The English Renaissance and NOT Shakespeare
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"2018-05-10 20:05:18"
Crash Course Engineering Preview
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"2018-05-09 21:58:57"
The Binomial Distribution: Crash Course Statistics #15
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"2018-05-08 20:37:54"
Media Skills: Crash Course Media Literacy #11
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"2018-05-07 21:47:25"
Roman Engineering: Crash Course History of Science #6
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"2018-05-04 22:51:34"
Pee Jokes, the Italian Renaissance, Commedia Del'Arte: Crash Course Theater #12
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"2018-05-02 21:04:19"
Updating Your Beliefs with Bayes (e.g. how it can help you see what’s behind you)
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"2018-05-01 21:41:45"
The Dark(er) Side of Media: Crash Course Media Literacy #10
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"2018-05-01 00:28:13"
The Americas and Time Keeping: Crash Course History of Science #5
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"2018-04-27 22:57:16"
Just Say Noh. But Also Say Kyogen: Crash Course Theater #11
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"2018-04-26 22:04:35"
2001 - A Space Odyssey: Crash Course Film Criticism #15
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"2018-04-25 20:46:50"
Probability Part 1: Rules and Patterns: Crash Course Statistics #13
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"2018-04-25 16:00:04"
India: Crash Course History of Science #4
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"2018-04-24 22:40:26"
Media Policy & You: Crash Course Media Literacy #9
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"2018-04-24 19:05:44"
India: Crash Course History of Science #4
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"2018-04-20 21:17:04"
Get Outside and Have a (Mystery) Play: Crash Course Theater #10
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"2018-04-19 22:30:34"
Beasts of No Nation: Crash Course Film Criticism #14
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"2018-04-18 21:47:54"
Henrietta Lacks, the Tuskegee Experiment, & Ethical Data Collection: Crash Course Statistics #12
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"2018-04-17 21:03:30"
Media Ownership: Crash Course Media Literacy #8
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"2018-04-16 23:03:19"
Plato and Aristotle: Crash Course History of Science #3
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"2018-04-13 21:59:26"
Hrotsvitha, Hildegard, and the Nun who Resurrected Theater: Crash Course Theater #9
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"2018-04-12 20:55:40"
Moonlight: Crash Course Film Criticism #13
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"2018-04-11 21:00:03"
Science Journalism: Crash Course Statistics #11
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"2018-04-10 21:42:04"
Online Advertising: Crash Course Media Literacy #7
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"2018-04-09 21:49:38"
The Presocratics: Crash Course History of Science #2
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"2018-04-06 20:10:59"
The Death and Resurrection of Theater as...Liturgical Drama: Crash Course Theater #8
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"2018-04-05 20:40:53"
The Eagle Huntress: Crash Course Film Criticism #12
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"2018-04-03 19:56:10"
Influence & Persuasion: Crash Course Media Literacy #6
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"2018-03-29 20:34:51"
Three Colors - Blue: Crash Course Film Criticism #11
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"2018-03-28 21:05:16"
Sampling Methods and Bias with Surveys: Crash Course Statistics #10
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"2018-03-27 20:01:02"
Media & Money: Crash Course Media Literacy #5
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"2018-03-26 22:54:35"
Intro to History of Science: Crash Course History of Science #1
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"2018-03-23 22:08:27"
Nostrils, Harmony with the Universe, and Ancient Sanskrit Theater: Crash Course Theater #7
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"2018-03-22 21:58:38"
The Limey: Crash Course Film Criticism #10
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"2018-03-21 20:48:29"
Controlled Experiments: Crash Course Statistics #9
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"2018-03-20 21:04:32"
Media & the Mind: Crash Course Media Literacy #4
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"2018-03-19 22:27:21"
Crash Course History of Science Preview
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"2018-03-16 21:15:43"
Roman Theater with Plautus, Terence, and Seneca: Crash Course Theater #6
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"2018-03-15 22:39:53"
Pan's Labyrinth: Crash Course Film Criticism #9
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"2018-03-14 21:31:12"
Correlation Doesn’t Equal Causation: Crash Course Statistics #8
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"2018-03-13 21:06:39"
History of Media Lit, part 2: Crash Course Media Literacy #3
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"2018-03-09 23:15:40"
Dances to Flute Music and Obscene Verse. It's Roman Theater, Everybody: Crash Course Theater #5
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"2018-03-08 22:02:05"
Apocalypse Now: Crash Course Film Criticism #8
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"2018-03-08 01:29:52"
The Shape of Data: Distributions: Crash Course Statistics #7
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"2018-03-07 00:00:05"
History of Media Literacy, part 1: Crash Course Media Literacy #2
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"2018-03-05 22:54:57"
The Inventor Who Vanished: Crash Course Recess #1
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"2018-03-02 23:25:29"
Greek Comedy, Satyrs, and Aristophanes: Crash Course Theater #4
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"2018-03-01 22:02:51"
Lost in Translation: Crash Course Film Criticism #7
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"2018-02-28 22:02:15"
Plots, Outliers, and Justin Timberlake: Data Visualization Part 2: Crash Course Statistics #2
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"2018-02-27 22:17:29"
Introduction to Media Literacy: Crash Course Media Literacy #1
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"2018-02-23 22:06:30"
Tragedy Lessons from Aristotle: Crash Course Theater #3
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"2018-02-22 21:57:17"
Do the Right Thing: Crash Course Film Criticism #6
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"2018-02-21 23:05:08"
Data Visualization: Part 1: Crash Course Statistics #5
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"2018-02-20 22:05:24"
Crash Course Media Literacy Preview
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"2018-02-16 22:52:19"
Thespis, Athens, and The Origins of Greek Drama: Crash Course Theater #2
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"2018-02-15 21:03:17"
In the Mood For Love: Crash Course Film Criticism #5
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"2018-02-14 20:30:08"
Measures of Spread: Crash Course Statistics #4
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"2018-02-13 22:44:16"
Liberals, Conservatives, and Pride and Prejudice Part 2: Crash Course Literature 412
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"2018-02-12 22:03:17"
The Structure & Cost of US Health Care: Crash Course Sociology #44
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"2018-02-09 22:54:47"
What is Theater? Crash Course Theater #1
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"2018-02-08 21:55:54"
Where Are My Children: Crash Course Film Criticism #4
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"2018-02-07 23:12:09"
Measures of Central Tendency: Crash Course Statistics #3
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"2018-02-07 00:26:09"
Pride and Prejudice Part 1: Crash Course Literature #411
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"2018-02-05 22:32:01"
Population Health: Crash Course Sociology #43
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"2018-02-02 20:37:08"
Crash Course Theater and Drama Preview!
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"2018-01-31 22:41:47"
Mathematical Thinking: Crash Course Statistics #2
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"2018-01-30 23:03:30"
Gender, Guilt, and Fate - Macbeth, Part 2: Crash Course Literature #410
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"2018-01-29 22:04:19"
Health & Medicine: Crash Course Sociology #42
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"2018-01-28 19:39:42"
Mythical Language and Idiom: Crash Course World Mythology #41
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"2018-01-25 23:17:11"
Selma: Crash Course Film Criticism #3
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"2018-01-24 19:17:29"
What Is Statistics: Crash Course Statistics #1
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"2018-01-24 02:22:27"
Free Will, Witches, Murder, and Macbeth (Part 1): Crash Course Literature #409
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"2018-01-22 21:58:34"
Schools & Social Inequality: Crash Course Sociology #41
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"2018-01-20 00:52:14"
Freud, Jung, Luke Skywalker, and the Psychology of Myth: Crash Course World Mythology #40
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"2018-01-18 22:38:06"
Aliens: Crash Course Film Criticism
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"2018-01-17 23:36:34"
Crash Course Statistics Preview!
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"2018-01-16 23:54:07"
To the Lighthouse: Crash Course Literature #408
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"2018-01-15 21:48:10"
Education In Society: Crash Course Sociology #40
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"2018-01-12 21:48:49"
Witches and Hags: Crash Course World Mythology #39
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"2018-01-11 22:14:42"
Citizen Kane: Crash Course Film Criticism #1
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"2018-01-10 17:29:03"
The Yellow Wallpaper: Crash Course Literature #407
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"2018-01-08 21:54:19"
Religion: Crash Course Sociology #39
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"2018-01-04 23:51:59"
Crash Course Film Criticism Preview
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"2017-12-23 00:25:32"
Serpents and Dragons: Crash Course World Mythology #38
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"2017-12-21 17:01:28"
The Singularity, Skynet, and the Future of Computing: Crash Course Computer Science #40
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"2017-12-20 17:28:05"
The Parable of the Sower: Crash Course Literature #406
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"2017-12-18 22:00:44"
Stages of Family Life: Crash Course Sociology #38
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"2017-12-17 14:55:34"
Mythical Horses: Crash Course World Mythology #37
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"2017-12-14 22:36:59"
Television Production: Crash Course Film Production #15
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"2017-12-13 23:12:32"
Educational Technology: Crash Course Computer Science #39
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"2017-12-13 18:04:34"
Candide: Crash Course Literature #405
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"2017-12-11 21:23:18"
Theories About Family & Marriage: Crash Course Sociology #37
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"2017-12-07 23:14:26"
To Film School or Not To Film School: Crash Course Film Production #144
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"2017-12-06 22:07:58"
Psychology of Computing: Crash Course Computer Science #38
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"2017-12-05 21:25:51"
Handmaids Tale Part 2: Crash Course Literature #404
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"2017-12-04 22:13:37"
Age & Aging: Crash Course Sociology #36
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"2017-12-01 19:02:42"
Monsters. They're Us, Man: Crash Course World Mythology #36
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"2017-11-30 22:14:46"
Marketing: Crash Course Film Production #13
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"2017-11-29 23:36:12"
Robots: Crash Course Computer Science #37
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"2017-11-28 22:47:15"
The Handmaids Tale Part 1: Crash Course Literature #403
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"2017-11-27 22:00:48"
Racial/Ethnic Prejudice & Discrimination: Crash Course Sociology #35
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"2017-11-22 22:01:48"
Natural Language Processing: Crash Course Computer Science #36
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"2017-11-21 21:10:46"
George Orwell's 1984, Part 2: Crash Course Literature #402
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"2017-11-20 21:58:17"
Race & Ethnicity: Crash Course Sociology #34
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"2017-11-18 23:16:53"
Cities of Myth: Crash Course World Mythology #35
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"2017-11-16 22:16:39"
The Editor: Crash Course Film Production #12
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"2017-11-15 23:11:46"
Computer Vision: Crash Course Computer Science #35
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"2017-11-13 21:58:27"
Theories of Gender: Crash Course Sociology #33
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"2017-11-12 21:17:49"
Mythical Trees: Crash Course World Mythology #34
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"2017-11-09 21:44:37"
Special Effects: Crash Course Film Production #11
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"2017-11-07 22:15:18"
1984 by George Orwell, Part 1: Crash Course Literature 401
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"2017-11-06 22:31:09"
Gender Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #32
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"2017-11-05 20:08:58"
Mythical Mountains: Crash Course World Mythology #33
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"2017-11-02 21:03:51"
Grip and Electric: Crash Course Film Production #10
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"2017-11-01 21:50:13"
Machine Learning & Artificial Intelligence: Crash Course Computer Science #34
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"2017-10-31 19:39:16"
Crash Course Literature Season Four Preview!
\\hello and welcome to season 4 of crash course literature that's right we're back to talk about books so this season for no particular reason we're gonna be talking about a lot of dystopias you know future worlds where things have gone terribly wrong as opposed to the present when everything is going fantastically so we're gonna be reading a George Orwell's 1984 who got the handmaid's tale by Margaret Atwood I know that you like the TV show I agree with you that it's excellent but the book as usual even better we got my personal all time favorite dystopia parable of the sower by Octavia Butler if you haven't read this book you need to read it immediately because how will to you gonna have nightmares for the next 6 months I'm kidding although I do actually sometimes have nightmares set in the world of parable of the sower and we're also going to be reading can deed by Voltaire which is kind of a dystopian book but mostly like an aggressively anti utopian the yellow wallpaper by as Toby although it was I think that is not quite dystopian but let me submit to that why under the Macbeth rich I've been ideal world going to the White House by Virginia Woolf which is in our group we the best book ever written partly from the perspective of the house and lastly we're gonna read pride and prejudice by Jane Austen the most requested book at crash course literature over the last 3 seasons I'm so excited for when we finally get to pride and prejudice because it is a book in which no one gets murdered or get syphilis or gets imprisoned in their own home and also there is well then it but before the bout my friends will come much suffering of almost every variety this year in crash course literature we're gonna be talking about genre and gender roles and governments and the question of free will I hope you'll join me in reading or re reading all these books so head over to your local library and check amount tanks are watching and I'll see you next week when we begin our discussion of George Orwell's 1984 well actually I won't see you but don't worry Google's ad tracking software will //
"2017-10-30 20:03:00"
Sex & Sexuality: Crash Course Sociology #31
\\let's talk about sex it's totally okay if that makes you want to cringe after all most people will tell you that sex is pride not someone the people generally talk about at least not in class societies sex is usually thought of as a deep primeval part of ourselves it's a matter of drives and instincts of biology and psychology and of sex and sexuality are both primeval and private can a social science tell us anything about them of course that can't because no matter how natural and pride that you think they are sex and sexuality are still part of every society and alike have been saying since this course started society gets in everywhere in order to talk about sex we didn't handle on some terms starting with sex not sexy act but sex the category to the biological category in a distinguishes between females and males and biologically speaking the root cause of sex is a pair of chromosomes XXY females an ex wife for me Steve chromosomes result there are primary sex characteristics would show up at the sex organs involved processes and which develop in utero and then there are secondary sex characteristics she developed puberty and are not directly involved in the things like pubic hair and large breasts are facial hair now we tend to think of sex as a simple fixed binary you're either male or female but that's not the case a significant portion of the population is intersex that is people who are born with sex characteristics that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies this can mean a lot of different things like it can mean having different combinations of sex chromosomes as inclined builders and it creates chromosomes except NY or in triple lex syndrome which results in acts acts acts and intersex conditions can also mean that the body responds differently to hormones or that the genitals are fully developed this wide variety of intersex conditions makes population figures hard to pin if intersex is defined strictly in terms of having a typical genitalia at birth them one in every 1500 to 2000 births fits that description if defined more broadly however to include all of the conditions I just mentioned intersex conditions appearing as much as 2 percent of the population and of course different societies respond intersex people differently in some societies they're accepted as just a natural variation but western society in medicine have long understood sex as an immutable binary so intersex people were not seen as an acceptable variation but rather as a deviation in need of correction some intersex conditions do require medical intervention for the sake of the health but many don't and for years doctors performed unnecessary operations on interstate children in order to make them acceptable according to cultural ideas about sex soap society plays a role in the biological category of sex but when it comes to gender those distinctions are all about society gender is the son of social and psychological characteristics of a society considers proper Fritz males and female the set of characteristics assigned to men are masculinities those assigned to women femininity is a lot of people have a hard time understanding the difference between sex and gender but hopefully this definition makes it clear gender is its own thing separate from sex some people don't even want to accept that gender is anything but biological but sociology is here to tell you that it really isn't instead it's a matter of social construction to explore this idea some more let's go to the thought bubble let's start with how we dress a business suit is considered masculine a skirt is feminine and it should be obvious and uncontroversial that this is a purely social convention because for example you'd be pretty hard pressed to explain the objective difference between a skirt and a killed except the say that wearing one is feminine and wearing the other is masculine and this is also true of things that might seem to be more biologically determined for example physical labor like construction has typically been understood as masculine and the rates seem to be an underlying biological explanation for that because on average men do tend to be bigger and have more muscle mass but even with an average difference between the sexes there's a great deal of overlap to 20 of women are bigger and stronger than plenty of men and minor differences an average size and strength can't explain why some occupations have been stratified by gender the reality is that minor average biological differences are used as the justification a widespread gender stratification finally males and females into different jobs hobbies and identity constructions in society then points to this resulting shut the kitchen proof of it underlying difference in biological reality even though that reality doesn't actually exist thinks the level so what were you thinking about gender is and it's a matter of a self presentation a performance that must be worked out constantly what we wear how we walk and talk even our personal characteristics like aggression or empathy are all ways of doing gender their ways of making claims to masculinity or femininity that people will see and hopefully respect and we can be sentient if we don't do gender right or well enough this is precisely what happened when a man is called a city or a woman is told that you really ought to smile more the idea of gender as a performance is known as gender expression but gender is more than that it's also a matter of identity gender identity refers to a person's internal deeply held sense of their gender nobody really perfectly fits the cultural ideal of masculinity or femininity and lots of people construct their gender differently from these conventional ideas in particular transgender people are those whose gender identity doesn't match the biological sex they were assigned at birth I contrast cisgender people's gender identity matches their biological still both trans insist people can express their identity in a variety of ways conventional or otherwise and this should make it clear that gender like sacks is not binary there are many ways of doing femininity is in many ways in which a person can be masculine now they've got a basic understanding of sex and gender we can finally get to sexuality sexuality is basically a shorthand for everything related to set behavior actual axe desire arousal the entire experience that is deemed sexual one part of sexuality is sexual orientation or who are sexually attracted to or not most people identify as heterosexual meeting that they're attracted to people of the other gender well this is the most common orientation significant numbers of people are homosexual attracted people of their own gender but these are really only polls on a continuum with plenty of people being attracted to both their own and other genders as in bi sexual or can't sexual and some people are asexual and don't experience sexual attraction at all now these definitions can vary from person to person just as they vary from society to society this and the fact that social norms may make people wish to keep their orientation pride that makes estimates of the number of homosexual and bisexual people necessarily imprecise that's sad based on the surveys we do have around 4 percent of the American population identifies as gay lesbian or bi however this increases to around 10 percent if we ask instead whether a person has ever experiencing sex attraction or engage in homosexual activity so what do each of the 3 sociological paradigms tell us about sexuality will start with symbolic interactionism because it's insight is the most fundamental and that is that sexuality this intensely private and supposedly primeval thing is socially constructed you might think that this is a claim too far because sexuality is a matter of inbuilt urges some things just are sexual but if we actually start asking what is sexual the constructive nature of sexuality gets pretty obvious pretty fast we might think for instance that oral sex is just actual but that's not necessarily true in all societies for example among the Sambia the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea young boys perform oral sex on and in just the semen of older men as part of a rite of passage to adulthood oral sex is definitely happening but it's not clear that they should be thought of a sexual in the way we understand and we may also be inclined to label this ritual as homosexual if you're but it's still not quite the same thing as homosexuality as we understand in the U. S. so physically identical acts could have radically different social and subjected we can explain this in part with the concept of sexual scripts is our cultural prescriptions that dictate the when where how and with whom of sex and what that sex means when it happens you didn't sex happens at home between 2 willing partners for example is part of a generic sexual script in our society likewise sex it happens between 2 people who met at a bar might come with a different script and therefore different shared expectations than sex between 2 people who've known each other for a long time this brings us to the structural functionalist perspective since sexual reproduction is necessary for the reproduction of society this view says that sex has to be organized in some way in order for society to function in society organizes sexuality by using sexual scripts before contraception with widespread it was these norms that control how many people were born by determining when and how often people Saks and by controlling who had sex with whom they also generally made sure that those kids were born into families that could support this is one function of the universal incest taboo with the prohibition of sex between close relatives reproduction between family members would ultimately breakdown kinship relations it would be impossible to maintain a clear set of family obligations if for instance your brother could also be your father but I've seen from the perspective of social conflict theory regulating sexuality is also a matter of creating and reinforcing inequalities in particular our society is traditionally built around hetero more this is the idea that there are only 2 genders the tender corresponds to biological sex that the only natural and acceptable sexual attraction is between these 2 genders hetero normativity makes heterosexuality seem like it's directly linked biological sex but heterosexuality is just as much a social construction as any other sexuality it's defined by dominant sexual scripts privileged by law and normalized by social practices like religious teachings sort comes to be understood as natural in a way that other sexualities are not queer theory challenges this naturalness and especially shows how gender and heterosexuality are tied together header normativity is based on the idea of 2 opposite sexes that naturally fit together like poles of a magnet so by this logic men pursue women are pursued manner dominant women are submissive but all this is socially constructed the sexes are opposites there are just 2 of them at both ends of a spectrum along with a whole array of variations between them but the idea of opposite sexes helps make heterosexuality seem natural to us and so you can see how sex gender and sexuality all linked and all socially constructed and that you can see how society gets in everywhere even among these apparently private and primeval things and in turn these things help structure society creating and sustaining inequalities and giving them the veneer of C. allergy can help us pick them apart today we learned about what sociology can tell us about sex and sexuality we talk about the biological classification of sex and how it's more complicated than we tend can't we discuss the social construct gender and a little bit about how it works finally he talks but technology and sexual orientation what the 3 paradigms of sociology palace crash course sociology is still under the doctor's sterile seeking the studio in Missoula Montana and it's made with the help of all of these our animation team is thought and cross purses made with adobe creative cloud if you'd like to keep crash breaks free for everyone forever you can support the theory that patriotic crowdfunding platform that was used to support contact me love thank you to all of our patrons making crushed possible with the continued support //
"2017-10-29 21:19:36"
Mythical Caves and Gardens: Crash Course World Mythology #32
\\Hey there I am Michael Miller this is crash course with algae and today we are going spelunking spelunking in the world of math also gardening in the world of math you know they say dress for the job you want the one you have many myths take place outside of time and space remember without form and void but often myths have a specific meaningful sightings and over the next few episodes when I talk about some of the most important places where myths it happened according to scholars Leonard and McClure there are many location based troops that repeat in myths from around the world sacred waters caves mountains and or mythic gardens and forests too scholar David leaving has even added cities and temples to the west today we're gonna look it too mythic settings side by side the garden and the cave click complementary roles in various stories of creation considering the gods hate reading it's surprising how many myths involved guards we discussed a few already like the garden of Eden or the garden of the Hesperides where the apples of immortality were kept gardens come in different shapes and sizes there are even stories of gardens inside caves you can think clearly in the Greek and Roman myths of the underworld Hades is a vast underground land dark shadowy but it still has the lush garden features there are pomegranate trees that provide food for Persephone grapes which tempt Tantalus and yet what Orpheus attempts to bring it Eurydice out of Hades he's described as bringing her up through the dark mouth okay mythic gardens and caves often work symbols more than literal description and where the meaning of those symbols need to overlap they do sometimes in a way that's weird or other world lead to those of us with first hand experience of actual gardens okay but this raises the question what symbolic values do we associate with caves and gardens the answer with turn to a pair of stories about the origin of humanity first up the garden we are to talk about the story in an earlier episode with Adam and eve the sneaky serpent then we focused on the actions and relationships with the and how they set up a social order now will focus on how heavily rooted this story is in place the idyllic garden of Eden we can talk about the garden of Eden as both a physical setting and the metaphor of the place Eden is described as lush and growing in addition to Adam and eve the place is overrun with nature and wildlife livestock and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kinds hate creeping things we missed you of all the fruit bearing trees in the garden there are 2 that matter most the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the tree of eternal life the serpent and attempt to lie to ya away and you know still more important than the physical features of Eden its position as a paradise from which humans are spelled because of their disobedience and as a hopeful state we supposedly want to return to even doesn't disappear but humans never find a way past that angel with the flaming sword who stationed at blocking the entrance so the perfect image of the garden help tell the story of humanity's fall from a state of perfection 21 of debasement it's mythology scholars Leonard and McClure put it after their disobedience humans must live in an ideal world marked by disharmony broken relationships suffering and death we can compare this story and the symbolism of the garden with the creation myth from the Zuni people of the American west which involves a very important cave one inspired by the Grand Canyon according to those in need humility was expelled from up right garden but rather emerged from a system of dark for beating caves instead of paradise these caves serve as a symbol chaos we go to the fob long ago before humanity was fully formed they all lived deep underground dark no one can see we humans have horns and tails they have webbed fingers and toes and lack some other features to you'll see some son sees humanity living in this state and sends his 2 sons younger brother and elder brother to help the people travel to the bright hills of the Sir elder and younger find the people in gross condition stepping and speeding and urinate so elder and younger plant trees pine spruce silver springs and asking each representing one of the cardinal direction as the brothers rise it through the levels of the underground they drive a prayer stack from one of the trees to the this creates a sound like fun raises the people into each New World the people are now on the surface but they aren't fit for their new home elder and younger give them corn only to realize the people have no miles so while the people sleep but to sneak among them and cut mounds into their heads so they can act and luckily the people love eating until another problem pops up all that I just did corn has nowhere to go younger realizes that none of these people have innocence to another round of sleep surgery and everyone feels much moving over the next days elder and younger keep tweaking here slicing their webbed hands so they can cook chopping off their horns and tails until at long last humans thanks that bubble there are other versions of the Z. myth where after emerging from a spot in the Grand Canyon Zuni people set off in search of the Indy one ya or middle place where they can achieve balance on their journey they stop at a number of sites that become sacred to the singing until finally settling at a spot near the headwaters of the Zuni river all the sacred places are tied together by the rivers of the region but we're gonna talk about sacred waters in a later episode with important for now is the role that came to play in the symbolism of this creation as a place of confusion out of which humanity is guided before comparing this cave of creation with the garden genesis it's interesting to look at another image of the cave that has had found influence on western thinking and echoes the association of caves with immaturity or under development Plato's allegory of the in his Republic Plato describes a great cave as a way to explain why people wouldn't readily accept the wisdom of awesome philosophers like himself you ask us to imagine a world in which humans are sitting in a dark cave chained up so they can only face forward behind them out of you unseen agents parade a series of objects in 4 of a great light from where humanity sets they can only see the shadows that flicker across the wall cast but the real objects behind them shadows or their reality Plato says imagine that one of those chain to viewers breaks free and makes his way out of the K. just like the Zuni Plato's imaginary escapee is blinded by the brightness of the world outside the cave eventually his eyes adjust and things come into focus but he still has difficulty believing that what he sees is real but knowing about what's outside the cave he runs back in to tell the others when he tried to explain to them that what they think is reality is only a projection people in the cave don't believe but I suggest that those chained up my even tried to kill whoever got free that person to escape the cave is you guessed it a philosopher pointing out to the rest of us that our reality is actually a pale reflection of a more true world Plato's cave and the Zuni emergence story are obviously very different only one involves the creation of the anus for instance but in both cases the world of the cave is both physically and metaphorically dark the cave is a position of ignorance or inability and the surface represents enlightenment figuratively and literally one could even say that the emergence leads to humanity reaching a more perfect state as Leonard and Muckler put it in the Zuni tale humans existed in a dark imperfect world at the calling of father son they emerged from this dark chaos into a world of light healthy relationships and harmony with their fellow inhabitants this is a stark contrast to the creation story in genesis were human beings having been created by god begin as perfect be and then are forced into a state of imperfection when ejected from the garden like the heat the next revelers that story of humanity is only a story of a fall request to return to re enter paradise obviously in the Zuni story no one is clamoring to get back into the cave of no aid us we can ask then whether these inverted orientations regarding creation make a difference in their respective cultures do you go about your day differently depending upon whether you think of the earth as a place of punishment for leaving a perfect garden versus the garden itself a reward for making it out of the dark cave of chaos next week we're gonna stick with our mythical settings and head for the hills to talk about Jekyll thanks for watching we'll see you next time check out our crash course mythology toto tote bag and poster available now at DFTBA.com follow NCARB appalled very nice people our enemies crash course exists reporter Bob patriotic bombing Paul Loeb a monthly donation help crash course free for everyone for crash course is made with adobe creative cloud description for only that garden real //
"2017-10-26 21:32:13"
Designing the World of Film: Crash Course Film Production #9
\\Nissan send literally means placing on stage but in film means on St encompasses everything the cameras capturing it's the set and how it's lit it's how the subjects are framed it's the actors and how they look and what they're wearing it's the props they're holding in the set dressing they're moving through just as every line of dialogue every shot should be helping move the film Ford everything in frame should be helping build the muse on sun from the overall look and feel of the sets to the details in the make up on the actors faces everything in a film is designed in captured for a reason sometimes mesons and it's pretty obvious think of the German expressionist film the cabinet of Dr Kalbarri or any film by Tim Burton or Wes Anderson these films are clearly stylized the audience can tell that the sets costumes and make up were all created and crafted by some but sometimes the means on sun is more subtle like in the realist film winter's bone or films by Lynne Ramsay or Kelly record the world portrayed in realist films might make the audience wonder what a production designer even did to build the world because the scenes look so much like the world we live in but look carefully at the world in a realist film just as the summit talk for uses the language of the king tell the story the teams creating the means on sun structure the set and the actors in specific ways to bring the director's vision the life the production designer creates the physical world of the film this person leaves the art department which builds and decorates sets early in pre production the production designer is hired to work with the director to develop the look of the film depending on when and where the script to set the probably have to research what to include and exclude when building their world for example I was in a film that took place in the 19 seventies and there was a scene shot next to a building with corrugated metal siding because of his experience and research the production designer knew that the shape of that metal corrugation wasn't developed until the 19 eighties so to make the scene accurate to the time he had the art department bringing old corrugated metal and hung it over the new metal this might seem silly I mean who besides the production designer is gonna know what year corrugated metal changed shape but even if we don't know the year sub consciously we feel the differences imagine a scene in a classroom from your childhood if you grow up in the 19 nineties in a film about your childhood years included students writing on talk slates or if you grew up in 90 sixties in the film included smartboard both of those things would feel wrong so as soon as the production designer gets the script they begin researching the time period in the location where the story takes place to get the feeling just right and might even be a time period in the future or a make believe place but they still start with research after that the production designer prepares plans and drawings for the steps that need to be built and they go on early location scouts with the director so they can begin planning how they'll use a location then the present the director with their ideas for designing the setting once they've agreed upon a plan with the director the art department gets to work they work with the set decorator also called the scenic designer to research and implement every detail will bring into the world of the film while the production designer is creating the look of the film overall the set decorators choosing the details and designing the sets the production designer also works with the art director to budget and organize the department they hire buyers who buy or rent set dressing in props once the site is designed the art department builds anything that doesn't already exist for the site itself as well as any other special props that are needed the art department masterminds with the physical world the story looks like but if the characters don't look and feel like they belong in that world then it's all for nothing the costume designer in the wardrobe department along with the hair and make up departments also played pivotal roles in creating the means on sun and the work of any designer starts again with research the costume designer uses pre production to study the setting and time period including the season when the film takes place a costume designers most important job though is to understand the characters and how they grow throughout the film by developing a signature look for a character the designer can help convey the stories plots and themes Maggie Smith plays both professor Madonna goal in the Harry potter series and miss shepherd in the lady in the van 2 very different characters with very different back stories and goals the wardrobe of the character can convey more about them than their opening lines that's characters change over the course of their story that changes often shown outwardly and not just in makeover montage is in Jurassic world for example Bryce Dallas Howard's character Claire starts out nearly all white clothes implying that she's never outside with a dime disorders and is disconnected from the reality of the park she works and but the costume designer played with what the audience already knew of the original Jurassic Park and mapped out Claire's wardrobe changes to quote those of Laura Dern's character from the 1993 film that way she becomes more connected with the story in the US more capable in our minds design decisions like this help the audience get pulled into the film but they also help the actors get into the minds of their characters the director Tom Ford who started his career in the fashion industry has evensong labels into his actors costumes so that you never feel like costumes but the characters close themselves this extra detail isn't something the camera the audience will ever see but when your job as an actor is to believe in a pretend world while you're surrounded by crew and lights it makes the world a little more real in your job a little easier this is true not just of the clothes actors wear but also the make up they use and how their hair is styled hair and make up or each and you are usually referred to as a single unit on set and they often share a trailer but they're 2 separate specialized careers as with production and costume designers pre production is all about research and planning hairdressers work with the director to develop how they'll style they're actors here they'll prepping he dies wigs extensions are bald caps that they might need because films are rarely Shotton order hairstylists need to be organized and plan how to maintain continuity throughout the film this is often a reason wigs are used instead of dying here scheduling demands but an actor play a great herd version of their character on either side of a dark haired version for example that it can be easier to work with wigs then back to back dying in making a wig looked just as realistic as real hair can be tricky if it's a period piece they'll need to know how to create a time appropriate look but with the safety and health standards of current times this is true for makeup artists to make up artist needs understand each actor's skin and create a plan to keep the actors comfortable as possible while also creating the look of the film the man's make up a similar to lighting or editing that usually has to be seen but not notice whether you're making a beautiful person camera ready or building a look out of latex and airbrushing the audience needs to be connecting with the character in their internal life not getting distracted by their make up some make up artists specialize in special effects make up but all make up artists need to know how to create certain illusions like cuts bruises scars bad teeth and tattoos of all the departments on sat makeup hair and wardrobe spend the most time with the actors each department has a trailer at base camp but will also send a representative to set with the actors when the First Lady calls last looks they're telling these 3 people to check the actors make up hair and clothing to make sure it's camera ready it's their job to make sure the actors don't have to think about these things I can focus on their work of being present at the scene and of course all the designers working on a film need to communicate between departments to create the means on Senate help tell the story a really bright example of how this can all come together is the character Clementine and eternal sunshine of the spotless mind the costume designer here make up team in the production designer work together to make the audience associate the color orange with Clementine whether it's her hair color of her bright orange sweatshirt they took inspiration from her name and the script and brought it into me San and if you pay close attention they give us a big hint about the end of the movie by aligning her character with that color that movie came out over 10 years ago so I don't think I'm spoiling anything by saying about removing the memory of Clementine from the brain of her ex boyfriend jolt the costume designer and set decorator took great care in making everything in dole's world appear in Grays and blues but one jolt wakes up from having his memory erased everything in the scene is grayer blue except one orange base like every real character we come to love in our favorite movies Clementine isn't completely erased today we discussed the teams that play the biggest role in creating the means son of a film we talked about how the art department creates the world the film takes place in and how the wardrobe department interprets the characters and their stories through their clothing and we learned how the hair and make up apartments train its form actors into their characters on screen next time we'll talk about grip electric how they add that final touch to the means on sent lights crash course film production is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel check out a playlist of their later shows like growth science deep pluck and ACS reactions this episode of crash course was filmed in the doctor Cheryl see Kenny crash course studio with the help of these nice people and are amazing graphics team is bokep //
"2017-10-25 22:11:21"
Cryptography: Crash Course Computer Science #33
\\hi I'm carry out a welcome to crash because computer science over the past 2 episodes we've talked a lot about computer security but the fact is there's no such thing as a perfectly 100 set secure computer system that will always be bugs and security experts know that system architects and play strategy because defense in depth which uses many layers of varying security mechanisms to frustrate attackers it's a bit like how consuls the design first you've got to Dodge the arches then cross the my scale the walls avoid the whole soil getter the ramparts and defeat the gods before you get to the freemen but in this case we're talking about one of the most common forms of computer security cryptography no way cryptography comes from the Ritz cryptography roughly translates into a secret writing in order to make information secret he's a psycho an algorithm that converts plaintext into ciphertext which is gibberish unless you have a key that lets you undo the saliva the process of making text secret is called encryption and the reverse process is cool decryption Cyprus opinions long before computer showed up Julius Caesar use what's now cool to see the fight between crypt private correspondence he would shift the letters in a message forward by 3 places for a became day on the word purchase became next to decipher the message recipients had tonight by the algorithm and the numbers shift by which acted as the cane the season 5 is one example of a larger cloth techniques could substitution ciphers these replace every letting the message we something else according to a translation a big drawback of basic substitution ciphers it but let the frequencies of preserved for example is the most common that in English so it feels like to translate into an ex the ex we shop the most frequently in the ciphertext skilled cryptanalyst what backwards from these kinds of statistics to figure out the message it was the breaking of the substitution cipher that led to the execution of Mary queen of Scots in 1587 plotting to kill Queen Elizabeth another fundamental cost of technique the permutations lifers that's like a simple example cortical not transposition Sipho here we take a message a bill that is integrated in this case we've chosen 5 by 5 during crypto message we read out the characters in a different order let's say from the bottom left walking up with one column time the new that's ordering what's called a publication is being cryptic message the ordering direction as well as the 5 by 5 grid size subs is the case like before if the sly Frankie annoying recipient can reverse the process to reveal the original message by the 19 hundreds cryptography with mechanized in the form of encryption machines the most famous was the German enigma used by the Nazis to encrypt their wartime communications as we discussed backing of say 15 the NYC public the typewriter like machine with a keyboard on that board by showing the full alphabet above that there was a series of compatible writers that were the key to the NYC was encryption capability fast let's look at just one beta one flight Hey let's go context or 26 lex's these connected to the other side of the road to using cross crossing wise the swat one that's for another if H. winning came might come out the other side if can you intend F. might come out with someone the Lexus walking behavior should sound familiar it's a substitution fifi box theme they come out with more sophisticated because it uses 3 or more ready to write each feeding into the next rota's could also be rotated one of 26 possible starting positions and they could be inserted in different orders providing a lot of different substitution mappings following the writers with a special psychic would reflect instead of passing the signal onto another writer it connected every pin to another and send the electrical signal back through the roaches finally there was a pub board at the front of the machine that loud Letras coming from the keyboard to be option he swapped adding another level of complexity without simplified second let's encrypt the letter on this example in NYC but federation if we pressed the H. K. electricity for through the public then the greatest hits the reflector comes back through the racism plugboard and eliminates the like the Alabama board so H. is encrypted to al neither the second flow both ways for if we type the letter health age would light up in other words if the same process for encrypting and decrypting you just have to make sure the sending and receiving machines have the same initial configuration if you're Kathleen at the circuit you'll notice it's impossible for let's be encrypted as itself which turned out to be a fatal cryptographic weakness finally preventing the prefer being a simple substitution cipher every single time that we've entered the roads is appalled by 1 spot sort of like Madonna in a call so if you into the text AAA it might come out as BDK where the substitution mapping change with every can press the newcomer was a tough cookie to crack for show but as we discussed in that say 15 ushering in his colleagues at Bletchley Park able to break enigma codes and largely automate the process with the advent of computers cryptography me from hardware into software 1 of the earliest southwest life is to become widespread with the data encryption standard developed by IBM and the NSA in 1977 DES is it was night origines binary keys were 56 bits long which means that there are 2 to the 56 or about 72 quadrillion different case back in 1977 that men the nobody except perhaps the NSA had enough computing power to bring forth all possible canes but by 1999 0.$25000000 computer could try every possible DSK in just 2 days rendering the sci fi insecure so in 2001 the advanced encryption standard A. E. S. was finalized unpublished and yes is designed to use much bikinis 2892 or 256 bits in size making brute force attacks much much harder for 128 bit key you'd need trillions of years to try every combination even if we used every single computer on the planet today see you better get started and he asked chops they talking to 16 byte blocks and then applies a series of substitutions and permutations based on the key value plus some other operations to obscure the message and this process is repeated 10 or more times for each block you might be wondering why any 10 rounds Owain me 128 bit keys and not 10008 keys well it's a performance tradeoff if it took Alison Crypton send an email or minutes to connect to a secure website people wouldn't use it 80 S. balances performances security to provide practical cryptography today AS is used everywhere recruiting files on my face and transmitting data over wifi with WPA 2 to accessing websites using HTTP yet say father cryptographic techniques we've discussed rely on Keith a 9 by by Sendai and recipient Sendai encrypts a message using a cane and a recipient decrypts it using the same key MEL days keys would be shared by voice of physically for example the Germans distributed code books with daily settings for their enigma machines but this strategy could never work in the internet era imagine having to crack open a code book to connect to you cheap what's needed is a way for 7 to send a secret key over the public internet user wishing to Kenexa clearly it seems like that would be secure because if the case and in the open incepted by haka couldn't they use that's decrypt all communication between the 2 the solution is key exchange an algorithm that's 2 computers agree on the key without at the sending one we can do this work one way functions what school operations that are very easy to do in one direction the halter dress to show you how one way functions what let's use paint colors as an analogy it's easy to mix paint colors together but it's also easy to figure out the constituent colors that we need to make a mix paint color you'd have to test a lot of possibilities to figure it out in this metaphor out secret key is unique shade of paint first as a public paint color that everyone can see then join I each pick a secret paint color to exchange keys I mix my secret paint color with the public paint color then I send that mix colors joined by any means mail carrier pigeon whatever John does the same mixing his secret paint color with the public color then sending them to me when I receive Jones color I simply at my private college cramp blend of all free pains John does the same with my mixed color and voila we both end up with the same paint color we can use this in the shed secret even though we never send each other our individual secret colors sleeping outside observer would know partial information but the 20 very difficult to figure out how shed secret color of course sending a mixing paint colors isn't going to work well for transmitting computer data but luckily mathematical one way functions of perfect this is what Diffie Hellman key exchange uses in Digby Helmand the one way function as much a exponentially ation this means taking one about the base to the power over another number the experiment and taking the remainder when divided by that number the much Sir for example if we wanted to calculate 3 to the fifth power what July 31 we would calculate 3 to the fifth which is 243 and then take the remainder when divided by 31 which is 26 the hard part is figuring out the experiment given only the result of the base if I tell you why race reach some secret number much like that you want and go 7 is the remainder you'd have to test a lot of experiments know which one I picked if we make these numbers Baeksang hundreds of digits long them finding the secret experiment is nearly impossible now let's talk about how Diffie Hellman uses modular exponentiation to calculate the shed key first is a set of public values the base of the much of this but like how public paint color everyone gets tonight even the bad guys to send a message carried to John I would pick a secret exponent X. then I'd calculate beat for the power vexed modular and I send this big number over to John joined us the same picking a secret experiment white and sending me beats in the wind watcher and to create a shared secret key I take what John sent me and take it to the power of X. my secret experiment this is mathematically equivalent to beat for the X. Y. much of this am John does the same taking why censor him to the power of why we both end up with legs that same Numba it's a secret shed Katie even though we never sent each other how secret Numba we can use this big number as a shaky for in cryptic communication using something like 80 S. for encryption Diffie Hellman key exchange is one method for establishing a shed Katie these kids that can be used by by sender receiver to crypt and decrypt messages accord symmetric keys because the key is the same on both sides the scene the sci fi Mick ma and a yes or symmetric encryption there's also asymmetric encryption whether to different keys most of the one is public and another that's private so people can encrypt a message using a public pay that only the recipient with that private key can decrypt in other words knowing the public can only let you in crypt but not decrypt is asymmetric said think about boxes with padlocks that you can I communicate to receive a secure message I can give a center a box on a padlock they put their messaging lookit shot now they can send the book back to me and only I can open it with my private key often looking the books nightmare Senda nor anyone else who finds the books can open it without briefly in the same way a dish to public key can create something that can only be decrypted with the private key the reverse is possible tape encrypting something with the private key the committee cryptic with the public key this is used for signing or serving cristata using that private key anyone can decrypt it using the service public K. this acts like an unaffordable signature as I mean the IRA using the private key can encrypted proves that you're getting to and from the right several passive and often pasta the most popular asymmetric encryption technique use today is our essay name doctors inventors reversed she may have paid to win so now you know the key parts of modern cryptography symmetric encryption key exchange in public key cryptography when you connect to a secure website like a bank that little padlock icon means that your computer's use public key cryptography to verify the server key exchange to establish a secret temperate Kay and symmetric encryption to protect all the back and forth communications from prying eyes swell buying something online sending emails to be FX or just browsing cat videos cryptography keeps all that safe private secure thanks cryptography Christmas computer science is produced in association with PBS this to students at the channel you can check out a place to shows like he owns go to Kate this episode was filmed at the chat Stacy and wiggled studio in Indiana and it was made with the help of all these nice people and a wonderful graphics team who cafe thanks to the random access memories I'll see you next time //
"2017-10-23 19:01:54"
Politics: Crash Course Sociology #30
\\you're a good citizen right you voted in the last election or you're looking for devoting the future you pay your taxes you're happy to exercise the full range of your civic responsibility if the point is you might already know all about how your government if you don't and you're American well there's a crash course for that but even if you're an informed citizen who knows every line of your constitution by heart that doesn't mean you know why your government works for that we need a different kind of political knowledge cynics can tell you how your system works sociology can help you understand why so what we mean when we talk about politics physics class can define politics in terms of the particular systems of government but sociologists have a broader definition politics is the major social institution by which society organizes decision making and distributes power and resource by this definition politics obviously includes things like the government itself but it also includes things outside of it like political party organizations and lobbying groups and even social movements voting of the political action but so it's going to a demonstration or calling you represent or boycott Leo has a he has a U. agreeable all ways of trying to influence aside decision making and the distribution of power that being said the government does have special importance here because it's the major formal organization that organizes and regulates politics so it's responsible for making decisions for the whole of society enemy can carry out these to Asians because it has a lot of power which our old friend Max deeper defined as the ability to achieve desired ends over the objections of others now Bieber considered a government's power to be coercive power or power that's backed by the threat of force you might not think of your government is a threat that Bieber actually defined a state as the organization that has a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence of course and thankfully not every action the government takes requires an overt use of force under normal circumstances people respect the political systems that work in the government and they tend to view state power as an expression of authority where state leaders have the right to use legitimate power and so while violence for vapor is always the ultimate last resort of the state most of the time it isn't necessary neighbor also recognize that the power of a political system comes in a variety of forms traditional authority is power that's legitimized by respect from longstanding cultural patterns and beliefs it's based on the same idea as the traditional minds that we talk about episodes 9 and 17 namely that the world has a basic order to it and that order must be respected another style of power is known as rational legal authority or power legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations this is the power behind the US constitution was written rules determine the entire American political and legal system when the constitution is changed or reinterpreted the rules change as with when the Supreme Court ruled that same sex marriage was legal in 2015 for example finally we have a kind of wild card power charismatic authority power legitimize extraordinary personal qualities of a leader Jesus of Nazareth leading a new religious movement or Martin Luther king junior leading thousands of people in the civil rights movement are examples of personalities and mobilize precisely this kind of authority but authority that rests entirely on the qualities of one person can be unstable so sometimes that power becomes transferred to something outside separate from that one charismatic person this is called the realization of charisma and it's where charismatic authority is transformed into some combination of traditional and or rational legal authority the founding of the church after Jesus is death is a good example of this now and just as there are different kinds of authority so too are there different forms of government for instance democracy a political system that gives power to the people as a whole tends to be backed by rational legal authority this isn't terribly surprising since in vapors model democracy is a form of government and a rational legal approach to authority both emerge with rationalization and the rise of bureaucracy and we can see a certain affinity between democracy and rational legal authority in the fact that leadership in democracies is linked to office holding so the power is attached to a legally defined office not to a particular person by contrast monarchy in the political system in which power is legitimized by traditional authority and held by a single family this may be most obvious in the fuel European idea of the divine right of kings in which the monarchs were held to be ordained by god from time immemorial and just as democracies are much more common in modern bureaucratic states monarchies are more common in traditional agrarian societies but a certain type of authority doesn't always reside in a specific form of government monarchy for example is just one type of authoritarianism which is any system that denies people participation in their own governance and leaves ruling to the elites and wine monarchy relies on traditional authority another variety of authoritarianism totalitarianism does not totalitarianism is a centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives and it has some of the same affinities for legal rational authority that democracy does some other modern systems for one thing but it's also much easier to closely control of people through a system of bureaucratic rules for example a totalitarian government might not the law that say every household passes by a picture of the ruler it's a small bureaucratic rule with major political implications and democracy isn't always associated with legal rational authority either take the United States the president has power because of rules about the constitution which is a form of legal rational 30 but the president and he used that power by winning an election which can often rely on charismatic authority we can even see traditional authority kind of work in the reference with which the constitution and the founding fathers are invoked in political discourse now the U. S. as an example can move us from what has so far been a pretty theoretical discussion of authority in politics see how sociology can help us understand what they look like in practice to understand power authority in politics we need to understand the political attitudes of a population and to do this we need to talk about the political spectrum a broader array of beliefs and ideas that make up the politics of a society in the U. S. this ranges from liberal on the left of the spectrum to conservative on the right and again this isn't just a theoretical difference of ideas these believe sheet the distribution of power and resources in the U. S. and some very fundamental ways on economic issues for instance a left leaning or liberal prospective often favor government intervention the economy to help guarantee an equality of outcome equal pay for women equitable distribution of wealth among races and regulations that promote workplace and product safety are all examples of economic issues that the left is frequently concerned with by contrast conservative or right leaning perspectives may tend to take a more lots a fair hands off approach which government regulation is seen is hampering the natural flow of economic activity so that's how the political spectrum can look what comes to economic matters on social issues one way of understanding the gap between left and right is in terms of the different kinds of authority that each faction tends to support or endorse here at the right tends to build its arguments on traditional authority on the left hand salute to legal rational framework so we can see this in the issue of marriage equality for example the right has often describe its opposition as a defense of traditional marriage well the left has argued that marriage equality was an extension of legal civil rights now no matter where your political leanings follow the spectrum in the end they be pretty meaningless without some way to give them for in the struggle for things like power and wealth that's where political parties coming as well as interest groups like political action committees which organizer on particular issues rather than around a whole party platform then beyond the formal institutional politics are also social movements to try to mobilize masses of people a further particular political goals black lives matter in the tea party are both good examples of this lobbying special interest groups and social movements all raise difficult questions about how truly democratic the Americans and is why would you need to demonstrate in the streets if you're supposed to be able to express your political beliefs by voting the answer lies in sociological theories of power that is the different understandings of how power is distributed in a sense one common view is known as the pluralist my would seize power is being very widely distributed in this view of politics in the matter of negotiation but everyone has at least some voice in the process this model was closely linked with structural functionalist theory and dominated much of American sociology in the 19 fifties and early sixties in this line of thinking demonstrations are seen as irrational outbursts we wish gestures in a political system that already distributes political power fairly however in the power elite model political protest make perfect sense this used his political power is being concentrated in the hands of small groups especially among the very rich if this is the case protest may be the only way for many people to advance our interests and have their voices heard finally there's the Marxist political economy model which holds that both of the other 2 models really missed the point here power isn't evenly distributed but it's also not held by a strictly political elite instead of the cause of the imbalance of power is seen as being systemic and the powerful few are seen as the product of a particular economic system so meaningful political change in this understanding is only possible through a change in the underlying economic systems so to understand politics in the United States or anywhere else we need to look at all the aspects you talk about the case of authority the kinds of government political beliefs models of power and how they all relate to each other today we learned about the sociological approach to we define politics and power we discussed the different types of authority and how they relate differently system and we look at American politics in some detail talking about demographics and political or religious finally we discussed different sociological theories of power crash course sociology is still in the doctor's sterile seeking the studio in Missoula Montana and it's made with the help of all of the space our animation team is thought and crash courses made with adobe creative cloud if you'd like to keep crash course free for everyone forever you can support the theory that patriotic a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love thank you to all of our patrons making crushed possible with the continued support //
"2017-10-22 22:40:30"
Ma'ui, Oceania's Hero: Crash Course World Mythology #31
\\hi I'm Micronet of this is crash course pathology and today we're gonna finish up our heroes series by telling the story of a great hero Dwayne the rock Johnson okay not really the rock maybe the sexiest man alive but he's no demi god like Malley the demi god hero of Oceania and the role he recently voiced in the film mullah the legendary Malley is pretty different from his cartoon counterpart he's younger more live in a little smarter still he's an adventurer he has a divine birth he's a trickster and a culture hero he's everything we love now in its are found throughout Oceania particularly in Hawaii like Heracles the most well known of Maui stories focus on a series of heroic deeds but where Heracles spent the vast majority of his labors killing or stealing monstrous animals Mao is great deeds are a little more motley he fights a monstrous you'll but she also gets into an argument with the sun he creates the entire island of New Zealand some stories characterize Maui as a hero and some of them work at it logically to explain aspects of the natural world and others capture the mythical origins of Pacific Islander culture and also I'm like Heracles these tasks are not assigned to Maui as one big hero project they occur throughout his life and act as episodic glimpses into Oceania's culture but okay enough treading water without further ado now wheeze 7 great one fighting his mom's house not fighting in his mom's house fighting the house back in the mythic times of Oceania lived goddess named him out of the fire she had 4 sons and all of them were named Natalie one day she gives birth to a fifth named you guessed it now we this Maui they call him Bowie the skillful is our hero but to heat of the fire he's one too many mouths to so she sets by we 5 but drifted city I just you know it wouldn't be a myth without just a little attempted infanticide you know what me for my we 5 the god of the sea takes favor on it and he survives the waves and currents of the ocean he makes it all the way back to Hina of the fires house she can't believe it and doubling down on her motherly abandonment she says that she'll only taken back proves his work he must destroy her house by throwing spears through its thatched roof you remember the window epic this kind of radical remodeling should sound from now we squares off against the house beginning the fearsome battle where our hero defeats too terrible Dore posts the strike down short post toll post his mother for whatever reason is finally proud of her son and welcomes him ... the whole welcomes him to a pile of thatching either way heroic deed done to raising the sky now we eventually get home but things aren't all hunky dory in those days the sky that stretched over Oshana was very very low we're talkin scraping the tops of trees low clouds blocking all the light low now decides to do something about he gets a swig of some mystery drink out of strange ladies gourd which fills him with enough magical strength to lift up a whole sky though palm tree leaves are still flat to this day from the time when the sky pressed down on them with all the new room Malley fashions a kite it calls for help from a nearby wizard and a few incantations later there's a great magical wind in fact the winds are so strong that they snap my we live blow his kind of way but during the struggle ma'am he learns to read to the winds and understands the weather it passes on to the people of the islands and now they can travel further than ever before 3 fishing for New Zealand now we might have sorted out the sky but he was still the youngest brother his older brothers all fought Mallory the skillful was actually now we the lazy and now we've got bad at fishing they teased admin titled on him taking of the fire now we decides he is going to prove his brothers wrong he travels to the underworld to make contact with a long dead ancestor this ancestor is half dead and half alive so they give my wheat the jaw bone out of their dead half which he carves into a magical fishhook then he goes and catches one of his mother's sacred Alie burns to use as bait now he's ready to go Fishin now 5 and as brothers row out farther than anyone has ever gone they begin to finish his brothers began complaining about his laziness but then something catches on malice hook the brothers gather around and help that we pull and pull and rather than pull up a fish they pull up an entire island and after this his brothers stop calling now we'd lazy also we get bored we may never be Royals but perhaps heroes for slow the sun now is their task was good for his reputation but his fourth task is important for everyone on the Pacific are they all enjoyed the new room under the sky but there's one problem the sun streaks across it so fast that no one has any time to do any work no one contained hides and there's not enough light to create topical handmade pattern textile constructed trees and trust me tapa cloth is a big deal in of the fire comes to her son asks him will you do this deed will you slow down the sun she thinks there is no way Opala but now he has learned a thing or 2 about asking for help he goes to his grandmother and she tells him the sun is so fast because it has 6 team wags if you have any hope of catching it you must set that many traps one snare for each leg she gives Maui a magical stone axe once you've smeared the sun use this get your way Bowie sets of the snares and snags the thought he approaches it brandishing the magic acts threatens it saying he will strike it down unless it agrees to take it down time and give the people a chance to go about their the sun agrees the day lengthens people are much happier now we don't get to go back to his duffel mom and to create high what can I say except you're welcome my 5 winning fire for humanity many cultures have stories about discovering fire or stealing it from supernatural sources think Prometheus or grandmother spider or Loki who is the worst but occasionally useful to have around so this is all to say Manley's fifth task might sound familiar now we dealt with the too cramped sky in the too fast son but the people of Oceania still don't have fire now he knows his mother Hina of the fire possesses it secret but she's not talk and so now we decided to go over her head journeys once again to the underworld there he tracked down his great great grandmother ma who we are and convinces her to give him the secret of fire ma who we are reaches down and pulls off one of her fingernails in which burns tying me fire she tells him take this back to the surface and you can spread the fire to all humanity now is very grateful and begins to head back but on the way drops the nail into a stream uhhh with a thought bubble to see how my we get yourself out of it now we go back Intel's ma who we are shakes her head give him another fingernail he turns around heads back and dropped it into a stream again gosh though back he goes and he asks again and the same thing happens it happens again with all of the rest of her fingernails and met her toenails man what a klutz when Molly comes for her last toenail ma who we are gets so angry throws it on the ground and sets the under world on fire now he turns in sprints out of the under chased by the roaring flame a fire burns underneath the earth and all the water boils now a chance a magic incantation that brings rain to put out the fires after the rain stops by who we are gathers up the last remnants of the fire hi tiny pieces in the barks of different tree after this fiasco now and his brothers seed the Ailey burns who belonged to their mother making fires a cook their food but every time the brothers get near the Ailey put out their fire and fly away realizing that the birds must know where the fire is hidden we concocts a plan now he makes a dummy of hymns props it up in his canoe he pushes the canoe out into the water hi the birds see his dummy sail away and whip up a fire to cook their bananas now he leaps from his hiding spot and grabs the oldest a weaver shaking it by the neck and demanding to know the secret of fire finally spills the fiery be rub together the bark of the how and the sandalwood trees and you'll always be able to make that's big Ole fiery check thank you thought bubble 6 Kuno lower belonging he'll now is 6 deed is a quicken the lonely you'll Kunal Lola is terrorizing Hina of the fire so bad we kills it and chopped up into many P. all the pieces squirm around and become fish and other eels and that explains why there's so many fish in the scenes around the Pacific are boom fish chicken of the sea tac 7 immortality last episode Heracles was promised immortality if he finished his labors for Matt always final task he aims even higher he wants to gain immortality not only for himself but all of humanity it all starts when Mao he learns about the goblin got he now knew we keep who brings death all creatures now here is that if you can steal her heart and given out to the creatures of our they'll all become immortal but now we scared the goddess is more powerful than anything he's tussled with so he asks the Ailey if they'll come and be his back up explains the birds when the goddess is asleep Creepin through her mouth pastor volcanic glass teeth down to her heart to steal it but when we're inside can't make not single but first everything goes according to plan now it makes it past the goddesses jaws to her stomach and grabs her heart he turns around climbs back towards freedom and just has he makes it to her mouth a bird tweaks the goddess wakes up instantly and feels Maui in her mouth she bites down and there now we dice so now he failed his final task but maybe in this case the failure is the lesson immortality sounds nice but it isn't meant for humans or as told my sometimes call them mortals maybe it's better to learn to accept our own mortality lest we get chopped by a goddess now is kind of curious figure sometimes capable sometimes clumsy sometimes strong sometimes scared sometimes clever sometimes dumb he and Heracles have more than a few things and come they both do impossible deeds sure but they're not one trick heroes either what are you a home and just kicked him Allah is going to crush it this is one of the things that sets study in mythology apart from studying literature fiction when your hero is a mythological hero it means they've been constructed by entire cultures sometimes multiple cultures passed down orally over generations that's very different than a character whipped up by a professional screenwriter and voiced by the rock we can't look to myths for the same storytelling experience that we get from a Disney cartoon but myths and their variations allow us to think about what stories come into being and why do they remain popular whether the stories are about discovery fire creating new Zealander just getting in a fight with your mom's door jamb and winning Jack next week it's time for a big transition we're moving on to mythical places thank for watching and see when it check out our crash course mythology toast toast bag and poster available at DFTBA. crash course biology is filmed chat and I see a little studio in Indianapolis with the help of all of these very nice people our animation to crash course exists support of Caitlyn patriotic is a voluntary service support content love to a monthly donation help crash course free for everyone for a crash course is made with adobe creative cloud checked the description for only a free trial thanks for watching and just so you know we considered insulting advanced limited powers but homework to since //
"2017-10-19 20:56:29"
The Cinematographer: Crash Course Film Production #8
\\movies are made up of a series of images summer beautiful summer harsh and some stick in our minds forever like the gently rolling spaceships in 2001 a space Odyssey or Peter o'toole writing out of the desert and Lawrence of Arabia or Darth Vader emerging from the smoke in Star Wars but who actually takes these pictures if the director is the one who sets the vision for the film whose job is it to bring that vision to life that's the person who puts the pictures in motion pictures the cinematographer cinematographers must be artists engineers photographers and story tellers all at once sometimes you'll hear the cinematographer referred to as the director of photography or D. Pete but don't be confused it's the same job in some parts of the world they prefer one title to the other but generally speaking the 2 titles are interchangeable and no matter what they call themselves it's their basic job to translate the director's vision into things like framing lighting and camera movement so that the film's story emotions and themes are conveyed visually a cinematographer must not only possess great technical skills but also understand the fundamental narrative beats of the film the ark of the characters and how the shots might come together in the editing room and the job begins long before the cameras start to roll during pre production the cinematographer assembles the camera department plans the shots with the directors and determines any special equipment that might be necessary for the shoot from cranes to dollies to steady cams and special lenses they also help the director decide what kind of film Stockard digital cameras to use and what the overall look of the film will be during production itself the cinematographer oversees the lighting in shooting of the film shot by shot this includes supervising the camera department and working very closely with the lighting department the head of which you'll recall is the gaffe sense pictures are technically just a record of light bouncing off objects the gaffer is fundamental to achieving the images that make up the film and when it comes to the lights themselves the cinematographer has a lot to choose from for example there are for no lights which use special lenses called for a now lenses to produce a wide hard light that softens around the edges commonly used for stage lighting these lights can get very hot very quickly fluorescent lights are much cooler and softer but they're quite fragile which matters on a film set when lights are being moved around so frequently LED lights create very little heat and are favored by a lot of independent and D. I. Y. cinematographers because they're cheap and they use less power however the colors and shadows they cast can be unreliable and difficult match bolt bolt incandescent lights meanwhile generate a lot of heat but they generally give a warm yellow light that can be very appealing and then we have 8 semis or this these are massive lights that give off an enormous amount of heat they're so bright that they're often used to simulate daylight as and that sun so that's a hardware but in addition to choosing which of these like should be used the cinematographer also has a say in how their range the most basic style of lighting used in everything from formal interviews to fiction films is 3.lighting you start with a key light which is the brightest light often position so that it shows directly shot venue at some fill light which is the demarini more diffused light to fill in the shadows created by the key life finally backlight which is usually brighter than the fellow light shines from behind the subject shocked this creates a halo or edge of light that outlines the subject in separate in the background one of the questions cinematographers grapple with is figuring out where the light is coming from the world of the film this will determine the direction color intensity and quality of light that illuminates the shot sometimes cinematographers will use practical lights which were light sources you can actually see in the shot like desk lamps or windows other times they'll deliberately use artificial lights or even turn to a more radical strategy to like their films cinematographers Nestor Almendros in Haskell Wexler famously shot Terrence Malick's days of heaven using now actual sunlight mostly that brief period of the day immediately before sunset called magic hour while working on catch 22 David Watkins said I'm gonna do something rather daring I'm gonna like the actors with only explosions and he did Alan Curtiss relied on a unique combination of practical and artificial lights to create the unusual transitions and effects of Jim Carey's memory loss and eternal sunshine of the spotless mind Malika sansei eat is a master of style shooting everything from spike Lee's he got game to Beyonce as the lemonade when Gordon Willis decided like the godfather in such a way that Marlon Brando's eyes would often be shadow it was seen as a risky in daring strategy cinematographers were supposed to light a character's eyes that's just how it was done instead Willis chose to use this lighting mistake illustrate the darkened a noble soul of don Corleone now the cinematographer also works closely with the production is who's the head of the art department the production designer is in charge of carrying out the whole look of the film particularly the physical elements like sets costumes props here in make up but also non physical elements like computer generated images and how they interact with physical objects on camera the cinematographer in the production designer work closely on everything from the color scheme of a set to how reflective it's wall should be and for sure in addition to the lighting cinematographers have to come so there are all kinds of factors when setting up their shots not only to the shots need to cut together to tell the story but they're often constructed to have a beginning middle and end all their own the director and cinematographer must decide how much of the frame should be in focus using one 's choice film stock in aperture related to that person to talk for half the think about what's featured the foreground middle ground and the background of the shot the arrangement of these features within a frame can have a profound impact on the audience color in contrast also fall within the cinematographers aesthetic toolkit color can be used to draw the eye from one part of the frame to the other make narrative or thematic links or as in the wizard of oz transport us to an entirely new place contrast which refers to the ratio of the darkest parts of the image to the lightest parts can perform many of the same functions before there was color in film contrast was a particularly powerful tool for cinematographers no are classics like Carol reed's the third man use deep dark shadows cut by bright shafts of light to convey a sense of mystery in Minnesota mythographers might also decide to move the camera to evoke a particular feeling or psychological effect this movement might be as simple as a painter tilts to follow the action or is involved a Citizen Kane is dramatic crane shot in through the top nightclub moving the camera end toward a character can convey a variety of among from fear closing in on them to some kind of internal revelation there are some pretty entertaining supercuts of Pushin shots on you tube makes you realize this technique is used everywhere now what happens after the film is in the can the jobs over right course not the cinematographer can be heavily involved in the film's post production to because the editing process offers lots of opportunities to manipulate the image if the movie's been shot on film there are all kinds of color exposure by altering chemical timing as the Expos negative is developing process so whether the film was shot using traditional film Stockard digital process most feature films are digitised at some point to make the editing easier and once the images have been converted into digital information even more options open up for manipulating the footage filters on photo apps like Instagram give you some idea of how drastically you can change a digital image after it's been shot in order to maintain the look of the phone the cinematographer is almost always deeply engaged in this process working hand in hand with the directors the editor the post production supervisor who's overseeing this phase of the process and the special effects department so yeah it's kind of a big job there's a fantastic documentary called visions of light that traces the history and art of cinematography it's out of print but if you can find a copy of it you can hear some of the original masters of the medium share their stories and see examples of their work as with much of film production there are guidelines and customs when it comes to cinematography but no actual rules the right style of lighting or cameras meant for one film will be completely wrong for another it's up to the cinematographer to work with the director to realize their vision for the film and then to translate it into images that will cut together tell the story today we learned about the multi faceted job the cinematographer we covered the various roles of the camera and lighting departments and how they work together to realize director's vision and we considered some of the tools and strategies available to the cinematographer next time we'll look at the fascinating on set work of set designers costume designers and special effects makeup crash course film production is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest meeting shows like it's okay to be smart physics girl and the artists on this subset of crash course was filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking a crash course studio with the help of these nice people and are amazing graphics team is not cafe //
"2017-10-18 21:13:47"
Hackers & Cyber Attacks: Crash Course Computer Science #32
\\hi I'm Carey and welcomes crash because computer science last episode we talked about the basics of computer security principles and techniques used keep computer systems safe and sound but despite our best efforts the news is full of stories of individuals companies and governments getting cyber attacked by hackers people here with that technical knowledge break into computer systems not so happy as a bad day they're hackers who hunt the bugs and try to close security holes in software to make system safer more resilient they're often hired by companies and governments perform security evaluations these hackers of cold white hats that the good guys on the flip side they're black cats malicious hackers with intentions to still exploit and so computer vulnerabilities and data packets motivations also differ wildly some hack for amusement and curiosity while cyber criminals heck most often for monetary gain and then they're hacked to bits he's that's caused from a social political go and that's just the tip of the iceberg basically the stereotypical view of a hacker some unpopular kid sitting in a dark room full of discarded pizza boxes probably better describe storm greeting college but it does hackers today window going to teach you how to be a haka instead we'll discuss some classic examples of how hackers break into computer systems to give you an idea of how it's done colorway hackers get into computer systems is owned by hacking into it by tricking uses into letting the men this is called social engineering where a person is manipulated into divulging confidential information or configuring a computer system so that permit century by attackers the most common type of attack is fishing which'll most often encounter as an email asking you to look into account on the website say a bank you'll be off the click a link in the email which takes you to a site that looks legit to the casual observer but it's really an evil claim when you enter your user who then come looking to the real website as you bad news even with the one tenth of one percent success rate 1000000 phishing emails might yield 1000 copper another social engineering attack is pretext or attack the school up let's say a company and I'm confident we pretend to be from that might department often attackers will call a fast number and then also be transferred to a second so the phone number appears to be internal to the company then the attack to construct an unwitting user to configure the computer in a compromising way or get them to reveal confidential details like passwords when that what configurations sorry one sec I perhaps at work down here go ahead and and it begins attack this can be very convincing especially with a little bit of research beforehand define things like key employees names it might take 10 phone calls to find a victim but you only need one to get 10 emails also common delivery mechanism for treasure horses programs that masquerade as homes attachments like a photo invoice but actually contain malicious software called malware malware can take many forms some my studio data like a banking credentials others might crypto files and demand a ransom what's known as ransom way if they don't run malware getting used to that meeting attackers have to force their way through other means one method which we briefly discussed last episode is the brick forced upon us wed try every combination of paas what until you gain entry most modern systems defend against this type of attack I have anyway incrementally longer periods of time following each felt a tent or even looking out it's highly alter send number of tries one recent hack to get around this is cordon and mirroring where if you have physical access to the computer you can attach why so devices memory chip make a perfect copy of its contents with this setup you could try a series of passwords until the device starts making you wait when this happens you just re flash memory with the original copy you might essentially resetting it allowing each try more passwords immediately with no waiting this technique was shown to be successful on iPhone 5 C. but many new devices include mechanisms to for this type of attack if you don't have physical access to a device you have to find a way to hack it remotely like over the internet in general this requires an attack it's fine to take advantage of a bug in the system and successfully utilizing a bug again capabilities or access is called an exploit one common type of exploit is a buffer overflow buses are a general term for a block of memory reserved for storing data we talked about video buffets for storing pixel data in excel 23 as a simple example we could imagine an operating systems looking prompt which has failed for user name and password behind the scenes this operating system uses Bacchus storing the text by Lisa to enter it frustration let's say these purpose was specified to be of size 10 in memory the 2 techs Pappas would look something like this of course the operating system of keeping track of a lot more than just a user name and password this going to be data stored but before and off to a memory when he's a into the user name and password the valleys of copied into the office where they can be verified a buffer overflow attack does exactly what the name suggests overflows the Bopha in this case any password longer than 10 characters whatever right adjacent data in memory sometimes this will just because a program operating system to crash because imposing values over it with gold with the cake crushing the system is bad maybe that's all that mysterious hacker wants to date be a nuisance but its habits can also exploit this bug will cleverly by injecting purposeful new values into programs memory for example setting in is Adnan variable to treat with the ability to arbitrarily manipulate a program's memory Pakistan by cost things like looking problems and sometimes even use that programs hijacked the whole system there are many methods to combat buffer overflow attacks the easiest is to always test the length of input before cupping it into a buffer who bounds checking many modern programming languages implement bounds checking automatically programs could also randomize the memory location of variables like a hypothetical is Adnan flak so the hackers don't know what memory locations I've rights and are more likely to crash the program to gain access programs can also lead unused space off the back office and keep an eye on all those bodies to see if they change if they do they know an attacker is mucking around with memory these regions accord canaries named after the small birds miners used to take underground to warn of a dangerous conditions another classic hack is code injection is most commonly used to attack websites that use databases which pretty much all big website stating we will be covering databases in this series so his a simple examples illustrate this type of attack well you structured query language SQL also called sequel a popular database API let's imagine out login prompt is now running on a web page when he's it clicks locking the text families ascend to a server which executes code that checks if not use the name exists and if it does verifies the password matches to do this the server will execute code 9 as a sequel query but look something like this fast in needs to specify what data where retrieving from the database in this case we want to fetch the password the sub also needs to specify from what place in the database retrieved by from in this case let's imagine all the uses data is stored in the data structure could a table labelled uses finally the 7 doesn't want to get back a joint list of passwords for every user in the database 3 specifies that anyone's data for the count his username equals a certain value that IBM's copied into the sequel query by the server based on what the user typed did so the actual command that sends the sequel database would look something like this when he's in a equals Philbin know also that secret commands and with a semi colon so how does someone hack this by sending in a malicious user name with embedded sequel commands like we could send the server this funky user name when the Sava copies this text into the sequel query it ends up looking like this as I mentioned before semi currencies to separate commands for the first month I guess executed is that if they if things unnamed whatever the database will return the password of course we have no idea what would have his password is so we'll get it wrong and the server will reject us if there is no user name to whatever the database will return no possible or provide an era and the server will again reject this why the way we don't care because the next sequel compadre interested in drop table uses a Camanche that we injected by manipulating the username filled this command instructs the secret database to delete the table containing all user data wiped clean which would cause a lot of headaches a place like a bank or really anyway I noticed that we didn't even break into the system is not like we correctly guessed the username and password even with no formal access we were able to create mayhem by exporting about this is a very simple example of code injection which almost all service today have defenses against we're more sophisticated attacks as possible to add records to the database like a new administrator account or even get the database to reveal data allowing hackers distill things like credit card numbers social security numbers and also some nefarious goodies but we're not going to teach you how to do that as if buffer overflows programmers should always him input coming from the outside we protect the dangerous and examined it carefully may she's a name and password forms on the web don't you include special symbols like semi code also quite as the first level of defense good service also sanitize input by removing or modifying special characters before running database queries working exploits off desoto shed online more prevalent the bulk of the more damaging the exploit behind the price of prestige it commands even government sometimes by exploits which allow them to compromise computers for purposes like spying when a new exploits poor bodies discovered that the software creates is one aware of it's called a 0 day vulnerability black hat hackers rush to use the exploit for maximum benefit full light tap program is release a patch the fog this is why it's so important to keep your computer software up to date a lot of things down there to security patches if bugs are left open on enough systems in allows hackers to write a program that jump from computer to computer automatically which accord worms if a hacker can take over a large number of computers they can be used together to form what's called a botnet this can have many purposes like sending huge volumes of spam wining bit coins using other people's computing power and electricity and watching distributed denial of service or details attacks against service the dose is where all the computers in the botnet send a flood of dummy messages this can knock services offline I that force I just pay a ransom or just to be evil despite all of the hard working white hats exports documented online and software engineering best practices cyber attacks happen on a daily basis they close the global economy roughly Hoffa $0 annually and that figure will only increase as we become more reliant on competing 6 this is especially worrying to governments as infrastructures increasingly computer driven like power plants the electrical grid traffic lights which treatment plots oil refineries and traffic control and lots of other key systems many experts predict that the next major will be 14 cyberspace when nations are brought their knees not by physical attack berada crippled economically and infrastructure really through cyber warfare they may not be any bullets fired but the potential for lives lost is still very high maybe even higher than conventional warfare so we should all adopt good cybersecurity prior esses and as a community into connected over the internet we should ensure our computers a secured against those who wish to use the great potential say maybe stop ignoring the update notification see you next week crash course computer science is produced in association with PBS crucial students at that time we could check out plays to shows like brain called community of PBS infinite series this episode was filled to the chat as they say in the gold studio Indianapolis Indiana I was made with the help of bullies like and our wonderful graphics team for cafe thanks watching a CPU lesa //
"2017-10-16 22:31:06"
Changes to our Patreon
\\hi I'm hungry and I'm John green haired crash course our mission is to create quality educational content that we can release for free for everyone forever thanks to our patrons on patriarch as well as support from PBS digital studios we've been able to keep this channel growing we're currently uploading 5 videos a week Monday through Friday and we've been able to work with so many wonderful people to bring you series like mythology computer science sociology film world history astronomy chemistry economics psychology physics and more with the support we get we can focus on creating series we think will be the most valuable not just the ones that will get the most views and we're so thankful for that like in 28 team will be doing series on engineering theater and drama the history of science media literacy and statistics we recently made some changes to our patrons so we wanted to give you an update on what's going on over there our animation team thought cafe has already been designing sweet digital rewards for our patrons and now they're designing exclusive physical rewards as well for various pledge amounts you can get a laptop sticker sent to you every month the new upheld pin on a quarterly basis and or an annual miss the reward this will be a cool piece of merchandise we will create once and then never again but you won't know for sure what it's going to be promise you that it's going to be great all these physical rewards are being designed only for crash course patron on page it's our way of saying thank you for making this thing that we do possible please have some swag we also added a merch discount code to a reward levels you can get 20 percent off crash course merchant DFTBA.com as well as a level 4 out takes you need access to behind the scenes photos and videos featuring your favorite celebrities like Instagram sensation Abby the corgi and if you could just one dollar or more per month you can get access to a monthly live stream with the crash course team you'll be able to talk to us in the chat and ask us all of your burning questions higher level patrons are also invited into the hang out to talk with us in real time face to face these items are so much fun and so valuable to us we really love being able to interact with you in this format and hear your thoughts if one dollar a month is your thing know that that goes a long way and we can't wait to see you when those live streams those live streams have only been available at higher monthly donation amounts but we moved it down to one dollar because we want to have bigger broader conversation of course if you can afford to be a patron that is absolutely 0 percent totally cool the whole thing is that these videos are free and we want them to exist for people to watch without having to pay regardless we are grateful to all of you for being part of this community with us we hope to see you over on our patriotic the do we do but whether we do or not thank you for being here for watching this for sharing crash course for enjoying it and as we say in our hometown don't forget to be awesome //
"2017-10-16 16:20:31"
Economic Systems & the Labor Market: Crash Course Sociology #29
\\a social institution that has one of the biggest impacts on society is the economy and you might think of the economy in terms of numbers unemployment numbers she pees or whatever the stock market is doing today but while we often talk about a numerical terms the economy is really made of people it's a social institution that organizes all production consumption and trade of goods in the society and there are lots of different ways which stuff can be neat exchanged amused think capitalism or socialism these economic systems and the economic revolutions that created them shape the way that people live their lives economies can vary a lot from one society to the next but in any given economy you can typically see production split into 3 sectors the primary sector extracts raw materials from natural environments so workers like farmers and miners would fit well here the secondary sector takes a broad materials and transforms them into manufactured goods so someone in the primary sector may extract oil from the earth but someone in the secondary sector refines the petroleum into gasoline and then the tertiary sector is the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods you know doing things rather than making things like this system is actually pretty complicated or at least more sophisticated than the way things used to be for much of human history so how did we get from a world where people work to produce just what they needed for their families to one with all the sectors that have to work together to understand that we need to back up a little about 12000 years the first big economic change was the agrarian revolution when people first learn how to domesticate plants and animals it ushered in a new agricultural economy that was much more productive than hunter gatherer society farming help societies build surpluses which meant that not everyone had to spend their time producing food this in turn led to major developments like permanent settlements trade networks and population growth now let's go to the thought bubble to discuss the second major economic revolution the industrial revolution of the 18 hundreds with the rise of industry can new economic tools like steam engines manufacture production factories popped up changing how work function now instead of working at home where people work for their family by making things from start to finish they began working as a wage laborers and becoming more specialized in their skills overall productivity went up standards of living rose and people have access to a wider variety of goods thanks to mass production all good things but every economic revolution comes with economic casualties the workers in the factories who were mainly poor children worked in dangerous conditions for low wages there's a reason that the industrialists of the nineteenth century were known as Robert with more productivity came greater wealth but also greater economic inequality so can the late nineteenth century labor unions began to form these organizations of worker sought to improve wages and working conditions through collective action strikes and negotiations inspired by Marxists principles labor unions are partly to think for us now having things like minimum wage laws reasonable working hours and regulations to protect the safety of workers think thought bubble so the industrial revolution was incredibly big deal when it came to the changes that are brought to both economies and societies and there's a third revolution we should talk about 21 that's happening right now but before we get to that which the positives for 2 competing economic models that sprung up around the time of the industrial revolution as economic capital became more and more important to the production of goods pretty sure you've heard of them and possibly have strong opinions about them they're capitalism and socialism capitalism is a system in which all natural resources and means of production are privately owned and it emphasizes profit seeking and competition as the main drivers of a if you own a business you need to outperform your competitors if you're going to succeed so you're incentivized to be more efficient by improving the quality of your product and reducing your prices this is what economist Adam Smith in the 17 seventies called the invisible hand of the market the idea is that if you just leave a capitalist economy alone consumers will regulate things themselves by selecting goods and services that provide the best value but in practice and economy doesn't work very well that's left completely on auto pilot there are lots of sectors were hands off approach can lead to what economists call market failures where an unregulated market ends up allocating goods and services inefficiently monopoly for example is a kind of market failure when a company has no competition for customers they can charge higher prices without worrying about losing customers that has economic allocations go in really inefficient at least on the consumer and so in situations like these a government might step in and forced the company to break up into smaller companies to increase competition market failures like this are why most countries the United States included are not purely capitalist society for example the U. S. federal and state governments own and operate a number of businesses like schools the postal service and the military government's also set minimum wages create workplace safety laws and provide social support programs like unemployment benefits and food stamps government plays an even larger role however in socialism in a socialist system the means of production are under collected owner socialism rejects capitalism's private property and hands off approaches instead here property is owned by the government allocated to all citizens not just those with the money to afford it socialism emphasizes collective goals expecting everyone to work for the common good and placing a higher value on meeting everyone's basic needs that on individual profit when Karl Marx first wrote about socialism he viewed it as a stepping stone toward communism a political and economic system in which all members of a society are socially equal but of course in practice this hasn't played out in the countries that have modeled their economies on socialism Cuba North Korea China and the former USSR why well marks hope that as economic differences vanished in communist society the government would simply wither away and disappear but that never happened if anything the opposite rather than freeing the proletariat from inequality the massive power of the government in the states give enormous wealth power and privilege to political elites retrenching inequalities along political rather than strictly economic lines the same time capitalist countries economically outperformed their socialist counterparts contributing to the unrest that eventually led to the downfall of the USSR before the fall of the Soviet Union at the average output in capitalist countries was about $13500 per person which was almost a 3 times that in the Soviet countries that there are down sides to capitalism to namely greater income inequality a study of European capitals countries in socialist countries in the 19 seventies found that the income ratio between the top 5 percent in the bottom 5 percent in capitalist countries was about 10 to one whereas in socialist countries it was 5 to one we get the whole episode but the merits of each economic model and in fact we did in crash course world history there are many more questions we could answer about how society's builder economic systems but in any case those 2 models aren't the end of the story because we're living in the middle of the economic revolution that followed the industrial revolution ours is the time of the information revolution technology has reduced the role of human labor and shifted it from a manufacturing based economy to one based on service work in the production of ideas rather than good and this is how a lot of residual effects on economy I computers and other technologies are beginning to replace many jobs by making it easier to either automate them or send them off shore and we've also seen the decline in union membership nowadays most unions are for public sector job the teachers so what what do jobs in a post industrial society look like well agricultural jobs which ones were a massive part of the American labor force have fallen drastically over the last century while 40 percent of the labor force was involved in the agricultural sector in 1900 only about 2 percent of workers today work environment similarly manufacturing jobs which were the lifeblood of the U. S. economy for much of the twentieth century have also declined in the last 30 years so the US economy began with many workers serving in either the primary or secondary economic sectors but now much of the U. S. economy is centered on the tertiary sector or in the service industry the service industry makes up 85 percent of jobs in the U. S. including everything from administrative assistants 10 nurses to teachers to lawyers to everyone who made this crash course video for you now that's a really big and diverse group that's because the tertiary sector like all the economic sectors we've been discussing is defined merely by what it produces rather than what kinds of jobs that include so sociologists have a way of distinguishing between types of jobs based more on the social status and compensation that come with the there's the primary labor market in the secondary labor market the primary labor market includes stops to provide lots of benefits to workers like high income job security health insurance and retirement packages these are white collar professions like doctors are accountants are engineers secondary labor market jobs provide fewer benefits and include lower skilled jobs in the lower level service sector the 10 the payless have more unpredictable schedules and typically don't offer benefits like health they also tend to have less job security so what's next for capitalism or socialism well no one knows what the next economic revolution is going to look like I can tell you that nowadays a key part of both our economic and political landscape as corporations corporations are defined as organizations that exist as legal entities that have liabilities that are separate from its members sold their their own thing and more and more these days corporations are operating across it's national boundaries which means that the future of the U. S. economy and most countries economies play out on a global scale today we discussed how economies can be broken down to the primary secondary and tertiary stuck we discussed the 3 stages of economic revolution that brought us to the post industrial era canned in the middle there we talk about 2 types of economic models capitalism and social crash course sociology is still in the doctor's sterile seeking the studio in Missoula Montana and it's made with the help of all of the space our animation team is thought and crash courses made with adobe creative cloud if you'd like to keep crash course free for everyone forever you can support the theory that patriotic crowdfunding platform that allows you to support contact me love thank you to all of our patrons making crushed possible with the continued support //
"2017-10-14 15:59:10"
Herakles. Or Hercules. A Problematic Hero: Crash Course World Mythology #30
\\hi there I am Micronet of this is crash course pathology and today we're talking about another hero one who eventually becomes got a demi god which is another way of saying semi got kind anyway it's our old friend Heracles who some call her kidneys sometimes Amanda sometimes god but always a guy who really knows how to rock alliance I tote go go I mean you look really good too very heroic Heracles has a reputation for being kind of a brute all brawn no brain but remember when we talked about Heracles in an episode on tricksters remember how he tricks that wasn't holding up the sky for ever he maybe bluff but Heracles shrink dance though he doesn't always make the best choices sometimes Heracles is his own worst enemy even worse than the hydra and that was a pretty bad but wait let's not get ahead ourselves what many heroes Pericles had a miraculous birth Zeus god of lightning bolts but not and sent takes a liking to Alcmene the queen themes this transforms himself into the form of the king and victory on sleeps with the queen 9 months later Alcmene gives birth to 2 boys if Eccles and Elsie ID's one of them is and Patreon son and the other is uses but all divine boys which is which this is half that art at what Hera finds out about this debacle yet another's juicy and infidelity since 2 revenge of serpents to if a clean and healthy ID's Crips when the king and queen Russian if Eccles is crying and I'll see ID's holding the 2 serpents strangled in each of his tiny baby had mystery solved I guess I'll see ideas would later become heroically LCDs is raised as a prince of thieves but he's a bit of a problem child is god like strength keeps getting him into trouble at 1.he gets so mad at his music teacher smashes a liar over his head kills him this is the last straw for and victory on the king sends the dangerous demi god princely away attention as a shepherd Heracles gets to put his great strength to use a monstrous beast named the lion of safari and has been terrorizing the title of thespian can a fast beat when Heracles catches it and sleaze it that's because it's so overjoyed that he allows him to take one of his $50 to bed each eventually I'll see ID's moves back to themes and Mary's princess Megara they start a family and things begin to settle down despite the earlier adventures though this if we get to the turning point in LC I diss life suddenly eagles Matt he takes his 3 children and 2 of his nephews and burns them alive there's some ambiguity here in the story whether this madness was I'll see ideas finally giving in to his wild nature or whether it was caused by a vindictive Harold you can really hold a grudge but either way what else the ID's comes to his senses he implores an oracle for help the oracle tells him peas Hera change your name Heracles and to atone you must travel to Tiryns and allow your rival king Eurystheus king of Tiryns and my scene a set your punishment for killing your children this is the beginning of the 10 labors Heracles yeah 10 don't worry we're gonna get what Heracles arrives and tells the riskiest what he's done the king of Tiryns gives him a set ... impossible tasks these 10 laborers will take Heracles far and away confronting all manner of monster and if he succeeds he won't just atone for his family murdering he'll also be granted immortality these are the heroic tasks that made Heracles count them off won the knee me in life bargaining back to his days as a line in the slaying a shepherd Heracles first labor is to go to Nemea and kill a monstrous line this line skin can't be pierced by arrows or spears but Heracles doesn't let that stop him he puts the beast into a chokehold strangle them check Heracles must then defeat the learn me and hydra swamp dragon with 9 heads every time he slices off one of the heads to grow back in its place and before long Heracles is practically drowning in cranium luckily his nephew I'll less who somehow managed to avoid that nephew killing by fire from earlier brings Heracles flaming torches the torches cauterize the dragon neck wounds preventing high drop from multiply every please kill the hydra dips some arrows into its file you know just in case and returns triumphant but Eurystheus tells him this isn't Heracles and I'll listen 10 labors you can't get outside help so that one doesn't count second labor disqualified for his third labor Heracles must capture the golden horn behind of Sir Rooney how hello it's tough but after some chasing or trapping depending upon which version you prefer Heracles snags the high check next Heracles must go to sofas and killed the giant era Manthey in bore on the way he stops at the cave of the centaur follow us and accidentally kills him with one of those hydra bile sucked just in case Errol sector bearing the centaur Heracles traps the bore and takes it to my singing check but also right the powerful us so far all of Pericles labors have been giant scary beast related for his fifth labor Eurystheus tells him he must clean out the stables okay out yes king okay less odious owned 3000 immortal cattle and hadn't cleaned his stables in 30 years that's about 650000 pounds of immortal done yes we did the math Pericles agrees and says out yes if I managed to clean all of this out in a single day will you agree to give me a tenth of your immortal cattle whole tricky Heracles is back Audi's agrees and instead of grabbing a dull shovel Heracles goes upstream and diverse 2 nearby rivers through the stables the water washes out years of dawn myth that's how do yes who thought this labor was impossible fails on the deal Heracles takes him before a judge and wins the case how do you flies into a rage and banishes him before Heracles can claim the cattle every please returns to Eurystheus empty handed only to have Eurystheus announced that this labor didn't count because Heracles tried to get paid for it if labor disqualified after the immortal dumb debacle Heracles is back to wrangling monstrous animals this time in Arcadia he must drive away the sting Balian birds Pericles scare them off with just a pair of bronze casting 6 labor Jack easy peasy birds hate casting tote you're an ibis not up flamenco currently seventh labor is to capture the rampaging a Cretan bull which you could do in a sleep 7 flavor no sweat but check next Heracles has to go to Thrace to capture the man eating mayors of diabetes is a lot of different versions of this one but they all end the same way if labor but check Heracles ninth labor is to fetch the belt of a polity queen of the Amazons at first equality agrees to just give Heracles the belt but then Herat of course starts a rumor that Heracles has come to kidnap a polity the Amazons jump in the ensuing struggle Heracles kills a polity it takes her about knife labor check the polity we barely knew things just one labor left but there were 2 disc qualifications for Hercules final 3 labor is but the thought bubble the tenth labor takes Heracles far to the to everything what he must see the red cattle Gary underway Heracles so angry about how hot the sun is aims his bow and arrow whose son is so impressed with Heracles bravery he gives the hero golden it's not just any Cup it's a magic Cup that's also worship after Heracles kills Gary on and his hurts men and his 2 headed guard dog he uses the Cup to transport cattle back across the sea then they escape all over Europe when Heracles finally gets them to Eurystheus king sacrifices them to Harrow that 10 check tells Pericles okay screwed up twice though here are your to make a labor 11 is collecting golden at the Knicks disparities this is the one where he tricks that wasn't helping him me see us you know how this turns out strategic and the twelfth and final labor is to travel to the leaning back David Dargo Cerberus Haiti's 3 headed guard up Pericles travels to the land of the dead were Haiti's happens upon Heracles and tells him you can have Cerberus only if you can do and without any of the weapons Pericles agrees snags of servers around the neck chokes him into submission drags the dog to Eurystheus gets him to sign off on the final labor that's checked and double checks and then returns a separate I thought bubble after all that adventuring Heracles manages to complete his 10 turned 12 labor while this is Eric was most famous story it's far from his last adventure you get married again that's right no happily ever after with My Girl Disney lied to you eventually he even manages to achieve that elusive immortality though it's at great cost well after his 12 labours Heracles crossing the river in Venice with his new wife day on the ferry many a centar names Nessus tries to break down era mid stream and Heracles killed him but with his dying breath messes tricks down Iraqi to preparing what he tells her is a love potion can use it Heracles ever loses interest in Heracles later falls in love with you only and in order to win him back down the road soak his shirt NSS is love potion A. K. A. and of course a horrible poisoned because what else would it be best this was clearly a bad guy Pericles puts on the shirt and dies and extremely painful death burning on his own funeral pyre finally Zeus tells Sarah Hey enough is enough and sends Athena down to make Heracles immortal and bring him to Mount Olympus to Heracles becomes a god gets to live on Olympus right near Hera's so what makes Heracles up screw up and a child murderer such an enduring hero I mean as demi gods go the guy isn't exactly a role model he sleeps around he loses his temper he kills people the ancient world seemed to love him for the variety and excitement of his adventures but what do we do about Heracles today currently presents kind of a problem you've been given power and strength and brains all courtesy of a creepy absent irresponsible father but he still has to struggle to live an ethical life maybe we don't have to fight hydra's I mean I hope we don't I definitely hope I don't yet we do all have to work to try and live with each respectfully responsibly we can't rock alliance can but maybe we can rock see you next time last in our hero series about midway you're welcome check out our crash course mythology toto tote bag and closer available now at DFTBA.com crash course biology is filmed chat and Stacy a little studio in Indianapolis with the help of all of these very nice people our animation team crash course exists support pop icons patriotic is a voluntary subscription service support content love to a monthly donation help crash course free for everyone for a crash course is made with adobe creative cloud check prescription for a link //
"2017-10-12 21:31:32"
The Director: Crash Course Film Production #7
\\so I have a script to work off of to tell you about directing but what do you think we should do in this body else should I show you what a director does should I explain everything a director does should I try to get you to guess what a director does people often assume that the director has all the answers but directors also ask a lot of questions according to American playwright filmmaker David Mamet directors only have 2 main questions ask themselves what do I tell the actors and where do I put the camera that's a cheeky wave encompassing a lot of what the director should do but maybe about away looking at it is that director has a strong sense of where the answers are buried and their job is to steer their team to win the Conn cover those answers I found all through fee but it's the clearest way I can describe what the job director it's a director must use everything at their disposal to clearly communicate to their actors their crew and ultimately to us the audience I director's job is to bring their vision to life in the film so a common misunderstanding about the actors are just like puppets illustrating the director's ideas an actor's job is to bring a character to life and we need actors to think real thoughts and feel real feelings to make the film relatable a good actor gives the director options by making informed choices about how a character would act in various situations that the script puts women we talk about the language of the camera and how the way shots are framed can help convey a story but the cameras most important job is to read the character slots for that to happen actors have to be vulnerable and think it's the character this is incredibly demanding work so it's up to the director to ensure that the actors have a safe space to explore their characters and take risks and the actor relies on the director to steer them in the right direction I joked earlier about having you guess what I would say in this video that's because forcing an actor into a position where they're unsure about how to act in this scene is one way to ruin their performance of an actor feels like they need to direct themselves in the same they won't risk losing themselves in the world the film and it'll feel fake to give an actor the confidence they need to inhabit a character a director must give clear actionable directions what do I mean by that well let's say we're working on a scene about a break up a clear actionable direction could be sense your character's been blindsided by this break up you want to keep the other person from leaving the room so you can get answers the actor receiving this direction now knows that their character has just learned they were wrong about the other character and they have a goal of keeping the other person there they know where they're coming from and where they're trying to go now no matter what happens in the scene the actor can feel confident in our decisions if they're working toward keeping the other person in the room on the flip side of that an unclear or non actionable direction in that break up scene could be you wish this wasn't it reminds parents got divorced how do you act wishing or being reminded of something that's way too vague but if the director knew what they wanted they could tell the actor something you see this person is the father who left you when you were 10 and just like then you'll do anything to keep them here so now this is a more active role note because our actor understands the power dynamic of this relationship and knows that they're using the same tools a 10 year old would and most importantly the actor now has a goal keep the other person from leading so the director has a plan for how they'd like the scene to go and the actor will have their own interpretations to that and the hope is that they uncover the best possible scene it is possible for a director to get the scene the invasion without allowing the actors to do their work but this doesn't build trust or create conditions for a better film than the director's Capel of imagining this is something author and directing instructor Judith Weston calls result oriented directing and the common mistake of new directors who are focused on surface level aspects of acting instead of the true work that goes into it instead of working with the actors to unpack what the line means and what the purpose of the scene is a director will focus on out word emoting and try to control how an actor does you may have heard directions like on that line laugh or when you see her you start cry this tells the actor nothing about what their characters actually thinking and feeling director might think they're helping the actor by telling them how they should say the line are where they should put emphasis on the line but this is called the line reading and it limits the actor to just mimicking the director rather than communicating with the characters feel a results oriented direction will usually give the director what they think they want not moment but at a pretty high cost these directors are only paying attention to what the characters look like out weirdly instead of what's going on inside their minds and when you're working with a good actor who's thinking real thoughts the camera in there for the audience can pick up on the spot the result will be a deeper more nuanced performance than when the actors just pantomime in what the director tells them to do it's important remember that filmmaking is collaborative by design and while the director is the creative leader insisting the film turn out exactly like the director imagines can severely limit the film result oriented directing can also break trust that's been built between director and actor after all if a director can't trust an actor to experiment and discover what's needed from the scene then why should the actor trust the director of the detrimental sort kind of line readings can be avoided by making for rehearsal and rehearsal is a great way for the director and actors to build trust some directors like Sidney Lumet are subtle about it limit would tell each person where to set up the first read through the script this made it clear to the actors that he had a plan and was confident his choices directors like Mike lead our moral vert about building trust in rehearsal lead purposely works with actors were willing to explore themes and ideas before they even have a script they work through proposed scenes together and then we develop the script around what they've uncovered together in the rehearsal process by the time the cameras are rolling the actors have been living in growing as these characters so they know how to approach every scene from rehearsal the final cut a director's job always includes guiding the actors in the roles in shaping those performances but the director also works with every creative department on a film that's what Mamet calls where to put the camera but it involves much more than that just like with the actors the director has to deeply understand the other department so they can communicate clearly with everyone during pre production director coaches the location scouts on what the film needs in that setting they work with the production designer set decorators and props department to build the world in orchestrate everything in the mean before the actors even get to set the director needs to understand the film's characters to communicate their personalities and struggles to the costume designer both before and during filming the director works with the hair and makeup and special effects departments to perfect the details of the story telling and he asked the director decides where to put the camera there are an infinite number of ways to make a shot look cooler beautiful but there's usually one best way to shoot a scene when you remember that every shot should be motivated by what the scene is trying to convey what's motivating the camera placement movement can be practical like if you need to show someone driving we need to see who it is and also that they're in a car but how the director decides to use the camera can also help us understand something about the character or the themes of the film more deeply starting in pre production the director and cinematographer work together to design the shot list you know usually work with the storyboard artist illustrate what the shots will look like and work off the storyboards as a reference you can do this before locations are nailed down and it's possible to work on it even before the actors are cast because what determines how a film is shot is that blueprint we talked about before the script just like every line of dialogue every shot should convey new information to the audience we should be able to watch a film with the sound off and still be able to get what's going on we should be able to know things like where protagonist is what they want what's standing in their way and how they feel once we know what to tell the actors and where to set the camera there's still one huge job left for the director post production just like with all the other creative leads the director needs to communicate the story with the editor and composers in order to tell the best version of the story the editing process introduces the final layer of discovery for the director the director is the guiding force in uncovering the answers right up until the final cut what the best version of the story is depends on the director in the film while the director leads their team and unlocking that best version there also the decision makers there holding the whole film in their heads an actors cinematographers designers editors and composers are all giving options that they think are the right answers for the film then the director chooses which or the best depending on the size of the production the director might not be the one calling acts cut but the director is always the one who says yes that's what I want today we explored the director's role as a leader in creative guy for everyone else working on the film we learned that the director must have a strong vision and be able to communicate clearly and we talked about how one of the directors most important jobs is creating a safe space for the rest of the teams do their creative work one of those people is the cinematographer who will talk about next time crash course film production is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channels check out a playlist of their amazing shows like eons PBS infinite series and PBS space time this episode of crash course was filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking a crash course studio with the help of these nice people and are amazing graphics team is sarcastic //
"2017-10-11 21:37:43"
Cybersecurity: Crash Course Computer Science #31
\\hi I'm Carey and welcome to crash because computer science over the last 3 episodes we've talked about how computers have become interconnected allowing us to communicate me instantly across the globe but not everyone who uses these networks is going to play by the rules or have our best interests to halt just as how we have physical security like locks fences and police offices to minimize crime in the real world we need saliva security to minimize crime at home in the virtual world computers don't have ethics give them a formally specified problem and I'll happily compound outside lightning speed running carried the takes on a whole //
"2017-10-10 21:00:00"
Exercise: Crash Course Study Skills #10
\\I am Thomas Frank in this is crash course study skills over the course of the past 9 episodes we've covered topics you'd expect the fault of the umbrella of the shows study skills title preparing for tests planning beating procrastination and so today we're gonna step slightly out of the umbrella shadow to talk about exercise but don't be fooled this video still help you to become a better student exercise is crucial for keeping both your body and your brain healthy and is he later was video it's also a simple way to improve your ability to learn and focus the problem is that our culture is becoming less and S. active here in the U. S. nearly a third of kids mean ages of 2 and 19 qualifies it are overweight or obese and on average we spend over 10:00 hours a day looking at screens activity that almost always involves sitting down at many schools are helping the issue as physical education programs are constantly being cut fever adding more time to other classes you know as you see in a minute there's evidence to show that the opposite tactic would produce better academic results so today we're gonna dive deep into the brain benefits of exercise sent to the mind here that we're not talking about a narrow definition excite the weights are running just like comes in many different shapes and forms and regardless of your skill level or physical limitations you can probably find something to get your heart rate up which can in turn improve your mind I think about the concept of learning we often picture someone lost in some kind of intellectual work doing research reading a book or maybe working through a bunch of math problems it's important realize that all these activities are relatively recent inventions look that on evolutionary time scale what sort of trouble for the vast majority of the time the brain it's been around be it inside the skull human or something else its ability to learn a bolt right alongside moved to this makes sense if you think about it lifeforms that don't need to move freely have no use for brain plants just needs a group in one spot and then grow up for that a fixed set of today 5 people who learn think strategize only because now you need to be able to navigate complex parked food remembers location later on and state predators you a good example of this difference look at this he's a pervert start their lives in a larval stage I think with a primitive I tell like nerve cord that lets them around and bring at this stage the goal is to find a spot on the ocean floor make attachments so if they do this that's will be staying for the rest of our lives and to seal the deal they absorb all of those useful features of the around yeah I did a record and you guessed it the brain that's right wants to see score doesn't move anymore it basically needs its own brain thanks thought bubble I think the nurse I just heard of pulling us use the case the brain eating see score in his book I a vortex neurons to self your illustrious conclusion that quote that which we call thinking is the evolutionary internalization of moved in other words brains are creatures that move when you stop using it you'll lose it in fact use it or lose it is a principle that applies to much of biology not just brains that's why your muscles concert actually if you don't use a and what's going to stay active and learn new things can greatly increase the risk of developing dementia you don't use even more extreme example astronauts that's been a lot of time in orbit often suffer from a condition called space flight osteopenia which Lawson bone density to happens because the skeleton dozen have to constantly fight against the pull of her scrap on the whole every party your body's adapted to allow you to do so things you're doing them than those parts your body simply become resource hawks but you can't just decide you don't need them and turn them off your body systems are highly connected they depend on each other it means that you need to do what your body is built to do if you want you can all work and in the case of ex sighs it's just a matter of working in addition to keeping you healthy getting hurt he elevated on a regular basis can also make you a better student just look at the school district of Naperville Illinois back in the year 1990 opinion teacher Naperville named Phil Lollar side the traditional structure of P. classes just wasn't gonna cut it anymore they're almost always be some sports the few kids were already athletic were naturally dominate the more rules and by consequence lots of other kids would end up just standing around not really doing much at all lower decide to change things up a bit initiatives classes focus from traditional sports to more fitness based activity like jogging placing emphasis on constant movement keeping her return elevated zone during the entire period and most importantly he graded students on effort rather than skill by using heart reminders he was able to tell the students 10 minute mile times were still working just as hard as those who could in a call this program 0 our P. E. it started as an optional morning program before becoming integrated the schools normal schedule by the end of its first semester 1990 his test groups didn't shoot a 17 percent improvement in part 2 a 10.7 percent average perfectly kids who did part after that the structure of 0 hour P. became the archetype of the higher districts the pledge case program today district consistently ranks the state's top academic performers even though money spent per student there is much lower than other top tier districts the correlation gene fitness based P. classes and higher rates isn't limited to Naperville after studying laws program another P. T. journey Tim McCord brought his own school district in Titusville pa and in 2000 88 years after the program started there districts ring scores are gone from below the state average to 17 percent about it likewise math scores went from below that averaged 18 percent so what's going on here how exactly does excise hope you become a better student well broadly speaking regular exercise improves your brain in 3 important ways first it osmosis levels of neurotransmitters serotonin your preference and opening these are all crucial for large even minor we are hugely oversimplifying things here but in general serotonin helps to regulate your mood keeps Nora Ephron amps by signals related to attention and motivation and dopamine is highly ball that learning movements and offering the brains reports regular exercise balances these nor transmitters along with lots of others that are equally important to keep secondly excise can also stimulate narrow genesis the birth of new neurons from neural stem cells and had a campus this was once thought to be impossible for a long time prevailing belief assigned to the committee was that you were born with all the neurons were ever going to get but we now know the new neurons are created even during adulthood and excise increases the rate creation not one important thing to note here is that these support a stem cells that don't have an immediate purpose as a result many of them die again use it or lose it interpreting your honor survived has to get plugged into an existing neural network and that happens when you learn new things so really the crucial come over this particular better bring opposition is regular exercise and constant learning now if your student you've probably got the second part down Pat the moment but I do want to mention it because this remains true even as you get older and eventually don't have school lastly excise improve the ability of non stop buying to one another and this is how new neural pathways performed and how memories take hold it does this by protein production of a protein called brain derived neurotrophic factor work PDF which in turn enables improves a process called long term potentiation this is a mechanism that enables mark when new information enters your brain neurons start firing using existing stores another near transmitter called glutamate in this firing continues each active here on will also start generating building material for the creation of brand new synapses which are connections between separate Europe as the synapses are created memories for and BDNF is the secret sauce that makes the whole process in fact researchers have discovered that depriving rats be enough cause them to lose the capacity for this long education and on the flipside it also from rejecting VD enough directly into a rat's brain increases back basset not this does not mean you should go ask a doctor to inject BDNF in your brain they're probably gonna give you pretty weird look and it's unnecessary anyway because your brain naturally produces more BT enough when you learn new things and when you exercise there also other benefits that go beyond learning research just on a regular exercise can also improve focus block out distractions reduce stress and it led to control the weather with your mind you know the time to dig up the details these benefits here but if you're curious you can learn a lot more about each John Regan's book spark the revolutionary new science exercise and so but alas I was lying about that what we need to do now is answer the $0 question how exactly should you exercise if you want to improve your brains performance well first off don't try to do traditional academic learning during it see if they can be a pretty sweet productivity have to study your organic chemistry flash cards during said heavy deadlifts but it's not gonna work out so well when your heart rate is elevated blood actually moves away from your prefrontal cortex which manages your executive functions working memory and the intake of new information however the blood comes back almost immediately after actress so doing a workout going for a run right before you start learning is a great idea as for how you should excise well that's mostly up to you but you get the best results by combining elevated heart rate with complex skill based move when we do this is opera sport or skill based activity both figure skating basketball skateboarding martial arts or even intense yoga alternatively you can bursting some aerobic exercise all by a lower intensity now skill based movie like going for a 15 minute run and the doings rock climbing but beyond all else just get started even going for short walk once a day can have a lot of benefits so if you're not getting a lot of excise right now and just start small do what you can do focus on building how you need to worry about finding the perfect workout routine memorizing what we covered about be enough neurons you can just build that habit your brain will take care of the rest for you over the course this series we covered tips and strategies for dealing with many of the biggest challenges of and we did our best use research and our own personal experiences to make those types as useful as we possibly could but as you dive in your work you're gonna discover other strategies effective oral make tweaks that suit your style of working better than anything we could come up with an eye to encourage you to actively seek out these improvements as learning and productivity are 2 fields in this no single set of best practices as Bruce Lee once said adopt was useful project was useless and address specifically here are just as we himself struggling to cycle subgroup a lifelong so should you we cover a lot of ground over the past 10 episodes but there's always more to learn both really study skills and beyond so keep learning Keaton proving Chrysler study skills then the doctor still seeking a crash course studio right here in the summer months it's maybe help all these nice people you'd like to help to crash course free for everyone for ever you can support the series over at hatred properly platform that allows you to sports content thank you so much for your support //
"2017-10-09 22:18:35"
Theories of Global Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #28
\\for much of human history all of the society's on earth report poverty was the norm for everyone but obviously that's not the case anymore just as he finds stratification among socioeconomic classes within a society like the United States across the world you also see a pattern of global stratification within the qualities in wealth and power between societies so what made some parts of the world develop faster economically speaking than others how do you explain the differences and says you among the world's depends of course on which paradigm you're using to view the world one of the 2 main explanations for global stratification is modernization theory and it comes from the structural functionalist approach this theory frames global stratification as a function of technological and cultural differences between nations and it specifically pinpoint to historical events that contributed to western Europe developing at a faster rate than much of the rest of the world the first event is known as the Columbian exchange this refers to the spread of goods technology education and diseases between the Americas and Europe after Columbus's so called discovery of the Americas if you will learn more about that we did a whole world history episode about it the sixties worked out pretty well for the European countries they gained agricultural staples like potatoes and tomatoes which contributed to population growth and provided new opportunities for trade while also strengthening the power of the merchant class slut the Columbian exchange worked out much less well for native Americans whose populations were ravaged by the diseases brought from Europe it's estimated that in the 150 years following Columbus's first trip over 80 percent of the native American population died due to diseases such as smallpox and measles this second historical event is the industrial revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth tree we mention this before and there are a couple world history episode that you can check out for more detail but this is when new technologies like steam power and mechanization allow countries to replace human labor with machines and increase productivity the industrial revolution at first only benefited the wealthy and but industrial technology was so productive that gradually began to improve standards of living for everyone countries that industrialized in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries on massive improvements in their standards of living and countries that didn't just realize lag behind the thing to note here that modernization theory rests on the idea that affluence could have happened to anyone but of course it didn't so why didn't the industrial revolution tickled everywhere well modernization theory argues that the tension between tradition and technological change is the biggest barrier to growth society that's more steeped in family systems and traditions would be less willing to adopt new technologies in the new social systems that often accompany them quite a direct modernize the answer goes back to Max neighbors ideas of the Protestant work ethic the Protestant Reformation prying Europe to take on a progress oriented way of life in which financial success was a sign of personal virtue and individualism replace communalism this is the perfect breeding ground for modernization and according to American economists Walt Rostow modernization in the west took place as it always tends to in 4 stages first the traditional stager first to societies that are structured around small local communities production typically getting done in family settings because these societies have limited resources and technology most of their time is spent laboring to produce food which creates a strict social hierarchy think feudal Europe or early Chinese dynasties tradition rules how society functions what your parents do is what their parents did and what you'll do when you grow up to ask people begin to move beyond doing what's always been done a society moves into Rostow second stage I take Austin here people begin to use their individual talents to produce things beyond the necessities and this innovation creates new markets for trade internet greater individualism takes hold and social status is more closely linked with material wealth next nations begin what Rostow called the drive to technological maturity in which technological growth of the earlier periods begins to bear fruit in the form of population growth reductions in absolute poverty levels and more diverse job opportunities missions in this phase typically begin to push for social change along with economic change like implementing basic schooling for everyone and developing more democratic political system so last stages known as high mass consumption when your country is big enough that production becomes more about what's the needs many of these countries but social support systems in place to ensure that all of their citizens have access to basic necessities so the TLD our version of modernization theory is that if you invest capital in better technologies they'll eventually raise production enough that there will be more wealth to go around and overall well being will go up and rich countries can help other countries that are still growing by exporting their technologies and things like agriculture machinery and information to as well as providing for any like critics of modernization theory argue that in many ways it's just a new name for the idea that capitalism is the only way for a country these critics point out that even as technology has improved throughout the world a lot of countries have been left behind here and they argue that modernization theory sleeps a lot of historical factors under the rug when it explains European and north American progress countries like the U. S. and U. K. industrialized my position of global strength during a period when there were no laws against slavery or concerns about natural resource depletion and some critics also point out that Ross does markers are inherently euro centric putting an emphasis on economic progress but that isn't necessarily the only standard to aspire to after all economic progress often includes downsides like the environmental damage done by industrialization and the exploitation of cheap or free labor finally critics of modernization theory also see it as blaming the victim in this view the theory essentially blames poor countries for not being willing to accept change putting the fault on their cultural values and traditions rather than acknowledging that outside forces might be holding back those countries this is where the second theory of global something Zen rather than focusing on what poor countries are doing wrong dependency theory focuses on how poor countries have been wronged by richer nations this model stunts in the paradigm of conflict theory and it argues that the prospects of both wealthy and poor countries are inextricably linked this theory argues that in a world a finite resources we can't understand why rich nations are rich without realizing that those rich just came at the expense of another country being poor in this view global stratification starts with colonialism and its where will start today's thought bubbles starting in the 1500 European explorers spread throughout the Americas Africa and Asia cleaning lands for Europe at 1.great Britain's empire covered about one fourth of the world the United States which began as colonies themselves soon sprawled out through North America and took control of Haiti Porto Rico Guam Philippines the Hawaiian Islands and parts of Panama in Cuba with colonialism came exploitation of both natural and human resource the trans Atlantic slave trade followed a triangular route between Africa the American Caribbean colonies and Europe guns in factory made goods were sent to Africa in exchange for sleeves who were sent the colonies to produce goods like cotton and tobacco which were then sent back to you after slave trade died down in the mid nineteenth century the point of colonialism tend to be less about human resources and more about natural resource but the colonial model kept going strong in 1870 only 10 percent of Africa was colonized by 1940 only Ethiopia and Liberia were not colonize under colonial regimes European countries took control of land and raw materials to funnel wealth back to the west most colonies lasted until the 19 sixties and the last British colony Hong Kong was finally granted independence in 1997 thank stoppable this history of colonial is Asian is what inspired American sociologist Emanuel Wallace Stevens model of what he called the capitalist world economy Wallace steam describe high income nations as the core of the world the cot this core is the manufacturing base of the planet or resources funnel in to become the technology and wells enjoyed by the western world today low income countries meanwhile are Christine called the periphery whose natural resources and labor support the wealthier countries first this colonies and now by working for multinational corporations under Neil colonialism middle income countries such as India or Brazil are considered the semi periphery together closer ties to the global economic core in Wallace Stevens model the preferred remains economically dependent on the core in a number of ways tend to reinforce each other first poor nations tend to have few resources to export to rich countries but corporations can buy these raw materials cheaply and then process and sell them in richer nations as a result the profits tend to bypass the poor countries poor countries are also more likely to lack industrial so they have to import expensive manufactured goods from richer nations and all of these unequal trade patterns lead to poor nations owing lots of money to richer nations creating debt that makes it hard to invest in their own development so under dependency theory the problem is not that there isn't enough global wealth is that we don't distribute it well but just as modernization theory had its critics sodas dependency theory critics argue that the world economy isn't a 0 sum game one country getting richer doesn't mean other countries get poorer and innovation and technological growth can spill over to other countries improving all nations well being not just the rich also colonialism certainly less cars but it's enough on its own to explain today's economic disparities some of the poorest countries in Africa like Ethiopia were never called very little cunt with richer nations likewise a some former colonies like Singapore in Sri Lanka now flourishing economy is in direct contrast what dependency theory predicts most evidence suggests that nowadays foreign investment by richer nations helps not hurts poor countries dependency theory is also very narrowly focused points the finger at the capitalist market system as the sole cause of stratification ignoring the role that things like culture and political regimes play impoverishing countries there's also no solution to global poverty that comes out of dependency theory most dependency theorists just urge poor nations to cease all contact with the rich nations or argue for a kind of global socialism but these ideas don't acknowledge the reality of the modern world Connie making them not very useful for combating the very real very pressing problem of global poverty the growth of the world economy and expansion of world trade has coincided with rising standards of living worldwide but even the poorest nations almost tripling in the last century but with increased trade between countries trade agreements such as the north American free trade agreement have become a major point of debate pitting the benefits of free trade against the cost to jobs within a country's borders lessons about how to deal with global stratification are certainly far from settled but I can leave you with some good news it's getting better the share of people globally living on less than a dollar 25 per day to more than half since 1981 click from 50 to today we learned about 2 theories of global traffic first we discussed modernization theory and walk across the worst ages of modernization clean then talk about dependency the legacy of colonialism and Emmanuel college teams capitalist world economy model crash for sociology is filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking studio in Missoula Montana made with the help of all of these things for animation Tina stock Ashcroft has made with adobe creative cloud if you'd like to keep crash course free for everyone forever he can support the series at Pete a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love speaking of patriotic we'd like to thank all of our patrons in general and like to specifically thank our headmaster of learning and holding brother thank you so much for your support //
"2017-10-07 17:26:07"
The Mwindo Epic: Crash Course World Mythology #29
\\hi I'm like we're gonna this is press course mythology and today we're talking about a hero myth from Africa it's got everything water serpent a bright he baby banana beer on murder sector and the worst dead in the world even worse than Saturn who ate his children can tell my for a look at the epic open window the window story comes from the younger people of the Democratic Republic of Congo like all myths story has changed from telling to telling but in every version window rises from an auspicious birth to become chief of his people facing danger and defeating villains along the way the version will discuss comes from a story teller of the oral tradition named candy will wreck a before we get too far a quick note on our favorite meta topic pronunciation I briefly one to confront not only the difficulty that I'm gonna have nailing some of these pronunciations but what might be indicated by the relative absence on the internet at least of pronunciation guides for stories from this part of the world we ask you our audience to help with pronunciation for this episode and others yet to come and it was a huge help but still if I say something that sounds wrong please write a comment but also go to 4 vote.com and record the correct pronunciation sold out there in the world for everyone okay enough talk talk on with the show windows story begins before he's even born his father shame window the chief of 2 bone doe has 7 wives and swears that he will kill any woman who bears him aside he wants daughters who will bring dowry it's bad news for windows mum because he's a boy luckily I have some help since younger children receive guidance and protection from their office and windows on teen Gaura is pretty the rat incorrupt isn't only stronger beautiful and clever she's also married to keep the the water serpent who also has a special influence over backs and spiders you wherever the tale of baby Hermes who could walk and talk and make mischief the moment he was born well window one upset he helped his mother collect firewood and food while he's still in the womb he's born by leaping out of his mother's middle making all the midwives obstetricians yelp what kind of child is that we know is born holding an axe a magical bag a magic rope and most importantly a magic Congress sector it's kind of like a flyswatter made of an antelope tale shame window isn't happy window is a boy first he goes to windows house and throws beer after spear into the walls trying to kill his only son when window emerges unscathed shame window grabs him and buried him alive but window who can speak even though he's a baby curses his father the whole way down and then just clouds his way out of the grave finally shame window grabs a window and shows him into a drum which even throws into a like the sky rumbles it rains for 7 days and the whole village suffers a famine I think this does not bode well for shame window sitting under water still sewn into a drama and definitely not drowning window decides it's time to beat a hasty retreat he starts to roll the drum up river to find on into rock remember she lives with the water Sir along the way he defeats a bunch of water creatures by singing to them spends his time posting calling himself little one just born he walked when he reaches his aunt slices amount of the drum incorrupt serves many roles in window story she's a strong mother figure and advice giving got us a role you remember from Joseph Campbell's theory of the hero's journey featured in episode 25 eager also sets window on his quest she tells him that even though shame window is the worst dad in the world window can't get revenge on his own the lonely path is never a pleasant one to travel she tells him that's why I'm glad we're in this together tell well yeah but also you guys are cool window listens to engorda but can't help himself from messing with his dad so he begins singing along magical song that calls all of his father's possessions into bone dough to come and be his widow might helpful clever for stealing his dad stuff but it doesn't work out that well because windows followers work what school gorge themselves on newly arrived food and get sick we know can't believe that he's about to read all these greedy guts into battle so he calls on uncle Bob the god of lightning to help him uncle bud destroys it to bono with 7 lightning flash turning the village and its residents to dust which is maybe a bit drastic but she window finally gets the message messing with window bad idea he flees to an underground lair but window doesn't let his dad get away that easy first he brings all of his uncles who died in 2 bone go back to life and commands them to forge him baby our window sets out it follows his father's trail to the underworld follow with them in the thought bubble underground window meets him down she's a goddess good fortune but her dad is we saw god of the underworld could he Indo tells window that Lisa is protecting shame we but luckily she hates her dad so much she agrees to go window step by step what he has to do to feet we saw find his pops first she says whatever can offer you banana don't drink up in a beer because it's actually pretty gross second my dad can offer you banana paste but don't you that banana paste because it's actually put even grosser then after you don't eat as snacks will ask you to pass his test said at that point you're on your own window tracks down Louisa and it's exactly as cocky Indosat and Lisa gives him cultivate a new actual banana Grove in the underworld window uses a magic bill hawk that too field plants the seeds harvest bananas all by we sell unwinds his magical cow rebuilt and gives it an order fly and kill window the belt sits off finds window and kills and a story thanks for watching makes up what will usual for lunch so many like shrimp crab cakes okay just getting back to the fob as soon as we know falls his magic sector brings him told you that thing window grabs the scepter and sends it to go kill we saw the scepter flies to movie so kills the god of the underworld then brings him back to life that magical autonomous murder and rebirth scepter really has a mind of its own thanks for real thought bubble after the battle of enchanted accessories window completes more of movies as tests we saw makes more assassination attempts eventually window gets fed up with all of the testing in the belt attacking and confronts me so directly give me my dad I know you're hiding him we so refuses and window kills him once and for all she windows tracks eventually end in the home of Shippuden go the god of all creation window demands to know where his status but she wouldn't go says that if window once his help will have to best them in a game of wiki in this game the players take turns editing the entries for celebrities to include funny false details and edit that last longer okay I'm just kidding but I mean I kind of had it right seriously though in this case a game of what he means guessing the number of black seeds held in your opponents hand we don't agree is the baby and the god start to play at first she wouldn't do beats window over and over again winning everything window owns except his magic scepter with his back against the wall window bats his scepter and begins to wit wager after wager gas after gas window cleans Shippuden whose clock until he wins all of she booted goose possessions including probably his newly cleaned clock but window tells us she wouldn't do I want your sex I don't want creation I just want you to hand over my dad she wouldn't go past agree it's a window returns to to bono with a captured shame window this is it windows turning point when the boastful baby gets the chance to face his instead of killing him window is magnanimous and pardons shame window for mistakes flush with mercy he even brings movie so back who offers his daughter because he in does hand in marriage window refuses saying that he wants to marry into Bondo this is going to be able tough since I'm Kuba Lightnings that everyone in to bundle so you know provides them too bringing the whole village back to life finally she window admits to the village that he was wrong to try to kill window and that he's sorry about the whole drowning in the drum so may the male offspring be spared he says for he has shown me the way in which the sky becomes daylight and has given me the joy of witnessing again that the warmth of the people and of all the things here into bone window replies I will not hold a grudge against my father what my father did against me and what I did against my father all that is already over window story doesn't end here though in his subsequent adventures he learns off in the hard way how to be a compassionate and respectful ruler window thus returned to his people wiser fit to rule he pronounces a blessing that establishes rules by which to live may you grow many foods and many crops may you live in good houses may you bore over live in a beautiful village don't quarrel with one another don't pursue another's space don't mock the invalid passing in the village and he who seduces another's wife will be killed except the chief fear him may he also fear you may you agree with one another altogether no enmity in the land nor too much hate may you bring forth tall and short children and in so doing will bring them forth for the chief so we know has really grown up his hero's journey took him from pride he baby to adjust ruler fairly governing his people at its heart been window story is a Freudian style conflict of boy maturing to take his place take out the magical murder scepter and the other 2 supernatural parts and maybe some of the more draconian rules it's also a model for an individual's journey from boastful child too wise ruler and it teaches us why we should never ever take banana paste from a stranger window shows us how an individual must make sure to become a truly heroic and also fulfills an ecological role for the younger people he re establishes their village he provides the model of forgiveness and shows how the chief must be powerful and also favored by the gods he demonstrates that even with auspicious beginnings and divine help heroes are flawed and only achieve success if they learn and grow thanks for watching the next check out our crash course mythology tote tote bag and poster available now at DFTBA.com mnbound he isnt with alcohol these very people our enemies crash course exists or love free for everyone for a crash course is made with adobe creative cloud for only thanks for watching and here's hoping all right they're all sure reasonable leaders //
"2017-10-05 21:21:31"
Producers: Crash Course Film Production #6
\\no movie in the entire history of film has ever been made without a producer whether or not they were credited as one but no one ever seems to know what they do well to be fair it's a little confusing there are different kinds of producers and people on the title of producer for different reasons but the job is really hard work there the driving force of the movie getting a film crew off the ground keeping everything running and making sure it's shared with the world if a film doesn't it finished well chances are it could have used a team of producers let's start with a wide lens and then zoom see what I did there tell jokes and executive producer or EP oversees the whole filmmaking process and other producers involved in the project this person might be independent and run a small studio like with crash course or they might work for a larger company and represent the studio or the money person the financier and executive producer in short the film has the funding it requires and usually sets the budget and overall schedule they can be deeply influential on the style of the film to think of movies that were executive produced by Stephen Spielberg our Judd Apatow or Tina fey they're all different from each other but distinct to their executive producer while the job can be highly demanding sometimes people are honored with the title because they're lending their well it's to a production that these honorary executive producers might not be involved in the day grinds but they're very important in helping the movie that made you have student loans you understand when I say that an honorary EP can be like having a really wonderful cosigner they're standing behind your project and promising to the world that you're going to deliver a film that's up to their standard even when a film has honorary EP's it'll still have an executive producer who's keeping things running on a macro scale and looking toward the future a movie they can sell and get to an audience now in EP is one kind of producer and there are lots of different producer roles that will get too soon but the simple title of producer is usually where the job description seems the mouse nebulous like what the heck do they do kind of nebulous turns out there's no one thing that a producer is or does really the title can be given to anyone who was essential in making sure the film got made or maybe they develop the idea balancing big picture stuff or they might have brought the creative team together and hammered out the details that make films that run wild so things can get a little confusing when you're reading the credits of the film but not to worry there's a code that we can decipher the person who we think of as V. producer will be listed in the credits after the phrase produced by this is the person are sometimes couple of people with the seemingly never ending list of responsibilities there the point of contact through every stage of the film and ultimately responsible for the movie becoming yet all in pre production the producer finds a project and develop that with the writer then they gather the resources and hire the key crew members for production during production they oversee filming and help run the shoot and in post production the producer worked with the director editor and composer to finish the film they can even have the other cut scenes or reschedule shoots if that's what the film needs to come together their ultimate goal is to crystallize the vision of the film maker and find a way to sell it to be clear not on the skis anyway filmmaking is really expensive so financiers will pay for a movie up front and you want to pay them back for their investment plus selling the film to distributors is the only way to get all your hard work out into the old and it's not really a movie until audiences see itself okay now that we have a handle on producers when the world a co producer this title is actually great because it's descriptive a co producer is a part of the producing team tour Marco purchasers will produce a film of the unit sometimes a co producer will have another role in the film like maybe they're also a writer and actor so they're not involved in all the producing it's an assistant or associate producer works under the head hot on a large production the producer delegates work to one or more of them associate producer like executive producer can also be an honorary title given to some who helped like because they want their name to the project or funded it now let's talk about specific producer titles in their duties the line producer reports to the producer and all the department heads report to the line producer the line producer plans it orchestrates the logistics of the entire production including scheduling staffing and managing how the budget is used as a some kind of familiar on lower budget films line producer in the unit production manager might be the same person but if they're not the line producer plans all the budget another minutia while the U. P. M. carries up the line producers plants sometimes usually on a TV show or series like crash course you'll see the title supervising producer or senior producer they help guide the whole project both logistically and creatively and report directly to the executive producer so now that we've got the basics coupon what producers do here's a puzzle for you and honestly for the academy of arts and sciences to who accepts the Oscar for Best Picture seed the director is often thought of as the filmmaker but they got their own cat Best Director so the winner of Best Picture is the producers they're usually the ones who chose to make this particular movie and who hired all the creative leads so they deserve some recognition to sometimes you'll see a director or writer run up on stage to accept the Oscar for Best Picture that's because they were also a producer and there are a lot of reasons why someone to where so many have even though it's difficult work one is control what we think of as the creative roles like writer director actor ultimately answer to the producers so if you're one of those producers that you have more control over the phone this coming creative control because of helping move the film through production or it might mean financial or marketing control because producers typically help decide which festivals and audiences the film will reach secondly if someone has proven themselves to be multi talented studio sometimes prefer to pay one person to do multiple jobs because remember filmmaking is expensive a lot of the time director producers or writer director producers are highly experienced all tours who have the best understanding of a project so if they were multiple hats it can really help the movie success Matt said it's extremely rare for there to be just one producer on a project there still V. producer with the produced by credit and the line producer organizing the production not to mention all the other producers and executive producers on the team that way if the director producer needs to focus their whole attention on directing at some point they can and the production will go on oddly enough though the producing team doesn't really seem to scale like the other departments like a couple episodes ago we had a not comparing the scale of 2 movie starring Felicity Jones rogue one in like crazy across the board there were a lot more people in departments working on rogue one for instance the art department for row one included 174 credits while like crazies was just for people but that wasn't true for the producers world one credited 10 producers while like crazy credited 13 so how does a movie with a much smaller crew and budget wind up with 3 more producers than one with a man team and 800 times the budget well there are couple plus it's from one filmmaker can meet an army but you can also make a movie with a small group of multi talented people while anyone on a film set is most likely gonna be a hard worker on a low budget films you end up relying on a few heroes who really go above and beyond often those people are thanked with the producer credit of some kind another option is that sometimes people who usually fill a different role on a film project like the make up artist or sound mixer want to get in producing and they do that by starting out small and producing a low budget film third independent sounds usually benefit most from honorary executive producer lending their clout so producers might be credited for name recognition reasons fourth think good way to stretch your budget like if you can't afford a lead actor salary you might ask them to be a producer to so the project will be worth their while they'll have another credit on their resume a foot in the door to a new job in the industry plus more control over the film any of these reasons could be why a small independent films such as like crazy would have more producers then wrote one but after looking a little closer at the credits here's a different gas you see one of the producers one of the people robe one was produced by with Kathleen Kennedy she's a very very experienced producer and has led Lucas film since 2000 welfare because some of the biggest blockbusters from the last 35 years chances are Kathleen Kennedy was a producer on it Jurassic Park yeah up back to the future yep who framed Roger rabbit the sixth sense Indiana Jones yep yep yep and that goes to show how critical good producers are to the success of the film even though it may be a little confusing what they do because they all incredibly important one today we learned about a lot of ways a person can the title of producer we broke down some different roles from executive producers to wine producers and talk about how they each don't get me and next time we'll talk about the person who most influences what a film will be the director crash course film production is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like deep look part Regis with Nate and PBS space time this episode a crash course was filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking a crash course studio with the help of these nice people and are amazing graphics team is thought cafe //
"2017-10-04 21:43:31"
The World Wide Web: Crash Course Computer Science #30
\\hi I'm Carrie and welcomes crash because computer science over the past 2 episodes we've delved into the why is signal switches packets routed the particles that make up the internet tonight we did to me but it's another level of abstraction and spoke about the worldwide web this is not the same thing as the inset even though people often use the 2 terms interchangeably the worldwide web runs on top of the internet in the same way that Skype minecraft or Instagram day the incident is the underlying plumbing that conveys the data for all these different applications and the worldwide web is the biggest of them all a huge distributed application running on millions of subs worldwide accessed using a special program called web browser we get to learn about that and much more in today's episode a fundamental building block of the worldwide web all wet for short is a single page this is a document containing content which can include links to other pages these accord hyperlinks you'll know what these look like text or images that you can click and they jump you to another page please hyperlinks form a huge web of interconnected information just whether hoping gets its name this seems like such an obvious idea but before hyperlinks were implemented every time you wanted to switch to another piece of information on the computer you have to rummage through the file system to find it or talk into such books with hyperlinks you can easily fly from 1 related topic to another the value of hyperlinks information was conceptualized by Vannevar bush way back in 1945 he published an article describing hypothetical machine quota mimics which we discussed in episode 24 bush described as associative indexing whereby any item may because that will select another immediately and automatically here operated the process of trying to things together is the important thing thereafter at any time when 1 of those items is in gave the other I can compete instantly record merely by tapping a boxer in 1945 computers didn't even have screens so this idea was way ahead of its time text containing hyperlinks is so powerful going equally awesome night hypertext web pages are the most common type of hypertext documents today they retrieved amended by web browsers which will get to in a few minutes in order for pages to link to one another each hypertext page needs a unique address on the web this is specified by uniform resource locator or you are officials an example webpage URL if the crash course.com slash courses like we discuss last episode when you request a flight the first single computer does in the DNS lookup this takes the domain names in put like the crash course.com replaced back with a matching computer's IP address now armed with the IP address of the computer you want your web browser opens a TCP connection to a computer that's running a special piece of software called web server standard port number for web service is portrayed at this point oil computer studies connect to the web server be addressed the crash coastal calm the next step is to ask that web server for the courses hype page to do this uses the aptly named hypertext transfer protocol or HTTP the very first documented version of the spec HTTP 0.9 creates the 19 he won only had one component gets fortunately that's pretty much all you need because we're trying to get the courses page we said the 7 the following command get slash courses this command is sent as a rule aski text for the web server which then replies back but the webpage click protects we requested this is interrupted by a computer's web browser Mendocino screen if the use of follows a link to another page the computer just issues another get requests and this goes on and on as you surf around the website in later versions HTTP added status codes which prefix any hypertext that was said following get requests for example status code 200 means okay I've got the page and here it is status codes in the 400 to 4 client errors like if these off the web server for a page that doesn't exist that's the dreaded for ifor era webpage hype Texas stored ascent of Plano text for example encoded Askia UTF 16 which we talked by net sites for 20 because plain text files don't have a way to specify what the link was not it was necessary to develop a way to mock a text file with hypertext elements for this the hypertext markup language was developed the very first version of HTML version 0.8 created in 1990 provided 18 HTML commands to mock up pages that's it let's build a web page with aids first let's give our web page of big heading to do this we type in the letters H. 1 which indicates the stalls for festival heading we surround back in angle brackets this is 1 example of an HTML tag then we ends whatever heading we want we don't want the whole page to be heading so we need to close the H. 1 tag like site with a little slash in the front now let's add some content visitors may not know what Cleveland's all so let's make that what a hyperlink to the Klingon language institute for more information we do this with a tag inside of which we included that tribute to specifies a hyperlink reference the page to jump to if the link is clicked and finally we need to close the a tag now let's have a second level heading which uses an H. to tag HTML also provides tax to create meets we saw this by adding the tag Fernwood list then we can add as many items as we want surrounded in el I tap which stands for next item people may not know about the phase so let's make that a hyperlink tape lastly for good form we need to close the awarded less tax I went down that's a very simple web page if you save this text internet paddle text that it name is something like test to HTML you should be able to open it by dragging into your computer's web browser of course today's web pages are a tad more sophisticated the newest version of HTML version 5 has over 100 different tax the things like images tables forms of buttons and there are other technologies were not going to discuss like cascading style sheets CSS and Java script which can be embedded into HTML pages and do even fancier things that brings us back to web browses this is the application on your computer that she took hold of these web services browsers not any request pages a media but also Brenda the content is being returned the first web browser web server was written by now said Tim Berners Lee over the course of 2 months in 1990 at the time he was working at CERN in Switzerland to pull this face off he said we'll take easily created several of the fundamental web standards we discussed today URLs HTML and HTTP not bad for 2 months work well but to be fair heaping researching hypertext systems for over a decade after initially circulating software monks colleagues at sun was released to the public in 1991 the worldwide web was born importantly the web wasn't I can stand it making it possible for anyone to develop new website prison browses this allowed the team at the university of Illinois at Urbana Champaign to create the mosaic web browser in 19 3 it was the first browser that out graphics mean but it looks like text previous browses displayed graphics in separate windows it also introduce new features like bookmarks and had a friend ego interface which made it popular even though it looks pretty crusty it's recognize was the web we know today by the end of the 1990 so many web browsers in use like Netscape navigator internet explorer opera on the web a mesa many web servers will also developed like Apache a Microsoft internet information services new website pops up daily what mainstays like Amazon and eBay was founded in the mid 19 nineties it was a golden era the web was flourishing and people increasingly needed ways to find things if you knew the web address where you want to die like eBay.com you could just type it into the browser boards if you didn't know where to go like you any new the wanted pictures of cute cats right now where do you guy of stuff people maintain web pages which served as directories hype linking to other websites most famous among these was Jerry and David's guide to the worldwide web rename John who in 1994 as the whipped cream these human edited directory started to get on we'll day and so search engines were developed escape to full bubble the earliest web search engine operated like ones we use today was jump station created by Jonathan Thatcher in 1993 at the university of Stirling this consisted of 3 pieces of software that work together the fest was wet cool off software that followed all the links you can find on the web anytime he found a link on the page I have new makes it would add those to its list the second compared it wasn't every Najim index recording what times the pit what pages the Cola had visited the final piece was a such algorithm the consulted the index for example if I type the word cats into jump station every web page whether what cats appeared would come up in the latest tally search engines very simple metrics to run because of the search results most often just a number of times at such time of hit on a page this what JK until people started gaming the system like by writing cat hundreds of times on that web pages justices traffic that way Google's rise to fame was in large part due to a clever algorithm flights that this issue instead of trusting the content on the web page they look to how other websites link to that page if it was a spam page with the white cat over and over again no site with links to it face the web page was Newhart's him catch than other sites would likely linked to it so the number of law school backlinks especially from reputable flight was often a good sign of quality this started as a research project cool backrub at Stanford University in 1996 before being spun out 2 years later into the Google we know today thankful bubble finally I want to take a second took about 10 you probably heard a lot recently net neutrality now they've built an understanding of packets inset reaching the worldwide web you know enough to understand the essence or at least the technical aspects of this big debate in short network neutrality is the principle the whole packet from the internet should be treated equally it doesn't matter if the pockets of my email or use streaming this video they stole chuckled at the same speed and priority but many companies would prefer that that day to arrive to you referentially take for example com cost a large I SP the also rans many TV channels like NBC in the weather channel which is streamed online not pick on com cost in the absence of net neutrality rules they could for example said a label that content to be delivered silky smooth and high priority but other streaming videos are going to get throttled that is intentionally given less band with a lower priority again I just want to reiterate Hey this is just conjecture at a high level net neutrality advocates argue that giving internet providers this ability to essentially setup toes on the internet to provide premium pocket delivery plaza seats for an exploitative business model biased piece could be gatekeepers to content with strong incentives to not play nice with competitors also if big companies like Netflix and Google compatriot special treatment small companies like startups will be at a disadvantage stifling innovation on the other hand they're a good technical reasons why you might want different types of data to flow at different speeds Prescott core needs high priority is not a big deal if an email comes in a few seconds lights net neutrality opponents also argue the market forces and competition would discourage bad behavior because customers would leave ISPs both ruffling slightly like this debate will rage on for awhile yet and as we always encourage a crash course you should go out and lead role because the implications of net neutrality a complex white reaching I'll see you next week crash course computer science is produced in association with PBS things to students at that salary could check out plays to shows like brain Croft community of PBS influences this episode was filmed at the chat if they see a local studio Indianapolis Indiana and it was made with the health warnings like and our wonderful graphics can pull cafe thanks the random access memories all seem like //
"2017-10-03 21:00:00"
Papers & Essays: Crash Course Study Skills #9
\\let's be real here you go 2000 word essay due in less than 2004 hours and you're watching a YouTube video look at your life look at your choices but way to do that until these videos over because today I'm gonna help you become a literary or at least write a paper that is given to you're more and the waste basket free throws Simon didn't Jones researcher for Microsoft wants you to talk at Cambridge university about how to write great research paper in his talk he buys the audience to start up the paper a process with a pre writing pays only once that's done should they go to research most people do this in the opposite way they get their idea to go to a bunch a research on it and then they write their paper but I would Jones advice go through pre reading base first before doing any research because it does a couple of very important things first providing will dredge up things you didn't even think you knew about the topic this is something that professional writers know really well we spend some quality time writing it focused state your brain will make connections and serve up memories you didn't results great question just make and this leads directly to the second focused should he go to the research process armed with arguments pre writing phase you'll have a much better idea of and you spend a lot less time going down now the first thing to understand about the pre writing phase is that it's not tallest peak try for one you haven't even done the research it but more importantly a paper is a big project and with big projects you need to just jump in and make a mess it's like it are still trying to solve block any good artist knows that it's much easier to hammer out the basic features right away and so trying to jump at first the results are gonna be a mess but it's much easier to hold a mass great the turn a solid block of marble into a masterpiece on a first pass so let's get into the details personally my pre reading things usually takes the form of a brain now this is not the time to write a coherent paper instead it's just a chance for me to get all my thoughts onto a piece of paper or into a document on my note taking app but I do bring them all open a new document set Commodore timer for 25 minutes like we talked about not press nation video and then I just start writing specifically I'm looking to pull basically everything I know about the topic of my brain as well as identify any questions also without any main points I think would be important cover and finally try to think of any specific external resources that might be useful to look at during the research process wanted a brain dump it's time to move on to the research sell meat biggest pitfall that most students deal with here is the tendency to get stuck in this space forever the author counterpart calls this research recursion syndrome you get stuck in a loop of constantly looking for yet another source is what how to become a straight a student Newport lays out an algorithm sorts for ensuring you don't get stuck in a slip first define your sources now you'll probably find most these of library or on the internet but it's also possible to find a man into temple full booby traps Serbs it most teachers agree that being upheld by hidden for spike's is not acceptable excuse for turning into to see you know a safer place that you might actually want to start with is opinion that some of your teachers are gonna say that wikipedia isn't a good source and their rights however the citation section at the bottom of each and every wikipedia article is actually a really great place to find good sources since wikipedia hold their articles to high standards requires high quality source material like scientific studies published in reputable journals aside from wikipedia though you'll also find lots of good sources through scholar journal databases like EBSCO your school library and one place might not about a before the notes were bibliography section and most popular science books for example bill Bryson's book a short history of nearly everything contains 48 pages citations and references to other works since he found your sources make personal copies of create photo copies of their book so the paper formats or add them to a note taking app if their digital this ensures that you'll always have them available to you when you're writing without having to go look for them next one annotate the material skimming source highly dissections if you're specifically relevant departments wanna make and at any knows that might help you hammer out the details those arguments when you're actually writing the final draft finally consciously ask yourself if you're done cal's ballpark suggestion here is to have at least 2 sources for each main point your thesis and at least one source for any tangential or non crucial course this is a general suggestion so you'll have to make the final call the answer is no repeat the process if the answer is yes then it's time to write your first real draft and this should be an awful first draft there's a popular attitudes often attributed Ernest Hemingway which goes write drunk edit sober now there are more than a few things wrong with this quote first Hemingway never said it is actually a pretty rephrasing a passage from novel called Ruben Ruben by Peter secondly Hemingway definitely didn't write this way even though he was a guy who definitely drank a lot of spare time however it's still a useful piece of advice as long as it isn't taking literally what's actually getting at is useless leading the initial act creation be free of scrutiny and restrict and this is important because one of the most difficult problems that writers do with is perfectionists still available material if you for a second this would you you're watching right now creating this has been a dream of mine for years crash courses when biggest inspirations for you were in the first place and ever since I started one of my biggest aspirations was to be a host on this very channel I want to be a part of a project that inspired me to start creating videos on my own so I'll be honest sitting here talking to you being an animated character this is awesome but it's also intimidating because I felt the series had to be perfect and then it really hard to write the script that you're listening to right now however once I reminded myself that they didn't have first time the writing became much much easier I knew that my fantastic editor Meredith would help me home each and every script in something truly great before actually had and once I acknowledge that fact the first drafts became so much easier to do this same mindset will be at the completion of your own first draft as well it's okay if your first draft is awful because future you will be there at it and shape it into something great banks novel now one technique that I found to be helpful during this process is to write my first draft in a different place than Brian tend to final draft got this might be a separate documents or it might be an entirely different at for instance I read the first draft of almost everyone my blog posts video scripts in Evernote and later opossum up in Google drive using a separate app like this helps me to truly believe that it's okay to make a mess course that message got to clean up eventually now I did say a minute ago the cleaning up a speech use problem but eventually future you becomes now you so let's talk about it I recommend editing your paper into a separate state stage one is the content at it here your looking your paper as a whole and ask yourself the most important questions disease argument support the peace does the paper have a good narrative flow is each argument properly fleshed out and backed up researcher external sources and what can be removed or Britain a clear simpler way essentially in this state is all about making sure the paper communicates your message to the reader as effectively as possible it's not about spelling errors those issues saper stage to be technically it at this point you're ready to go over your paper with a fine tooth comb to identify any problems the structure syntax things like spelling and grammar mistakes poorly structured sentences formatting errors or sentences that just don't sound right I find the most effective way to do it technically it is to print up the paper and go over it by it's just easier to catch mistakes when you're editing a paper in its final intended media plus by using pen to paper it prevented for making corrections the fly doing so would require switching contexts for editing to writing which can be for taking and makes it easier to get sloppy near the end of paper innocent burning out your paper you should also take the time to read it out loud this forces you to slow down in principle unconsciously skipping over any works and help to identify any sense is that don't sound good finally remember that one set of eyes isn't good enough especially when they're your own to make a paper truly great need to let other people look over it and get their feedback Simon picking Jones has more good advice here first realize that each person can only read your paper for the first time actually what's just like I can never experience the magic was all across the wall for the first time ever again single tear nobody could ever read your paper with fresh eyes twice so be strategic with your reviewers but a couple people read the first draft and keep other people on deck for the final second we make sure to explicitly ask for the kind of feedback you Shirley walked when people are given direction built naturally gravitate to looking for spelling and grammar errors switch aren't nearly as important as the big elements like whether or not your arguments even make sense finally after you got your feedback and finished both exit editing print out your final draft and get one final read through from start to finish if everything makes sense in nothing 6 Alice glaringly wrong give yourself permission to be and all likelihood you've just crafted an excellent piece congrats Chrysler study skills still the doctor Sherrell seeking a crash course studio here in Missoula Montana they would help all these nice people if you'd like to help to crash course free for everyone for ever you can support the series at patria problem platform that allows you to support the content you love thank you so much for your support //
"2017-10-02 20:11:43"
Global Stratification & Poverty: Crash Course Sociology #27
\\you've heard of first world problems right someone cracked the screen on the iPhone or get the wrong order at Starbucks in the going Twitter and complain about their hash tag first world problems so you've heard the phrase but have you thought about the implications of talking about countries as first or third where these names even come from these terms are outdated inaccurate and frankly insulting ways of talking about global stratification so how should we talk about global star first let's deconstruct the idea of the first second third world hierarchy see where it came from and learn what its implications are terms think back to the Cold War when western policy makers begin talking about the world as 3 distinct political and economic blocs western capitalist countries were labeled as the first world the Soviet Union and its allies were termed the second world and then everyone else got group into a third world after the Cold War ended the category of second World countries became null and void but somehow the terms first world in third world stuck around in the public consciousness third world countries which started as just a vague catchall for non aligned countries came to be associated with impoverished states while first world was associated with the rich industrialized country but in addition to being seriously outdated these terms are also inaccurate there more than 100 if the label of third world they have vastly different levels of economic stability summer relatively poor but many heart so lumping Botswana and Rwanda into the same category for example doesn't make much sense because the average income per capita in Botswana is 9 times larger than in Rwanda nowadays sociologists or countries into groups based on their specific levels of economic productivity to do this they used the gross domestic product or GDP which measures the total output of a country and the gross national income or GNI which measures GDP per capita high income countries are those with GNI above 12005 hours per year there 79 countries in this group including the U. S. the UK Germany Chile Saudi Arabia Singapore and more as the name suggests standards of living are higher here than the rest of the world high income countries are also highly urbanized with 81 percent of people in high income countries living in or near cities much of the world industry a center in these countries to and with industry comes money and technology take cellphones for example 60 percent of those in low income countries have a cell phone but in high income countries not only does almost everyone how the cell phone but for every 100 people in high income countries there are 124 cellphone plans the next category is the upper middle income defined as those with GNI between $4000 and $12500 per year there are 56 countries in this group and they tend have advancing the cause with both manufacturing and high tech mark such as China Mexico Russia and Argentina are also heavily urban had access public infrastructure like education and health and have comfortable standard of living for most citizens not to differ from what you'd expect a high income country now you might notice that I keep talking about how urban these types of countries are why does it matter how many people live in cities well if you use to media depictions of poverty in the U. S. you might think of it as an inner city problem but poverty worldwide is mostly rural agricultural societies produce less than industrialized ones which brings us to our next grouping lower middle income countries these have GNI between $1000 and $4000 per year and they include such countries as Ukraine India Guatemala unlike the previous groups only 40 percent of people living in lower middle income countries live in urban areas and the economy is based on manufacturing and natural resource production here access to services like quality healthcare and education is limited to those who are well off for example the maternal mortality rate is 5 times higher and lower middle income countries than in upper middle income countries in one third of children under the age of 5 are malnourished our final grouping includes the 31 countries designated as low income which have yearly GNI less than $1000 per year these countries are primarily world most of the world's farmers live in these countries and their economies are mainly based on agriculture not only do these countries face income poverty they also have greater rates of disease worse health care and education systems and many of their citizens lack access to basic needs like food and clean water here 8 percent of children die before the age of 5 and among older children more than one third never finish primary school this type of poverty is very different than the type of poverty that we see in high income countries like the United States that's why when we talk about social stratification on a global level it's important to remember the distinctions between relative and absolute poverty relative poverty exists and also cite is regardless of the overall income low all of the society absolute poverty is when a lack of resources is literally life threatening let's go to the thought bubble to talk about 2 groups that are particularly vulnerable and low children and women the results of child poverty range from cal nutrition to homelessness to children working in dangerous and illegal job UNICEF estimates that there are 18.5000000 children worldwide work orphans an estimated 150000000 are engaged in child labor child malnutrition is worst in South Asia and Africa where one third of children are and half of all child deaths worldwide are attributed to home women also make up a disproportionate number of the globally poor 70 percent of those living at or below absolute poverty levels worldwide are women some of this is a result of women being kept from working you to religious or cultural beliefs some of it is because many women who do work don't get to control the fruits of their labor quite literally even though women in low income countries produce 70 percent of the food men own the land that the women's labor is done on 90 percent of the land in poor countries is owned by men and poverty of children in the poverty of women are connected specifically by reproductive health care for access to reproductive health care is part of the reason that birth rates are so much higher in low income countries and less money plus more mouths to feed equals more child poverty think stoppable women and children may be the most vulnerable to global poverty but poor societies have many problems beyond malnutrition and poor health care including slavery you might think of slavery as a problem from long ago I mean the U. S. was slow to abolish slavery compared other western slavery is very much alive around the world the international labor organization estimates that there are at least 20000000 men women and children currently enslaved now all of these symptoms of global poverty might make you think what causes it one might because is simply the lack of access to technology and I'm not talking about like self driving cars being able to use simple things like fertilizer in modern seats for example can make huge differences for families on low income also cellphones the growing number of cellphones in sub Saharan Africa has increased access to educational tools banking services and healthcare resources another major cause of global inequalities of population even with the higher death rates the high birth rates and lower income countries that the populations in poor countries double every 25 years further straining those countries economic resources and this is directly related to a third reason for global poverty gender inequality sasine cultural and social factors that prevent women from working also tend to limit their access to birth control which in turn increases family sizes and that contributes to population growth and slows economic development as resources strained social and economic stratification both within countries and across countries are also part of the story unequal distribution of wealth within the country makes it hard for those stuck in poverty to get out of poverty and inequality across nations means a country with more economic power had historically been able to subjugate less powerful nations their systems like colonialism colonialism is the process by which some nations enrich themselves by taking political and economic control of other neat western Europe colonized much of Latin America Africa and Asia starting more than 500 years ago and as a result much of the wealth and resources flowed out of those regions and into European coffers send colonialism isn't some distant past most African British colonies gained their independence in 1968 in other words the baby boomers are you know were alive when the U. K. still had colonies so it's no wonder that so many colonised countries remain low or lower middle income when they've only had a little over half a century to begin building their own independent cut and as colonialism fell new power relationships emerge that it made it harder for poor countries to develop further neo colonialism doesn't involve direct political control of the nation instead it involves economic exploitation by corporations for example corporate leaders often exert economic pressure on lower income countries to allow them to operate under business conditions are favorable for the companies and often unfavorable for the citizens that work for them this is all difficult stuff to talk about but there is good news global poverty is getting better life expectancy is improving rapidly in low income countries between 1990 in 2012 life expectancy in low income countries has increased by 9 years and child mortality rates have worldwide in the same period how do we keep up this prop simply want to tackle global poverty addressing the social cultural and economic forces that keep countries mired in poverty will be the first today we discuss the terms first and third world countries and the reasons why those terms are no longer here we also went over 4 types of countries high income upper middle income lower middle income and low income and the lifestyles of people within those countries we talk about some of the consequences of global poverty including malnutrition for education overpopulation partially due to poor reproductive healthcare since slavery finally we discussed some explanations for global poverty including technology gender inequality social stratification global power relationships like colonialism next week we'll discuss the main theories behind global stratification crash personality is film the doctor Sherrell seeking a studio in Dillon Montana made with the help of all of these days our animation team to stock Ashcroft is made with adobe creative cloud if you like to keep crash course free for everyone forever can support the series at keep a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love speaking of patriotic we'd like to thank all our patrons in general and would like to specifically thank our headmaster of learning and holding color thank you so much for your support //
"2017-09-29 17:10:17"
Galahad, Perceval, and the Holy Grail: Crash Course World Mythology #28
\\hi there I'm like another this is crash course mythology and today we're gonna talk about the holy grail of mythology which is the actual literal non metaphorical holy grail King Arthur knights of the round table and most importantly question the holy grail is always just out of reach at the end of the road the ultimate goal the greatest adventure and so the grail quest for whoever takes it is a ready made hero's journey no nobody it the grail I scale close though in this video will talk about 2 different nights requested after that pesky grail and will examine 2 things first where the story depart from Campbell's monolithic pattern and second how they combine the values of Christianity with tropes and characters of pre Christian myths got your armor and your coconut halves and let's quest for knowledge Jenyns the legend of King Arthur and his knights have been retold endlessly in the Middle Ages through today many versions of the story contradict each other or change focus historians even disagree over whether there was a real living breathing King Arthur but don't bother us though because either way the body of Arthurian legends remains incredibly influential most of the stories that make up our Therion hero myths come from the late medieval period the eleventh to thirteenth centuries the coalesced into what most of us would recognize as our thirst tale with Merlin and Lancelot and Guinevere all the rest in Thomas Malory's late fifteenth century stories collected as they mocked the author however we're gonna focus on 2 other versions of the grail Star centered around to other nights Percival and Galahad to explore this paradigmatic legend of England we're gonna start in France because the first time the holy grail appears as part of the Arthurian myth isn't creek Chanda toiles story of the grail romance composed between 1181 and 1191 seat to try not only made his Arthurian tale about the quest for the elusive Crail he also made a purse of all and not Arthur or any other night a hero and Perceval is maybe not the kind of night you're used to he's a very brave young man but he's not the sharpest layouts in the armory and it also turns out that his shivering and buy Ivete plea big parts in his hero's journey our story begins Percival is living alone with his mom in the waist forest which sounds unpleasant in almost like up fallout location Percival isn't only child to a single mom because his dad and all his older brothers were killed serving as night personal moment never tells him she's all he has left and she worries that if ya I'm not so bright person learns the truth who want to be a night and he'll get himself killed too often works until one day purses out hunting and he comes across 5 glittering figures on horses they are literal nights in literal shining armor but Percy has no idea what a night is because his mom has shielded him from so he thinks they must be angels what I said not the sharpest once he realizes they're not angels Percival start asking the nights a ton of questions like to carry on let's look at each other like the lance you'd eventually one of the nights wins over to his commander and says Sir you must be aware that all Welshmen are by nature more stupid than beasts in the field making the best first impression possible runs home and tells his mom all about then he sees the writing on the wall she breaks down and she tells him the truth your father and your brothers were nice and they died because of it Percy's eyes white up do you think we can get the moral of the story he says literally I don't understand your words but I would gladly go to the king who makes nights and I will go no matter what so off he goes on his quest never to see his mother again right out of the gate person gets in a fight with the night and defeat him in solo battle so maybe he's got her wrote down after all shortly after he encounters an old nobleman in classic spiritual adviser fashion the old man teaches Percy alasan don't talk too much because you don't want to offend others Percy take this to heart and you should too it's going to come back and bite them we continue Percy's quest in the first of all next meets the Fisher king who is you guessed it fishing FK takes a shine to Percy and invites him to a special bike with his castle dinner Percy find that the king has been grievously wounded door nonetheless the Fisher king a gracious host presents a sword claims destined for Percival suddenly a progression of squires parade in with all of these weird object first a white lance blood dripping from its tip next candelabra and after that a maiden and bearing a beautiful grail so I think everyone turns and looks at Percy the good obedient boy that he is he remembers the weird old strangers advice and he doesn't say say dinner wraps up Percival goes on as the thing seems fine until he meets a damsel wailing and cradling the body of a headless night first of all asks what happened but the maiden turns up she asked point blank did you say anything about the lance you saw did you ask any questions about the great person explains of course didn't want to be rude the woman yells at that grail has great power if you'd only asked about it just one question the dying king would have been healed she further explains hate your mom's dead I buried her also on your cousin and also also you go south out this real thing I can help I got more Barry and to do so you would wanna be off thanks up mobile so this is a lot to take getting told off by his cousin though it's Percival's turning he swears it up he won't rest until he learns what exactly the deal with the grail and the bleeding laughs it such is the start of his grail quest which lasts 5 years he has wild adventures needing nights doing battle in even learning a lesson about the meaning of Good Friday this it's a particularly Christian faith based conclusion of this particular tale because eventually Percival comes across a wise hermit and after years of questing with nothing to show for it Percy confesses his sorrows it turns out the hermit knows why Percival has failed remember your mom he asks soon as you left home died of grief that sinfulness is why you never asked about the lance or grail and the man who served from the grail first of all uncle and the Fisher king Percy's cousin he's been letting his family down left and right the hermit tells him you need to do Pat go to mass have faith in god take communion on Easter this is where Christian to 12 version of the grail story ends with personal learning the truth about the grail thereby fulfilling his you have noticed all the standard features of Campbell's hero's journey auspicious birthing hidden parentage damsels and father figures sieges offering if I but the grail never becomes the ultimate Boone Percy doesn't find it isn't even really looking for instead he's looking for knowledge okay grail you may I interject but really about himself and the world you can also see the way Christianity gets wrapped up in the mythical grail let's look at another version of the story from the anonymously written quest of the holy grail thirteenth century prose romance story differs from Christiane in at least 2 major ways first the hero isn't purse of all its Galahad and second what personal didn't know much about Christianity or anything for that matter Galahad is a model of Christian virtue especially chastity that's important this version has an overtly Christian morality connecting the grail to the doctrine of trans substantiation the explanation of how bread and wine more fits into Jesus is body and blood during communion in this story are hero Galahad is the son of Lancelot and Galahad is being you to fall so fair and shapely a youth that one could hardly find his equal in the world he's also crucially a virtuous virgin with no fever of lost in him unlike his dad Lancelot sleeping with the queen how its virtues Saleh has virtue marks him out for a special role that he's ushered into by a spiritual guide an old man who introduces Galahad to Arthur and the knights of the round table Galahad even gets a special seat reserved for the grail knight it's called the seat danger Danny Galahad sits in his danger chair and announces that he'll take up the grail quest he prove his worthiness first by pulling a sword from a stone echoing Arthur's miraculous feat with Excalibur and again by defeating all the other nights in a tournament at a celebratory feast the grail appears in a vision and miraculously feeds everyone especially hungry hungry Arthur Galahad any other nights have many adventures but the crucial turn comes when Galahad Percival and invite name borders set out on a self sailing ship the ship takes them to a small island where they find a magic sword and Percival sister she says hi to Percy and explains this sword is destined for Galahad to complete your quest you must take it to the house of the main decay it is harder than it sounds and that's a lot because doesn't sound easy it takes 5 years of running around separating it reuniting but finally the 3 nights arrive at the castle the maimed okay castle core back the castle of the grail and who do they need inside please S. it is not a joke they literally meet Jesus who explains at long last the mystery and significance of the grail it is the bowl from which Jesus Christ 8 of the lamb on Easter day with his disciples this is the ball which has served acceptably all those whom I have found is serving me this is the bolt which no faithless man ever beheld without suffering for it and because it has bus served all manner of people acceptably it is properly called the holy grail now now has seen what now has so desired to see and what I'll has covered with the truth the grail revealed Galahad continues to travel the land embroiled in various infection booking the can belly in return home however Galahad never makes it back to Camelot instead he ends up locked in a dungeon where he eventually dies and is miraculously lifted to heaven so it's left to borders to cross the threshold back into Camelot and to tell everyone true wonder the grail obviously there's more to these Arthurian myths than just the quest for the holy grail we haven't even mentioned the incest and there's a fair amount of ins still the grail myths offer a nice parallel to other here miraculous feats magical weapons spiritual guides and epic road trips in the end the quest for a particular object get intertwined with the articulation of particular religious and cultural values just like in the Ramayana where at hearings to dharma is the real heroism we might also compare these stories to the aboriginal tale of the 7 sisters where the quest is one of the self improvement rather than the pursuit of some external wealth or precious object for Percival and Galahad request isn't actually about the grail itself but the grills meaning Percival isn't seeking a bejeweled golden chalice but the answer to a question he should've asked Galahad to find out the meaning of the grail which is what boards must bring back to the round table remember for Campbell and other scholars hero's journey is a metaphor for any human beings journey towards greater understanding of themselves sure these nights defeat enemies insect maidens and fight with magical sword but they're heroes because of the knowledge that they gain along the way but it just makes you a hero for watching crash course we're mighty thankful you did the next time check out our crash course mythology tote tote bag and poster available now at DFTBA.com crash course pathology is filled Chad Stacey and it'll studio in Indianapolis Indiana help all of these very nice people are in the Philippines pop cafe crash course exists thanks generous support our patrons patriarch patriotic as a voluntary subscription service we can support the content you love a monthly donation to help craft free everyone for a crash course is made with adobe as for watching I want to quit about the woman holding the you're not alone and trust us reading the source material does not help //
"2017-09-28 21:05:02"
Sound Production: Crash Course Film Production #5
\\you know what can make even the most entertaining YouTube video really frustrating bad sound that is for audiences who don't rely on closed captioning like what if my voice was all part of the static for my words more in sync up to the video right now annoying right you might look away from a screen of the visuals are jarring but you pretty much always hear a film whether it's dialogue that was recorded on sat or sweeping score added in post production and the sad thing is you don't often really noticed good sound recording design even though it takes just as much technical know how an artist reads visual storytelling does when sound production is most successful you're not thinking about the quality of the sound all of your feeling it you're pulled into the story and living in the world of the film let's start with the basics the audience is gonna wanna hear the characters they're watching and that all starts with the sound apartment on set which is usually a small crew of 2 to 3 people its head as the sound mixer also known as the production sound mixer location sound recordist sound engineer or just the sound guy this person usually supplies all the sound equipment for the production and is responsible for recording all the sounds on set every space has unique acoustic so a good sound mixer will try to record as much as possible to make the world of the film feel real that includes the sounds actors making the scene being filmed like dialogue first those mouthfuls what you've got until they can get back to the way things were but I know the truth there's no going back change things forever slurping their team or foot stomps as the job down street date what happens you look very happy fools bureaucratic within you know what they've got there plus includes wild sound which is any extra lines that are Sattar noises that are intentionally created without the camera rolling to be added to the movie in post production and lastly there's a room tone the atmospheric sound in a space filled with silent actors crew and set dressing having room tone helps the sound editors make the world feel authentic inconsistent the sound department second in command on set as the boom operator or a boom opt for short this is the person you'll see holding a microphone on a long boom pole out over the actors actors will often have small body mikes had non them to record any sounds they make these are also called lavalier mics this is mine it's not hidden but the boom op is working to capture sound from everyone and everything in each scene to do their job well they have to really know the script in the blocking or pal the actors will physically move through a scene that position the boom in the best place to pick up the sound while keeping the Mike and it shadow out of the camera's view on larger sets that might be a third person on this group the utility sound technician also known as the second assistant sound this person helped the bunch of stuff like equipment maintenance Mike placement cable management keeping everyone quiet while filming or even operating a second boom now I mentioned the 2 main Mike's you'll find on a film set the boom Mike in the body Mike but you have to think about a lot more than just where you put a microphone when you're speaking you're pushing air through your vocal folds out into the world that vibrates other air molecules making sound waves so microphones nearly always have a wind screen to help record clean sound and not just loud whooshing this from the air and muffles air being blown directly at it without affecting the mikes ability to pick up sound small wind screen is usually enough on an enclosed set or on a sound stage like this one outdoorsy might need more intense when screens and here's a perfect example of how great film crews are naming things the big ones are called dead cats because fox look at unsound apartment not only has to make sure the recording good sound but they have to pay close attention to what they don't want to capture and they can do that with Michael a microphone pattern shape around my court picks up sound best and there are a few standard types just like the camera department has to change lenses sound department might have to change mikes from scene to scene first you have on the directional mikes meaning the Mike is recording sound coming out of from every direction there are a lot of situations where this is ideal like for recording a conversation where people are sitting and talking around a table but on the set you only want to hear the actors on camera and not all the crew behind the scenes so this Mike wouldn't be the best choice bi directional mikes pickups sound directly in front of and behind them while rejecting so besides their sensitivity pattern looks kind of like a figure 8 these mikes are useful for interviews are duets anytime when 2 people are directly across from each other with a Mike in the middle then they're cardioid Mike's names because they're pattern is kind of shaped like a heart they pick up more sound in the direction you're pointing them plus a little bit from behind an on site cardioid pattern is good for reporting lines from one person at a time up close so lavalier Mike's the ones physically attached actors are usually cardioid or omnidirectional if you want something a little wider than the typical cardio wide but not as wide as an omni directional there are some cardioid my explorer say you're trying to record a conversation where a bunch people are huddled together and talking so you have several Mike's near each other and you want each one only pick up one person in this case the super cardioid or hyper cardioid might be your best options because they have even more directional pickup but the downside is that they also have more sensitivity directly behind them so they can pick up things you don't want to hear the final film like chatter from the crew if you need something even more directional like for the end of a boom pole you can put something called an interference tube over super cardioid or hyper cardioid Mike aside dealing makes unwanted sound waves from the sides cancel out and creates a low bar pattern came the more precisely and pick up sound from farther away because these mikes are long and narrow the called shotgun mikes so on a typical set there's probably a shot gun Mike on the boom pole and a handful of lavalier is on differ actors or posts each of those microphones picking up part of the overall sound in a scene and each one feeds into its own track on the audio recorder where the sound mixer it's there the sound Mexican adjust the Mike sensitivity and the recording levels so in the final film the audience can hear a soft whisper which and understand loud shouting Benny bring me everyone I mean everyone and all this is just production sound we still have a whole world of post production to explore before editing anything the very first thing you need to do is sync the sound with the camera footage and if you prepare during production it's pretty easy to do remember the second AC they're responsible for the slight which marks each take with both the visual and audio cue to help keep track of media the scene shot and take number are written on the slate for the camera to see and are called out for the microphone here seems what it would take 25 and then the second easy claps this late shot if you don't have a slight you can clap your hands in front of a camera on the Mike to get the same effect the goal is to make the audio level spike while the camera catches the exact moment the clapper in the board of the slate come together that way in post production you can manually match up the audio and visual cue and voila their sound the sink if you want a faster way of sinking audio and video with got you covered to one way is through a time code if you're using a digital slate the moment the clapper hits the board a signal is sent from the slight to the camera and the audio recorder and the time code of this exact moment is recorded on both devices which you can use to think everything up the second way is if your cameras recording audio too which won't be used on the far it's called a guide track that way in your editing software you have your video footage camera sound and sound from the audio recorder and an audio waveforms synch program can match them all out typically an assistant editor syncs up the sound with the visuals and team cuts together the film once the film editor and director agree on a picture lock meaning the visual and story edit of the film is finalized it's time for the post production sound team to get work like the film editor the sound editor makes decisions based on things like story and the actors performances the best takes for camera aren't always the best takes for sound though technically or artistically and it's up to the sound editor to make sure the best sound takes for the film make it into the final mix on a bigger film some sound editors will be dedicated dialogue at a like the name suggests their job is to cut for the best dialogue from production sound ideally the audio and video from the same tape will both be great that makes their job easier often though the dialogue editor has to borrow them from other takes or wild sound I think the best takes for sound with the best takes for camera this only works if the audience can't tell it's been done like if the cameras on another character so it takes a lot of skill and creative editing if there's not a great sound take the crew will bring actors back into a studio and do some automated dialogue replacement or 80 are some actors relish 80 are Meryl Streep famously loves it because mixing separate visual and audio performances can add complexity to what her character's conveying course dialogue isn't the only sound in a film sound designers work with sound mixers and Foley artists to create the sound effects that make the world of the film filled return home from birds chirping to that move lasers and music supervisors in posers work with a director to either curate or create adding music frequently comes at the end of post production and when it's done well it's the finishing touch that solidifies the entire film and brings it to life from an actor's whispered lines to the final score woven throughout the film sound helps us go from watching a story with relatable characters to feeling what they feel and living in their world today we learned about all the artists involved in productions and how different microphone patterns are best for different situations we talked about the importance of post production sound and the role it plays in deepening our experience of the film and making the movie the best meet next time we'll talk about the people who see everything from the bigger picture to tiny details that could get overlooked on a film set producers crash course film production is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like PBS infinite series physics girl and reactions this episode of crash course was found in the doctor Cheryl see Kenny crash course studio with the help of these nice people and are amazing graphics team spot cafe //
"2017-09-26 21:00:03"
Test Anxiety: Crash Course Study Skills #8
\\I am Thomas Frank in this is crash course study skills Henry Fonda was a famous actor with a crew that spanned 54 years included starring roles in classic movies like 12 angry men and what about time in the west use one of the most well known and school actors of his time bring home an Oscar to golden globes and even a Grammy for retired so it might surprise you learn that Banda had a lifelong struggle with performance anxiety in fact even he was 75 years old over half a century of acting experience under his belt you often throw up before beginning stage appearances but despite his anxiety and some like lunch fund would still stepped out from behind the curtain and give the audience the great performance they expect that's because he understood when the unavoidable facts of fact the author Stephen press still put so well in his book to work art feared doesn't go away warrior in the artist live by the same code necessity which dictates the battle must be fought and you every day if you're a student you might not be performing a stager facing down any army but your tests and exams are battles all their own and they often come with the same feelings of anxiety these feelings are normal and you'll never truly banished doing work that's important to you you always feel some amount of anxiety and I can actually be a good thing because anxieties indicated that what you're doing is important otherwise you'd be apathetic about however too much stress anxiety can I hurt you research showing that high pressure situations can actually deplete your working memory additionally stress caused by anxiety cortisol and too much cortisol can hinder the ability of the hippocampus to recall memories this means that it is crucial to learn how to manage your tax things I never learn how to perform well in the face of it and make sure it doesn't consume your thoughts you can actually solve that young to prove it face fortunately there are several techniques and mental exercise that you can use to do rowly intra this thing's ideas caused by many different factors but today we're going to focus on the most common ones which I call the 3 big fear someone if you're repeating past failures number to the fear of the unknown and number 3 fear the stakes in a minute we're going to get each of these fears and work to figure out how you can combat but before we do that there is one general purpose strategy that I want to share with you the next time you feel anxious going into a test take a piece of paper and spend just a couple minutes writing out exactly what's causing you feel that this is been scientifically proven to reduce testing so I got a university of Chicago found students are given 10 minutes to write about their fears and anxieties of poor test ... discourse repaired control this technique works for duelist work it allows you take all those worries out of your head and store them some if probabilities situation before where you're stressed and a friend tells you hate just don't worry about me course you can't write you can just let go of things are worried after all your brain thinks they're important however by writing them down loading those worries to it external system that trust subconsciously you know that they're not going anywhere and by doing this you free up mental resources that you can bend devote doing well on the tests that brings us to our first big feet the fear of repeating a past failures logically everyone knows the failure is inevitable everyone's to err is human Alexander pope and the realm of calculus finals is no exception but not always logical in fact human beings have inherent negativity bikes Tennessee to remember and give more emotional weight and negative events rather than positive ones this is a feature the brain that's pretty useful when it comes to survival after all remembering which mushrooms made you sick or not to try to shake hands with tiger is pretty important for survival but the negativity bias doesn't limit itself the poisonous mushrooms are Tigers any negative event can create feelings of apprehension and fear when it comes up again so even though almost everyone does poorly on tests and exams once in awhile what happens to you you might naturally fear that will happen again time around so how do you actually beat this negativity by some first realize you're not defined by your past 6 our failures spike with that insidious part your brain might try to tell you the path you're on right now is certainly at least in part a product you past choices it's not a path of the predetermined anytime you can choose to do things differently than you did passed a threat to do that you need to start by analyzing your past mistakes and gathering as much information about them after all you could only improve if you know what you were doing wrong before sort of trouble lead chess players understand this concept really well all the subtle either practice time playing games and studying the openings and games players higher ranks they also dedicate a ton of times and past games specially the ones they lost by doing so the concert to correct bad habits uncover patterns they're playing with you can then be tweaked in future so take a cue from his chess players culturally performers and pretty much any of the display opera singers or figure skater and review pass exams to see how you can improve start by getting your hands on a copy to pass it if you did you does it usually hand these out early to go home talk them after class and ask you get at least look it over and by talking with them also ask for feedback especially your exam getting short answer essay questions with us no con once you got past exam your hands for you the mistakes and don't just acknowledge mistakes each incorrect question make sure understand why your answer was that wrong it was a complex problem like a math equation identified exact point really is that this before you move on to cross reference the question with your notes well if you're gonna be tested on the question again like in a final exam highly that section you know see no support knows a great quiz questions for the review overall shoot for mastery over the materials you don't make the same mistake again thanks novel the details was incorrect questions aren't the only things that is our function you also need to figure out why you made mistakes in the first place ask yourself what we're prepared and if so why was I prepared tonight simply not put enough time reviewing to ignore the study guide or did I just use an effective study math if you feel that you were prepared then maybe something went wrong during actual exam maybe rushed through me like a careless errors or maybe your time get away from you and you didn't actually finish the whole exam or maybe that could be I from goes the shell hacked your brain in the middle of examine forcing spend the whole time looking your these things happen whatever the reason was don't let you down to remember that failure is a great teacher and it's often a better one than success so do you remember our failure so well everyone of them is a lesson and an opportunity but you need to make sure that you use that opportunity by make how you avoid the mistake just saying I'll do better next time isn't enough you know exactly how you're going to better and that's not all you know in fact the more you can learn about your exam in all its facets the more comfortable with it you're going to be this is the way to overcome the second of our big fears the fear of the unknown people naturally fear they don't understand and in general this is a good thing it's another one of those pieces of brain programming that's useful for survival and most other animals share it with us visited New York City for the first time several years ago I noticed the schools there seemed much less afraid people the scrolls back home and I but that's because these big cities girls had a lot of experience dealing with people and it was mostly positive so try to gain as much experience the upcoming exam at now we talked a lot about how to do this in the last that you are paying for tests but the general principle here is try to replicate the test conditions when you study your best to get access to practice tests and study guides and create quizzes are your notes to fill in the gaps additionally spent some time studying across from the looks and feels similar to the one to be tested and quiz yourself on the same time constraints that you face during the gonna make a test like a familiar old friend face Ascot Bergen a professional public speaker put it by the time I present with factual audience it's not really the first time at all that's the feeling you're going and that brings us last of our big 3 fears fear of the state some of the biggest source of the test anxiety is the feeling that this test me everything is going to find your overall grade we'll be able to go to college and whether or not having to work for you on must some but in reality you're really gonna come across a tester situation you can't recover from trust me I actually failed a test in college once Nick over there actually build an entire class twice and even worse I was was fired from a job in both cases it was totally my fault I learned my lessons I make sure I never made the same mistakes again and I moved on and even if things don't go perfectly for you you'll be able to do the exact same and that's not comforting enough try reframing the test think of it as yet another learning opportunity rather than as a judge after all a test challenges and recall what you learned and as we've already discussed active recall strengthens your mastery over the material and at least for me giving a test this way it makes it seem a lot less scary lastly keep in your mind that anxiety isn't something you always in the tribe all giving say that's majorly affecting your life don't hesitate ask professional for help but we found this week's video to be helpful next week will be switching gears and talk about a great research papers and Siva Chrysler study skills film the doctor shale seeking a crash course studio in Missoula Montana it's maybe the help of all these nice would you like to help him crash course free for everyone for ever you can support the series over a picture Groban performed allows you to support the content thank you so much for your support //
"2017-09-25 20:01:10"
Social Mobility: Crash Course Sociology #26
\\everyone loves a good rags to riches story books and movies and music are full of this idea whether it's Gaspee turning himself from a nobody to a somebody or Drake starting from the bottom there's something appealing about the idea that anyone can make it if they try hard enough and more than maybe anywhere else that idea is embraced in the United States for the missed dose of the land of opportunity is practically part of our foundation but is the U. S. a land of opportunity can anyone move up the rungs of the social ladder or is the American dream just that a dream to get a handle on the answer we have to understand changes in social position or what sociologists call social mobility there are a few different types of social mobility so let's get some definition straight first team try generational mobility is how a person moves up or down the social ladder during their lifetime intergenerational mobility however is about movement and social position across generations are you doing better or worse than your parents were when they were your age should also absolute verses relative mobility absolute mobility is when you move up or down in absolute terms are you better or worse than before like if you make $50000 a year now and meet $40000 10 years ago you experienced upward mobility in an absolute sense so what if all your peers who are making the same amount 10 years ago are now making 6 the $5000 a year yes you're still better off than you were 10 years ago but you're doing worse relative to your peers relative mobility is how you move up or down in social the pair to the rest of society we can measure social mobility quantitatively using measures of economic mobility like by comparing your income your parent's income at the same age or we can look of abilities and qualitative measures a common measure used by sociologist is occupational status if your father worked in a blue collar job what's the likelihood that you will to a recent study of absolute intergenerational mobility found about one third of U. S. men will end up in the same type of job as their fathers convert to about 37 percent work upwardly mobile and 32 percent who are down with it's pretty common to remain within the same class group is your parents about 80 percent of children experience what's called horizontal social mobility where they work in a different occupation on their parents but remain a similar social position so how much social mobility is there in the U. S. well there's good news and bad news good news is that if we zoom out and look at absolute mobility across the years the long term trend in social mobility is upward firstly because of industrialization median annual family income rose steadily throughout the twentieth century going from around 34 $0 in 1955 to 70000 2015 standards of living now are much better than they were 60 years ago unfortunately more recent trends in social mobility have been less rosy since the 19 seventies much of the economic growth and income has been at the top of the income distribution meanwhile family incomes have been pretty flat for the rest the population this unequal growth in incomes has not last absolute mobility for American a recent analysis of tax out of a group of economists and sociologists found that absolute mobility has declined over the last half century while 90 percent of children born in the 19 forties earn more than their parents as adults only 50 percent of children born in the 19 eighties did the other bad news is that within a single generation social mobility is stagnant while people generally improve their income over time beginning education and skills most people stay on the same rung of the social ladder that they started out of those born in the bottom income 36 percent remain in the bottom quintile adults only 10 percent of those born at the bottom and up in the top quartile as adults started at the bottom now we're probably still at the bottom statistically speaking and socio economic status is sticky at the top 2 researchers at the Brookings Institution including crash course sociology writer join a banner found that 30 percent of those born in the top quintiles stay in the top quartile as adults plus social mobility deferred by race ethnicity gender and education white American Seymour upward mobility the box half of black Americans are born at the bottom of the income distribution are still in the bottom quartile at age 40 black Americans also face higher rates of downward mobility being more likely to move out of the middle class than white Americans let's go the thought bubble take a look at research on race and social mobility in action in 1982 American sociologist Karl Alexander and Doris and while began following the lives of a random sample of 800 first grade students growing up in a variety of neighborhoods in the Baltimore what began as a study meant to last only 3 years eventually ended up lasting 30 years as the researchers followed up with the kids throughout their lives to see the path that the early circumstances put Alexander and piled collected data on everything imaginable interviewing the kids yearly about where they lived with where they lived work history education drug use marriage childbearing you name it and what they found was that poverty cast a long shadow over the course of these kids lives 45 percent of kids with higher socio economic status or S. yes had gotten a college degree by age 28 only 4 percent of low S. yes kids had those born better off were also more likely to be middle class at each one and these unequal outcomes were heightened for African American kids low SCS white kids ended up better off the low SCS black kids ET 9 percent of white high school dropouts were working at age 22 conferred only 40 percent of black high school dropouts and contrary to what the wire might have made you think about inner city Baltimore lifestyles these differences can't be explained away by differences in criminal behavior drug use slow SCS white men were more likely to use hard drugs smoke and binge drink them low SCS black man and holding all else constant a police record was more of an impediment to getting a job for African American men than white men thinkstock bubble soap the impacts of where you're born on the social a far reaching consequences and in addition to race social ability can also vary by gender over the last half century women as a whole have experienced absolute mobility 85 percent of women earn higher wages than their mother is dead and the income gap between men and women has narrowed significantly in 1980 the average income for a woman with 60 percent that of men worse by 2015 that gap was 8 percent but despite the great strides over the last half century there are still gaps an opportunity for women women born at the bottom of the social cost latter are more likely to remain there than men the women born in the bottom quintiles are still there at age 40 compared to about only one third of men also women born at the bottom experience more downward mobility than men with more women than men having family incomes lower than that of their parents some of these differences by gender maybe because women are much more likely to head up single parent homes and that are being married is a huge plus for social mobility because 2 incomes are better than one people who marry tend to accumulate wealth much faster than those who are single making it easier to ascend the social ladder modern day Cinderella doesn't just move up the social ladder by marrying the prince she is also more likely to build a solid 401 K. and stock portfolio key sources of wealth as we've seen social class mobility depends on where you start and who you are so let's go back to the question we asked at the beginning is America the land of opportunity if you're a glass half full kind of person you might think so based on some of what we've talked about today after all most people are better off than past generations where accounting for inflation about 3 times as many Americans make incomes above $100000 now and in 1967 but not all groups have benefited equally from the second on your chance of upward mobility can vary a lot by education or race or gender or where you start on the income distribution for those in the middle of the income distribution earnings growth has stalled for many workers but the cost of necessities like healthcare housing have claimed ever higher manufacturing industry that historically provided stable jobs and decent pay to less educated workers has been declining for a while now and was particularly hard hit by the recession from 2007 to 2009 in the wake of this decline most of the jobs available for less educated workers tend to be low paying service industry jobs contributing to lower absolute mobility than we've seen in the past all of these patterns plus the growing income inequality we talked about a couple episodes ago mean that the rungs of the social mobility ladder in the United States seem to be getting harder to claw today we talk about intergenerational and intro generational abilities and the difference between absolute and relative mobility we talk about the long term upward social mobility trends in the United States as well as the recent declines in absolute social mobility then we touched on how opportunities for social mobility differ by your class race and gender crash personality is filmed in the doctor Sherrell TKE studio in Missoula Montana made with the help of all of these things our animation team is stock Ashcroft is made with adobe creative cloud if you'd like to keep crash course free for everyone forever he can support the series at Pete a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love speaking a patriotic we'd like to thank all of our patrons in general and would like to specifically thank our headmaster of learning and holding Crowther thank you so much for your support //
"2017-09-21 19:59:03"
Dissecting The Camera: Crash Course Film Production #4
\\thank you yeah I'm talking to you but I'm actually talking to a camera cameras a collection of parts that can help you tell a visual story it takes in like through a lens and captures images creating that illusion of reality we keep talking about you can even use your cellphone camera make movie but filmmakers usually have equipment that gives them a lot more control so let's look through the eyes of a cinematographer and see how they combine camera technology in the language of film to get that perfect shot he tool that focuses the lands some cameras have a lens that's permanently attached but others have a separate body with a lens mount where you can swap out different lenses for more creative control for instance low budget filmmakers can write great lenses for cost effective cameras to improve their footage quality or they might use older lenses to make a period piece feel more authentic all lenses have either fixed or variable focal length which is the distance from the center of the lands to where the images of folk and focal length determines your field of view which is how much you can see in the frame it's usually measured in millimeters and a 50 millimeter lens is generally thought to be closest to how our eyes from the world a fixed focal length lens can be called a prime lens attends to have higher quality glass because specialized for just one vocally on the other hand a variable focal length lens is more versatile it's also called a zoom lens because it can zoom in and out now you can also control how much light gets into the camera body through a hole called the aperture it works like the iris and people in your eye becoming wider narrower to let more last like through the lens aperture is measured in F. stops the lower case F. stands for focal length because it's the ratio of the focal length compared to the diameter of the aperture enough 1.2 lands for example can open wider than at 5.6 so when you stop down your aperture you're making that diameter of the opening smaller leading less lighten in changing that Rachel but as you stop down you'll notice that the numbers actually getting larger and the control how long the film or sensor inside is exposed to light you can adjust the camera shutter speed you can think of a typical shudder as a door in the camera that opens and closes really quick if you have an actor that can open wider like and that's 1.2 lands you can let more light in and have a faster shutter speed usually or shutter speed is about double your frame rate so if you're shooting 24 frames per second for instance your shutter speed would be one fiftieth of a second but there's one little problem with shutters that work like a door the click which can get noisy so on some movie film cameras you'll have a shutter angle instead of a shutter speed these shutters are rotary disks that spent to control the amount of light that enters an opening into the camera a smaller shutter angle works like a faster shutter speed the image will be exposed more quickly and it'll look crisp with a larger shutter angle or slower shutter speed the image will be smoother and have more blur from any motion how light gets turned into an image depends on what kind of camera you're using a film camera the light hits the chemical coated film strip at an opening called the gate which exposes itself retains an image in a digital camera light heads to electronic sensors which translates to light energy into a digital image the camera that's filming me right now has what's called a complementary metal oxide semiconductors or CMOS sensor other digital cameras might have a charge coupled device or CCD which uses more power but produces better images than earlier CMO lessons self film and digital sensors also have a property called ISO the higher the I SO number the more sensitive they are like the name comes from the international standards organization which created the scale filmmakers use generally the lower your I sold the cleaner and richer your images will look but if you're in a room without a lot of light your image will look pretty dark in this case it's tempting to just pump your I. so way up to like 1600 to increase sensitivity to available lights you've got to be careful with that down depending on the camera film stock raising the ice so to compensate for low light just brightens everything the framing can result in grainy lower quality footage so instead of raising your eye so you might want to have more light to the the aperture to allow as much it's a bit and it's possible now imagine you put everything we've talked about to use you've adjusted your lands aperture shutter speed and I so and captured some beautiful footage all that footage is stored on what's called the media in a film camera the media's the film itself as long as you don't lose a ruin it you'll always have what you shot in a digital camera the media is a data storage device like tape drives are carts and you'll have to decide on a Kodak Kodak is a portmanteau of Kotor in decoder because that's what it does it's a program that can compress with a camera shot onto your storage device and then decompress that footage when you need to work with in post production basically it's like a little packet of digital information you might recognize a codec like each point to see it's 4 or MP 3 shooting in raw means images don't get packets are processed you get higher quality footage but you need a bunch of storage because those image files get huge now understanding how a camera works is only part of the filmmaker's job film sets up an entire team of talented artists working to create visual story of the movie the director of photography or cinematographer is the head of the camera department they create the shot list with the director to plan how everything in the screenplay will be captured visual the camera operator is the person who actually controls the Cameron for shot sometimes you need a static shot so the camera operator uses a tripod the cool kids call this a Cameron sticks or sometimes you want a moving shot so the operator uses a hand held camera or attach as one to a mechanical cart call the dollar is also a device steady can't which makes a shot smoother than hand held but not as smooth as Dolly the person who manages all this equipment and set up the camera is the first assistant camera or for Stacey they work under the main camera operator sometimes you'll hear this job referred to as focus puller because the first day see controls the camera lens to focus on the action the scene that might sound simple but for decades focus polar's couldn't look through the camera lens while doing their job because the camera operator was looking through the lens nowadays the first AC will usually have a monitor but they also have to rely on detailed marks from rehearsal and a whole lot of skill the second they see takes all the camera notes for each shot and operates the slate or clapper to mark each scene soft sticks they also hold Quitman around from cameras to media if you're shooting on film a second they see as the film loader who changes the camera magazines with rolls of film inside and if you're shooting digital the second they see is responsible for getting any storage devices to the digital imaging technician or D. who manages all the meat stand on the nuts and bolts of the camera but it's all for nothing if you're not using these tools to tell a story making the audience feel something because of moving pictures that's what makes movies magic from a voyeur shot through a window in a horror movie to the subtle push on the love interest in a melodrama there's a language and artistry to framing angles and camera movements take the rule of thirds which is a general way to think about composing a frame the idea is to divide it up into a vertical and horizontal thirds and then stick what you want people to focus on where those lines intersect water who dominates a friend can affect how an audience use a scene and what's in or out of focus can steer attention even more for instance in the film road to perdition the cinematographer Conrad hall combined the storytelling tools really beautifully in one scene a character played by Daniel Craig is dominating frame but the other 2 men walking away from him played by Paul Newman and Tom these are the ones we focus so our attention is on Daniel Craig's character because his front and center in the scene but because the other men are kept in focus we can feel that he's thinking about them all through visual storytelling even if you can compose what looks like the perfect frame it's important to remember that cameras aren't static camera movements have their own language too pushes when the camera is literally pushed closer to the action in the scene it's like we're leaning in and builds intensity and up Paul is the opposite the camera physically moves back this could reveal something that we didn't see before or help us leave a scene unless our connection pushes and pulls are often achieved by using a Dolly to move the can a closer and farther from the they have a different look to them than just changing the focal length of the zoom lens he wanted it really fancy you can use a tracking shot to move the camera with your actors like by moving a camera on a Dolly parallel to the action now even how a camera set up can affect the visual storytelling in a movie a camera on a tripod is locked down and make a scene feel safe and stable like when a character who craves adventure is sitting at home in the regular life but when they're introduced to whatever's gonna rock their world and jump the camera might move to on the other end of the spectrum are hand held cameras think of those horror movies with shaky cameras they're harder to see and understand but feel more chaotic and unstable the real job of the cameras to capture visuals but let us enter the worlds of movies and feel what the characters feel knowing how a camera works can help strengthen your story telling but a lot of it comes down to becoming fluent in the language of and that like all of these jobs comes with a ton of practice today we talked about the guts of the Amara and how they come together to make a versatile equipment we learned about the positions in the camera crew and how the poetry of framing angles on camera movement are what make a powerful storytelling tool and next time we'll talk about the counterpart to the cameras visuals sound crash course film production is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like shanks affects the art assignment and it's okay to be smart this episode of crash course was filmed in the doctor Cheryl see Kenny crash course studio with the help of these nice people and are amazing graphics team this stock cafe //
"2017-09-20 21:47:22"
The Internet: Crash Course Computer Science #29
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"2017-09-19 21:00:02"
Studying for Exams: Crash Course Study Skills #7
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"2017-09-12 21:00:01"
Procrastination: Crash Course Study Skills #6
\\down to brass tacks friends last week we covered several techniques for improving your ability to focus on your work and resist distractions this week we're taking 2 related issue which is in fact the most pernicious problem actually plagues pupils procrastination nigger something the internet more liberation and cowbell we're diving to specific solutions it's useful to know why it we procrastinate now we could go deep on the biological battle between your prefrontal cortex in your Lympics system or in 1000000 other directions but since our focus is on solving the grass initial problem one recent explanation I plan to be particularly useful is temporal motivation theory which is led by Dr Pierre still in his book across the nation which this theory suggests that a person's motivation to complete a task or assignment can be represented by you guessed it an equation and that equation is motivation equal sticks value all over impulsiveness times delay now well I don't really think all the complexities of human behavior can be boiled down equation I do think that this procrastination equation as for mental model for pinpointing the civic causes about procrastination so let's go ahead and break it down expectancy is a term that represents strongly you believe that you're able to complete a task and has it inverse correlation with your procrastination you feel confident in what you're doing you're expected to be high in no increased motivation to work in the past looks really difficult though expectancy will be low and to be more likely to procrastinate the other place we find the inverse correlation is between procrastination and value which includes the reward you get for completing a task as well as how pleasant or unpleasant the experience of actually doing it is impulsiveness itself susceptible you are distractions and well impulses to do other things and it's directly correlated with less able your to resist that sudden desire to go check Twitter the more gonna put off working on that English paper and if you're thinking about going to check their right now remember if you can resist that in poll still actually be strengthening your brain's ability to focus fighter friend finally there is a delay which the amount of time to me now and when you get the reward for it's going to follow the longer the delay is the moral tend to procrastinate this happens because human beings naturally please far more value on the short term rather than long term rewards even those long term rewards are objective great philosophy history this was a helpful bit of brain program if you are a hunter gatherer living 10000 BC E. you had no reason to care about and cloaks are gonna hunt years all that mattered was the one in front of you right now but today when your success in life depends more on studying for tests and remember to put money in I raid on your implemented skills few brains hardwired preference for short term rewards becomes a hindrance if the main reason why systole finer sub cramming protest the night before rationally you know the should start studying a few weeks in advance but most your brain is like yeah isn't really necessary and to make matters worse delay is the hardest factor in the equation to control since the time at which you get attack reward is often set in stone this is especially true here in school since almost everything has been doing thanks novel it's useful to be able to simply recognize the delay between now and when you read the tasks reward it matters a lot when it comes to procrastination and really that's the value of the equation as a whole it's a mental model that makes it easy depend why you're for it's because you feel like you're not skilled enough to actually complete the task then you to find a way to increase expectancy or if you notice that your attention is costly being pulled another directions that's time figure out how to decrease your impulsiveness so now let's go over some specific ideas for manipulating those 3 most malleable factor trays expectancy you can do several things one of the most helpful is to break the task down into smaller sub task doing this allows you to narrow your focus to something it's not nearly as daunting and also it's more clearly defined specific actions how so if you're writing a paper realize that write a paper is a project that can and should be broken down you got the research phase the rough draft days which you can break further down the sections like the intro arguments conclusion and then you got the editing phase let you define his actions and know what order tackling in you have a much clearer vision of what should be done right now plus writing a rough draft an intro paragraph is much easier than trying to write the entire paper all at once there is a great way to raise our expectancy is to simply ask for help for being able to figure things out on your own is definitely a useful skill there comes a point refusing to reach out to someone else only slows you down so go read Peter's office hours or find a friend to form a study group with that when it comes to improving tasks value there are a number of things you can do number one include the actual report for completing the task number to improve the experience of doing the work itself and number 3 as additional reports or many rewards for completing subtasks the best way to improve the first item on the list is to choose work its mark feeling to you know you have some out of control over this we're selecting a classes and as you move more and your career and build more experience that another control will definitely increase however when your student there still a ton of required classes and things that you just have to do and once you've started it's pretty difficult to improve the actual report it's usually sudden stop the clinician math assignment don't get the credit for it and you'll prefer math recent but you do have a lot of control over the other 2 live snake the experience of doing the work itself more pleasant you could choose a study location you enjoy being like shop your favorite spot library you just fine to study music playlist work at a friend or go for a quick walk beforehand trees your energy levels before you start an additional rewards can further boost your motivation there are several ways to create these including gamification to the idea of taking elements from games employing them to your work are my favorite ways to do this is with America an app that essentially turns productivity into a role playing game if it takes all the elements that make RPGs like Pokemon a final fantasy so addicting leveling up experience points and gear and applies them to real life I use it as a tool for sticking to my morning routine making sure that I work out enough but there's also a to do list function you can use for individual assignments and now if you don't do that you can keep things simpler by just setting up small rewards for finishing some tax let yourself watch a movie or go out with friends after you finish taking notes on a well sources but research paper and it's here that I wanna talk about the concept of low density fun versus high density fussy a lot of students going to have to much work to ever look themselves do anything fun to take a significant amount we've had this how about yourself as well I think man I'd really love to play horizon 0 dawn right now but I should really use that time to study the irony is the same students are constantly to self that high density fun are also spending a lot of time checking Facebook picking up it's a bit mo chapters browsing thank means these things represent low density fun they're more attractive than doing work and it's easy to convince yourself you're only gonna do them for 5 minutes but inevitably you do end up spending a time time on after all these websites and apps are literally designed from the ground up to be as addictive as possible and what's worse they're not actually done it just distractions if you waste all your time on them leave no time for actual high density fun they can act as a true motivator finishing your work so the counterintuitive tip here is that you need to let yourself have the result to our site to buy a new video game or join the opera deporting thought you had your eye on we allow yourself to do these things great anticipation that can be used as focusing energy for your work and that brings us to impulsiveness not to be honest last week's video on focus and concentration provided most of the in depth tips you're gonna need to reduce your tendency to distraction so today I was going to re iterate your environment really matter super setting a place we get access to distractions your attention is more likely be pulled away by to find a dedicated study spot away from friends and away from video games sometimes you might even be locked out of iron it down a bit in fact when I was writing the script for this very video I use a program called cold Turkey to literally block most websites are you is one thing to procrastination equation doesn't cover is the role that will power plays now for a long time was believe that will power was a limited resource that drain throughout the day as you make decisions that deviated from the path of least resistance this phenomenon was called ego depletion during the past couple years though the ego depletion theory it's been challenged by some in research so it's tough to say whether or not will power itself really is this limited pulled you drop from throughout the day ego depletion controversy aside though your body and by extension of your brain runs on a cycle of work and rest there's only so much you can do in a day before you exhaust your mental resources plus when you put up a challenging assignment in favor doing a bunch of easy work first it becomes really easy can yourself that you've done enough for the day once the easy work is done that's why one of the best ways to be procrastination is to just knuckle down and do the most difficult unpleasant thing on a to do list this is often called eating the frog and as Mark Twain once said if it's a job and a frog it's best to do it first thing in the morning and if it's a job eat 2 frogs its best the the biggest one burst now I'd prefer not to use any frogs whatsoever I'd much rather eat a tomato which in Italian because 8 pomodoro and that happens to be the name the final technique we're gonna discuss today beat pomodoro technique is a simple little hacking Grassley all requires a time and a little piece of to use it first decide on one singular task you're gonna work then set your timer for 25 minutes and work as hard as you can on that task during that time even attraction comes up or get the impulse to do something else write it down on the piece of paper and then to work finally once the timer goes off the 5 minute break and repeat the process until you're ready for a longer break this method works so well because the timer helps you reframe your task as input based rather than output based instead of bill what you need to complete your entire math assignment finished an entire rough drop your paper you know that you just need to work for 25 minutes this act of reframing cuts down the initial resistance you feel toward the task since 25 minutes of work doesn't feel like a huge investment of effort additionally the timer creates an external modem instead of relying on your brain to keep track of how long should work you at the time for you it's the next best thing to having a coach or a drill instructor there keep your and for that reason you need to make sure you actually use a timer or at least a timer app like tomato timer.com or tied on iOS in and now there are definitely more techniques for beating procrastinate talk about but there comes a point we're talking about productivity becomes a former procrastinate self so now it's time to take what you learn from this video quiet and get to work restless legs goes down the doctor still seeking a crash course studio in Missoula Montana it's made with the help of all these nice if you like a crash course free for everyone for ever you can support the series at patriarch problem platform allows you to support content so much precip //
"2017-09-05 21:00:00"
Focus & Concentration: Crash Course Study Skills #5
\\this episode is supported by the great courses plus I am Thomas Frank this crash course study skills and with this video in particular I want your promise me you're not gonna click over to in the tablet cats exchange over time that's not exactly what you did during the last 4 video in all seriousness though I do want you to ask yourself when's the last time you were able to sit down intensely pay attention one task for a long time if you're anything like me this is become harder and harder to do is about more distractions to our lives tweets snaps messages browser tabs cookies that must be clicked their endless supply all your brain's ability to resist them is sadly not that's why today we're turning our attention to attention itself QB intro for him to any specific tips let's first answer the question of what attention it really it so it simply //
"2017-08-29 21:01:39"
Planning & Organization: Crash Course Study Skills #4
\\I am Thomas Frank this crash course study skills and today you're going to planning and organization boot camp as a student you have 2 modes which I would call planning mode and robot to buckle down to study for a test to finish homework assignment slugger if your textbook chapter your robot mode doing the work but robots can only do with their program to do need a well maintained environment to work I see videos those robots car factories that not working with dirty laundry or cheeseburger wrappers line Leslie is a pretty clean so if you want your robot mode to work efficiently you know how to program it and how to create a good info twerk it to get started you're gonna need organizational system this is the framework for storing all the information and resources that will need and also for capturing ideas and idea is my personal term for any intangible information that you need to save and have easy access to it later on this conclude tasks events and actual you know ideas things wanna write create anything like that additionally a little reliable way to store notes handouts and any other output you create Beit writing code art work cheese burger wrapper organize let's get down to business and create my mind any salt include asked manager a calendar no taking system and some kind of physical storage for pay your task manager at place record the stuff the you know would you look at when you get that sudden burst of motivation to do all the things that you wonder what all the things actually includes you'll find a zillion different types of task managers out there but they're only if you really say 6 if it makes it easy to record tasks details due date can also make sure the staff to see what's coming due in your the task manager that I personally use these days is called to do list and it ticks all those boxes but there are lots of other options try low Microsoft to do and any do a paper systems more your speed of the classic day planner works just as well as the more recent systems like the bullet journal in addition the tasks you also need to remember upcoming events that's what your calendars for now if using old fashioned paper planner Lynn your task manager in your calendar might be one of the same personally I've always found the keeping the 2 separate works better for me a calendar in my case Google calendar but it might be apples calendar after something else for you is best for Ben's still happen at a specific time but task manager better handles things that have due dates but you can work on whatever you want for the next you need to figure out how to organize your notes it's pretty simple for paper notes you just use paper notebooks to have a separate section or entire notebook for each class but for digital notes you got a lot of different options now my app choices always been ever know you can also take a look at Microsoft's one note apples notes that I was super magic of naming over there Cupertino or even Google docs lastly make sure you got some kind of physical storage for handouts loose papers and notebooks E. filled up to be one of those portable accordion folders in your bag works well on your way from home and combos both a file box for longer term storage that what you got your system all cobble together the next step is to develop a scheme for keeping it all organized help sometimes a scheme is a plan for running a bunch of small yellow minions intention to still the moon and I definitely don't want to discourage you from doing that but in this context it just means a set of rules and conventions that hope you keep your system organized and you if you choose a good scheme and stick to its rules every time you file a new tab screw vendor hand out the system remained useful you won't find yourself digging through your laundry basket at 3:00 am looking for that essay run hamlet sort of thought little computers file structure is a great place to start since so many people seem content to just let everything sit out on their desk this is a pretty bad scheme use because you're virtually going to lose plus all those files be covering up the Hudson the meek your desktop background that I know you have so a better long term solution is to create a folder structure that's well defined yet flexible my recommendation is a separate computers voters like treat with lots of branches top of the folder is the root of the tree that's for the steam starts so in this case that water will be called college from there Trent pre branches that represent the different aspects of that party your life the first logical branch point in this situation is the year freshman sophomore junior and senior then as we go further ahead even more specific branch points to the logical category for drilling down to level this changes depending on the type of information you're organizing like here organizing my classmates sports psychology history of Rome and film studies 11 and finally had supporters for big group projects if you're constantly vigilant about saving your work in the crack voter in this structure will ensure that it's always easy to find you're looking for good on the branches that we thanks that bubble uses similar structure to digital notes as well this is where I like using Evernote so much since everything is organized into no books and notebooks themselves can be put in stacks I can create a scheme organize my entire life for instance I got a notebook stack for classes within it every class I've ever taken gets its own notebook within the snow books I can create notes for individual lectures reading assignments and other things with your calendar color coded been so that you can see which party your life they represent like classes extra curricular activities and part time job hours if user paper planner you can do this by using colored stickers or markers as well lastly creep projects in your task manager for grouping similar tasks together if your student the most logical way to do this is to create a project for each class as well as additional projects for anything else you got going on now that you chose your tools in existing set up you make sure you actually use it sense putting things in your system properly takes work if you're signed something a class you eventually need open your task manager and record all the details correctly and that takes more effort than simply toss hand out your for telling yourself and I'm sure I'll remember it if you don't do it your system will start to get unorganized and incomplete which means your brain can't rely on anymore so you need to build the habit of using your system correctly all the time even though it takes effort to one of the best ways to do that is to remove as much friction as you possibly can for the process is idea I like to call quick capture figuring out the quickest easiest way to file things in your system without compromising its structure their 2 main ways to go about practicing the first is to commit entering things into the crack placed a moment they come off presence if your teacher assigns homework in class it immediately open your task Roger and record all the details if you do choose to go this route you can streamline things considerably by choosing apps and tools that simplify the recording process good example is good will counters iPhone app which lets you set the date time and location of event just by typing them into the events title it's a lot quicker the tapping of each individual feel it also means eliminating any unnecessary features from your system already called your to do after that priority levels to each task you probably don't need them they just add more friction to the process the second option here is to use a daily which is a simple piece of notebook paper or not that's quickly accessible on your phone re record everything that comes up during the day this is a temporary holding place the end of each day even move everything you've recorded to the correct place with our system alright so now we're ready to finally dig the details of planning I like to do planning in 2 separate contacts weekly and daily the main purpose of your weekly planning session as look at everything that's coming due during the upcoming week as well as the following when I recommend doing this on Sunday that way you'll be aware everything that's coming up enough rough idea of when you'll be able to work on it based on what's already in your town however there is also some long term should be done here first if you got exam coming up next month it's a good idea to look over everything they will be covered and then the schedule study sessions over the upcoming weeks surely you don't find yourself cramming for if you just gonna scientific project you can similarly break that project down small chunks and assign due dates to Chuck sing about other big events that might be coming up in your life as well maybe there's a scholarship deadline coming up a report that you won't remember something comes to mind at your system so you won't forget in addition to planning a week you should also take a few minutes each day to create a daily plan and this is simply a listing events you got planned at the tasks 10 comp you can do this in the morning free start school or you can do the night before going to bed which is what I as you create it try to patch if you've a bunch of easy low energy tasks or Aaron the required travel plan ahead and combine them into one big magnets doing this will be given all done a short compact block of time which in turn frees up lots of uninterrupted time you can dedicate to really challenge finally to keep your system running smoothly choose one day per week to do a review session and drive the extradition you can just combine this with your weekly planning session nerd to get all done in one fell swoop during this review session into a couple of different things first look over your plans and reflect on past week compare what you plan to do with we've actually got done and it is a gap between the 2 try to figure out what caused it to this could also be to pinpoint things that are hurting your productivity maybe you're struck a lot or maybe simply plan to do too much after that go through task manager and count there any tasks or events of the changes make that this prevents what I like to call entropy determine thermodynamics that generally the first how everything toward disorder and chaos this is exactly what organizational systems tend to do as well but by regularly bring them back to order on a weekly basis even keep things from getting too chaotic so now that you got your system built in your planning habits in place you well equipped tax all the work across through issue in the most of way possible additionally you can rest assured knowing that nothing will slip your mind both of the cracks for as long as you keep those habits that's all for now thanks for watching units Christmas that is your zone the doctor shows you can crash course studio in the zoo among 10 it's made with the help of all that's the crash course free for everyone for ever disappointed sues over patriarchs crowdfunding platform allows use for the content thanks so much for your support //
"2017-08-22 21:06:05"
Memory: Crash Course Study Skills #3
\\this episode is supported by the great courses plus I am Thomas Frank this crash course study skills and if you happen to be watching this at whatever point the future we'll get neural implants let a store memories and servers in space what about to tell you is woefully inaccurate also dear flying cars yet for those of you still rely on that much she graced up open your cranium to remember things though listen up today were digging into how your memory works and how you can make it work better at least I think we're not we're not filling those make up tutorial today are we //
"2017-08-15 21:04:33"
Reading Assignments: Crash Course Study Skills #2
\\I am Thomas Frank this crash course study skills and I've got some bad news for you know that little voice in the back here head it's telling you it's impossible to read all 847 pages your teacher assigned to last week it's right to counter that wasn't good news though that's okay today we'll be diving deep and how you can make the most of the time you spend on your reading assignments both by learning how to boost your reading speed and I remember more of what you read first I want to jump right in and ask the same question that you probably ask yourself every time you look at a syllabus do I actually need to do all this reading was some your teachers might object the answer is no and that's because your time is it limitless in a perfect world to be able to pour over every detail of every book in the world become smarter than Jimmy neutron but in this world you've got other things competing for space in your schedule like your homework extra curricular is and marathon in Jimmy neutron there other reasons as well overlap the book in which a here and let so how do you know what reading do counterparts book how to become a straight a student provides a pretty good framework for a question vice assigned readings 2 groups assignments from the classes favorite source which is usually the X. book and supplemental readings should generally do all the readings from each favorites are speaking for to be a bit more selective when it comes supplemental readings cal provides hired you for prioritizing them readings that making argument take precedence over descriptions of events or people which in turn are more important that anything the provides context pressed clippings of speeches will add to that though is that every class is different sometimes I find that everything the textbook is mirrored in the slides and other times you'll still need to look through the reading assignments skimming for important concepts in vocab terms will suffice and of course some classes were party to barricade yourself in your it's rations and those freaky I things from clockwork orange to hold your eyes open but by paying careful attention engaging one will be able to make smart decisions about what to read skim or skip now aside from doing some triage your reading assignments the other main way to get through the pastor is to learn how to read more quickly we have to be careful here though because this is where the term speed reading starts getting thrown around need people claiming they can teach you how to read 1000 words per minute more sadly I just isn't possible as much as I'd love to be able to plow through an entire book of my morning coffee we humans have some hard wired limit how far we can push our reading speed on the bubble let's have a look at the high your visual range is made up of 3 areas a phobia parapodia and periphery of these only the phobia has a high enough density of cones the type of photoreceptor selling your I. they can proceed all details to make up text on a page since the Bolivia is pretty small your eyes retek's by making quick jerky movements called Scott's in between each of the Scots is a small pause called a fixation and this is only I. intakes the one the 2 words it's currently focused on and send them to your prefrontal cortex for processing both the cause and fixations take time to do which essentially sets the speed limit on how fast you and that's just for recognizing the actual letters works there are other factors that contribute to a lower speed limit how quickly could be taxed and comprehend it the main one is your working memory just like the way I am in the computer working memory can only process so much at once right now cognitive science quantifies that about 47 bits or chunks of information which will talk about more in the next video about how your memory works for now it's not to say that you need to get working memory time to deal with each chunk comes and before feeding if another one and you do this but pausing frequently while you're reading additionally even skilled reader spend about 15 percent of the reading time on regressions which the I. moves backwards to re read text but time is between small regressions due to Scott's that went too far the first time and larger ones that are needed for comprehension thanks not level not your speed is helped by the fact you've actually skip words when reading in your brain is incredibly good at knowing which ones to skip while still retaining good copy studies show that while reading your eyes fixate on about 85 percent of the the words that carry the actual ideas and only about 35 percent of the function works which are those glued words like duh and if but even with the speed boost that comes from this intelligent words skipping research is also shown that skilled college over readers can expect read anywhere from between 200 to 400 words per minute for the vast majority of us anything beyond 400 is getting into skimming territory your comprehension starts dropping real quick but what about speed reading techniques you might ask the people that run the speed reading seminars and claim that they can read it 2000 words per minute sit there are techniques out there for breaking pass that normal speed range increasing the amount of text you processed through each fixation flashing words in one spot rapidly and eliminating sub vocalization that voice that reads aloud in your head while you read silently sadly each of these techniques has been tested scientifically and shown to be effect for one increasing the size of each fixation through training would be pretty tough to do would literally have to grow more cones in your eyes and if you figure out how to do that I recommend not telling anyone unless they say the from the accident additionally this idea still wouldn't do anything about your working memory constraints the main problem that also plagues rapid serial visual processing or our SBP a technique that involves flashing words rapidly in one spot the idea here is to eliminate the need for cicadas but it breaks down because it doesn't allow the brain to intelligently skip function words or do any progression so does the do effective over taxing you're working memory and not allow you to go back over a line you didn't understand the first time and finally limiting sub localization is misguided idea because that inner voice actually quite important as a researcher Elizabeth Chater noted attempts to eliminate inner speech have been shown to result in impairments incomprehension with texts are reasonably difficult and require readers to make inferences at this point it might seem like I'm the bad guy your only hope is to get on Amazon and buy those clockwork orange I things but there is hope like any other skill you can become better at reading the mainly to do this is to simply practice read often read widely and make sure the material is suitably difficult those dense chapters in your psychology textbook are going to get any easier if you practice on one fish 2 fish red fish blue fish nope that is right for another problem that might bring down your reading speed is daydreaming what I'm reading also times get lost thinking about a specific sentence I read an end up staring into space which wastes a ton of time and make the other people around me wonder if I'm dead if you have this problem as well you can set a time goal for the chapter when I do this I don't always finish on time but it does help me stay focused finally when you're reading books that don't require you to comprehend every word you can speak things up with the pseudo skinning tech skin the talks were keeping an eye out for me and ideas tabular terms and anything else important when you notice one slow down and read the entire paragraph that encompasses a good way to spot these dissipate special attention to the first and last sentence of the paragraph as well as any bolding italics were other format looking up his little bits formatting will also help you to remember what you read we're gonna shift our focus to now are the most common ways that students attempt to remember what they read is through highlighting which to be fair is useful if done right to problems that's really easy to highlight too much since everything seems important when you first read it and this works against you because it's easy to believe that you know the things you've highlighted we look back to the book later on you'll see them think oh yeah I remember highlighting that's and then you might decide you memorized there are 2 ways to remember something you can recall it or you can recognize the danger with highlighting is that becomes very easy to mistake recognition which requires a queue with true recall which involves pulling the memory from the depths of your brains archives all on your own the more you highlight the greatest danger become so if you do decide how your books be very selective about what gets highlight a better idea might be to adopt accounted for calls the Morse code here's how explains it first if you come across since it seems to be letting up big interesting idea draw quick dock next to in the margin of the book secondly if you come across an example or explanation force the previous big idea dry quick dash next to in the margin instead of adopt this method lets you avoid slowing down more reading which enables you to move smoothly through and comprehend the whole text before going back to review once you do the dots and dashes will likely take smarter notes on what you've read speaking notes it's finally time to talk about active read this is the process of truly engaging with the text inside a passably disk running arise over it which will help you to retain a lot more of what you read lots of study books and teachers explain actively a system called SQ 3 R. which stands for survey question read recite and review surveying is essentially pre reading before you start assignment skim over the whole thing quickly look over the beginning overview of the headings any review questions at the end the chapter doing this prime your brain in advance which I hope the most important if stick out later you can actually see hobo priming works right now close your eyes for a few seconds and concentrate on a specific color when you open them easily noticed that color in the environment around you serving does the same thing with text questioning simply involves writing out some questions that come to mind for starting the freedom actually do this quite often before research my video topics as a helps you again prime my brain to pick up the most important bits and not spend too much time off in a week reading well that's reading that leads into reciting was the catch all work for either taking notes were summarizing what you've read now if you have infinite time you could probably do both but since you probably don't on up that summaries are more useful for big concepts he intimately and more detailed notes will be better for fact heavy reading so cover effective review strategies and future video for now alright but by mentioning that I don't think you need to follow SQ 3 R. perfectly in order to get the benefits of that reading in fact I recommend many rigid acronym based systems at all except for maybe start stop complaining and read thanks for watching and seeing customer service skills is gone the doctor feels he can crash course studio in Missoula Montana if needed the help of Paul Hughes he looks to crush was free for everyone ever support series of hatred crap on a platform that allows you to support the process so much for your support //
"2017-08-08 21:26:00"
Taking Notes: Crash Course Study Skills #1
\\I I'm Thomas Frank this crash course study skills and today we'll look at how to take great notes you probably don't write that down I think it's on your notes well simply put when it comes to learning and retaining information output is just as important as input we're first learning a backdoor concept you're in taking new information but to retain the information for a long time elitist or in a place you can easily access later on and need to put it in your own work that before we talk about specific no taking systems when information is Sheik let's start with what's going to such the first place showing up to class prepared with the right tools there 3 routes you can go in selecting those tools paper computer or are it's the best option well unless you're a guy for memento we can probably narrow down either paper cuter between those 2 there's been debate going on for years but we do have some recent scientific evidence that we can turn to for some hard answer according to a study done at Princeton University 2014 soon to took notes on a 15 minute lecture using a laptop burn average of 310 words below 0 on paper only averaged 100 73 so it seems that typing your notes definitely does give you a speed advantage a downside to becoming the metaphorical speed racer of note taking though was that the same students were able to recall lesson as did later on so why does this happen well the root of the problem lies in the fact that the computer no takers were much more likely to record what was being presented word for word it's gonna thought well we're paying attention to the lecture there are 2 aspects of the information being presented since complex information is communicated through language written or spoken we get both the syntax like that letters and sounds that make up the words as well as the meat you type in your notes the speed advantage enables you to record a much more complete version of what your teacher is saying however it working memory party memory that deals with the information you're currently in taking in only deal with so much of time current cognitive science research but that amount around for bits or chunks of information which will talk about another video the combination of the recording speed advantage in a built in mental processing limit can lead you to devote more mental resources to the syntax of the message those pesky letters and sounds and less to the actual meaning as a result you are less in class and you create more work for yourself later on thanks not bubble so does this mean that a pen and paper always beats your laptop not not necessarily now that you know the speed increase you get your typing has a downside you can just resolve to type less and pay more attention to the meaning of the message wiring class still paper does have an implicit advantage as it requires less self control longhand writing speed automatically limits how much you pay attention to the syntax and as a bonus you don't have to worry about being tempted to go on Facebook and middle class either regardless of what truly decide choose though make sure you come into class well prepared if using paper have a well organized notebook with plenty of blank space as well as a good quality pen joy riding and if you decide that a computer to style better find a good note taking app like Evernote or OneNote Dropbox paper or any other that fits your fancy should also close at any apps are websites that are relevant to lecture them hope you stay focused but you still might have to work to ignore that guy and for you was taken a buzzfeed quiz to figure out of Hogwarts house I'm raving club by the way though that's just what a slithering would say isn't it anyway now that you're prepared and equipped to the right tools what exactly should you be recording with them after all you can't just record everything as the famous mathematician Eric temple bell noted the map is not the thing man just like about is useful only if it summarizes and simplifies what represents your notes are useful reviewing tool only when there's a high 6 ratio that means the gonna be packed with the information you know for the tests and later application and devoid of anything that doesn't that it's better to make specific recommendations here since there are so many different subjects in classes when you need you know taking skills however we can't but for some general guidelines that will point you in the right to first and foremost gauge each class are taking early on carefully look at the syllabus pay attention to any study guides review materials you can get your hands on and make mental notes about different types of questions you see on early quizzes and tests additionally anytime you hear professor say something like this is important pay attention and lecture that's you take extra careful notes all my friends in school but I was a kid take a nap but they were wrong beyond that whether you sitting in class are going through reading assignment in your textbook you want to pay special attention to things like big ideas summaries over user conclusions both lists like this one terms and definitions and examples and examples are doubly important especially in classes where you have to apply concepts and form list of problems in math or physics you can probably remember times when example presented in class made perfect sense but then a later Homer problem using the same exact concept completely stumped is a big difference between being able to follow along with someone else to solve the problem and have the chops to solve it on your own but recording every detail of the examples you seem class as well as making site notes about why the concepts being used work will have a lot more ammunition to work with are tackling those home now become the elements of good useful notes let's get into the specifics of how to take them and there are plenty of note taking systems out there each with their own pros and cons but with this video we're just gonna focus on 3 the out one method Cornell method and the mind mapping method yeah one method is probably the simplest one of the mall and it's likely the one you're most familiar with do you think you just record the details in lecture or book you're reading in a book list each main point will be a top level bullet and underneath it you want it further and further as you add more details civics the syllabus I wrote for this very crash course series is a good example about lifestyle notes each videos outline has several different top level bullets all by several levels of detail yes this is my actual outline not me out one method is great for creating organize notes but because it's so rigid you can easily end up with a ton notes that all look the same so to prevent that from happening use formatting tricks to make important detail stand out when you're reviewing them later on for example in these notes I took during class you can see I've got several details written down under prototyping all the more important up to write down but since the professor specifically mentioned that quick development and low cost for the most important aspects of prototyping I make sure to pull that long necks roaming over the Cornell method developed by the Cornell University press Sir Walter park back in the 19 fifties and popularized in his book how to study in college the Cornell method is a time tested system that involves to biting your paper or table in your note taking app into 3 distinct sections Q. column notes column and the summary comment during lecture take your actual notes in the aptly named notes call yeah you learn that there's not a whole lot of misdirection becomes the study skills anyway here you can use any method you want be the standard out one method that we just talked about or something more flexible at the same time we think of questions that were answered in lecture or they would be great promise for later review write them down in the queue because these questions will come in handy when you're going to your notes in the future as the point you to the most important affirmation and helped if thinking the summer area were made empty into the lecture is over once the time comes take 2 or 3 minutes to briefly look over the notes he took no questions are down and then write a one to 2 sentence summary of the biggest ideas that were covered this serves as an initial review which helps to consolidate everything that was presented up here and to solidify your understanding what everything is still fresh in your mind if neither of these 2 method seems like the right fit for you you might like final math going to cover which is mind mapping my naps are diagrams that visually represent the relationships between individual concepts and backs like outline style maps they're very hierarchical but that's where the similarities end outlines doughnuts are linear and read much like normal text while my maps look more like trees of spider webs to create a my not read the main concept smack dab the middle of the page and then branch out from there to flesh out the details this method works really well on paper but they're also apps like Kagel which will you create my naps on your computer as well so what's the best method well that's up for you to decide I recommend trying each one now and making your own tweaks as you go along also remember that not every class work best with the exact same method your history notes are probably look pretty different from your math notes so that's where we're gonna wrap this video up at this point should know how to come to class prepared take good notes the focus on during the lecture and what method to use in a future but you will follow up on these points with some tips on how you can review those notes during your study sessions but for now just go take some good notes as for watching and listening customer service goes down the doctor Cheryl see can crash course studio in Missoula Montana ants made the help of all of these people you like to help keep cross course free for everyone for ever support the series unpatriotic crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content thanks so much for your support //
"2017-08-07 20:00:27"
Social Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #21
\\imagine that 2 people 2 extremely wealthy people one of them inherited their money acquiring it through the luck that comes with being born to owners of immense amounts of property and wealth and the other person that works for what they have they started at the bottom and 2 years of hard work and clever dealing they built a business empire now which one would you say deserves their wealth sociologically the interesting thing here is that your answer not really it's the fact that different societies in different times and places have different answers to this question because the question of what it means to deserve wealth or success or power is a matter of social strife social stratification is what we're talking about we talk it's a system by which society categories as he rank them in a higher everything from //
"2017-08-01 21:04:52"
Crash Course Study Skills Preview
\\hi I'm Thomas Frank and we welcome you to serve as a little bit different anything you've seen here a crash course before whatever the series up to this point is help you explore and learn about actual academic subjects like world history computer science literature here will be learning how to learn this is affordability to have as our holiday becomes more and more dominated by information people who can retain information low use goes quickly by what they know in new and innovative ways are gonna be the one to 6 plus you know our city officially protest got more time for Margot Kerr so I should probably introduce myself my name is Thomas Frank and the founder of college in food.com mostly authored a book called 10 steps earning awesome grades and the creator of YouTube channel it's all about becoming more effective also the podcast right get together my best friend Martin and discuss many these topics more deaths from past 7 years has been a huge amount of time writing and researching all about how we use humans can prove our ability to learn and become more productive energy costs repressors authors say doctors here are scientists and other experts along the way I picked up a few tips to go beyond the basics in mind of argument so over the course the next 10 episodes are we sharing what I've learned among other things you know how to effectively take notes tackle reading assignments white papers and course study for tests look for her memory works look at studies values of pick the bandage implementations I'm working will also cover practically skills planning beauty cross nation and improve your concentration skills it'll certainly both in life as a student and for every decide go after and that's really the thing with study skills I discovered since graduating college information so 3 years ago and as will inevitably discover as well skills in 1000000 extra tests and people who are fine with organized the transcripts your career help you succeed there as well welcome to crash course studies see you next week //
"2017-06-30 14:39:10"
The Golden Age of Hollywood: Crash Course Film History #11
\\what I say Hollywood you probably think a big budget movie star studded premieres in studios with giant back lots pumping out film after film most of those associations really began sometime between the 19 twenties in the 19 fifties once audiences could hear actors speak listen to pre recorded musical scores and enjoy sound effects film cemented its place as the main medium for mass communication art and commerce as important Hollywood was during the silent era nobody could compete after the arrival of sound new major film studios emerged each with their own style and favorite celebrities before George Clooney and Jennifer Lawrence there was Clark Gable and gently this cascade of films like a more technological innovations to like color film in the widescreen formats we still use today this was the golden age of Hollywood hung the moon by by David okay vannatter after the stock market crash in October of 1929 most parts of the American economy took a real hit but not Hollywood and at the height of the Great Depression in 1933 roughly a quarter of the American workforce couldn't find a job and millions of others were barely making ends meet so you think that the last thing people would do with their hard earned money was go to movies and yet the depression was 1 of the best things to happen to the American film business the president in fact more films released by the major studios during the 19 twenties and thirties than any other decade averaging about 800 a year compared to less than 500 per year today it was cheaper to go to the movies in a player concert in cinema became a means of escape as we've talked about films are an illusion of reality and illusion with super attractive to people who's dated a reality was often pretty bleak genre films became are popular things like gangster films musicals westerns and screwball comedies anything to take people's mind off their own struggles and celebrate good old American values of optimism resilience ambition and courage at the height of Hollywood's golden age 5 film studios ruled the town all 5 were vertically integrated just like the major studios of the silent era they each had their own distinct reputations and a different first up we have metro Goldwyn Mayer or MGM which was the biggest studio in the 19 thirties Louis B. Mayer and MGM with his business partner Irving Thalberg Mayer was the savvy businessman he approve the budget and oversaw the distribution and marketing Albert on the other hand was a former producer in the mind behind the stories in actual production together they made slick big budget musicals comedies melodramas and literary adaptations sparing no expense on sets costumes extras in the biggest movie stars think of the wizard of oz gone with the wind and mutiny on the bounty I'm talking opulence people nexus Paramount Pictures which was known as the most European studio because they learned a lot of filmmakers away from Germany and the UK they also gave the filmmakers were the way to put their stamp on movies hits like Shanghai express the sign of the cross in Morocco our third player Warner brothers branded itself is the studio of the working class they turned out low budget melodramas gritty gangster movies like the Public Enemy with James Cagney and musical set in the depression like Footlight parade with James Cagney the fourth major studio with twentieth century fox which made its reputation thanks to its chief director and its most profitable star not James Cagney the director was John Ford who won back to back Best Director Oscars for the grapes of wrath and how green was my valley while Shirley Temple sang and danced her way through a string of wholesome Hicks and lastly RKO was the home of the extremely popular Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers music and I do a dance number neck RKO also took a lot of chances producing everything from Howard hawks screwball comedy bringing up baby to the 1933 version of King Kong and 1 of the most influential films of all time Citizen Kane never heard of it now all 5 the studios dominated the production distribution and exhibition of films for awhile but a US Supreme Court case in 1948 along with the coming of television signaled a major turning point in the case known as United States versus Paramount Pictures the government argued that the main the studios were in violation of in other words by owning both the production studios and the movie theaters they were exercising an unfair monopoly in stifling competition the Supreme Court agreed and force the studios to break up their business sell their theaters and focus on just production and distribution Hollywood continued to lead the global film market for another 10 or 15 years but that near complete control over the industry was ending we'll talk a lot more about this next time now the golden age of Hollywood sauce a major technical leaps in the film business too including color filmmakers have been experimenting with color since the dawn of cinema the earliest techniques involved hand tinting individual frames a painstaking process that had to be repeated for each print of each film not great over the next few decades engineers found ways to use stencils to 10 films much faster they also develop other means of adding color like baiting the film stock and dies that fit the mood of the scene called Tony read for violence blue for sorrow Greenford grassy by the mid 19 twenties nearly 90 percent of Hollywood films were either tinted tone or some combination of the 2 which was great except color itself look while the artificial and once Hollywood can on film tech I fear that the film stocks ability to record proper sound crash course film history TL the are it's hard the filmmakers needed figure out color cinematography capturing color with the image as early as 1861 a Scottish physicist named James clerk Maxwell who we course physics well I didn't she needed built the foundations of color photography light all around us is made up of a spectrum of different wavelengths some of which we see as visible colors knowing this Maxwell figured out that all these colors can be derived from some combination of red yellow and blue beginning in 1906 artists and engineers tried for 15 years uses technology to achieve color cinematography but much like me in high school that kept failing their experience were unreliable or too expensive then along came Technicolor in 1922 the Technicolor corporation saw its first success with the special beam splitting camera that could make 2 separate negatives the light entered the camera and was split into different wavelengths just like how sunlight hit the prism and splits into a rainbow half continued straight ahead while the other half was diverted 90 degrees to produce to film negatives these negatives were chemically treated died either red or blue and cemented together then you could run that final filmstrip through a regular projector and 1 even though they were spot on the colors in these films were more reliable and accurate than any of the earlier attempts and well that means putting cameras expensive at least leaders then have to buy new projectors to show color films over the next decade Technicolor expanded its system into a 3 color process with a camera that recorded the original image into 3 separate negatives red blue and green and by 1932 this process created such high quality vibrant results that and color ended up with a virtual monopoly on color film for the next 20 years throughout the 19 thirties filmmakers and studios gradually began playing around with technical but the middle the decade producer David O. Selznick turned a corner by casting big stars in color films for the first time and as the 19 thirties came to a close Hollywood released a series of high profile hits that proved color was here to stay these films that use Technicolor range from the Errol Flynn swashbuckler the adventures of Robinhood to classics like the wizard of oz and gone with the wind and even animated features like Disney Snow White and Pinocchio advances in color cinematography would continue to develop over the years but the basic stay the same until film stock gave way to digital video in the 20 first century now a third technical element of cinema standardized during the golden age of Hollywood it's a little something called aspect ratio that's the ratio of the movie screens with to a tight back in 1932 the academy of motion picture arts and sciences the folks to give out the Oscars established a standard aspect ratio for 3 which looks like this also known as the economy aperture this ratio is in a square but it's closer to a square than we're used to these days that's because most movies we see today are shot an aspect ratio of 169 which looks like this that's more like it we often call this wide screen and so much film and TV is shot at this ratio that most new screens are built to fit it but those are just 2 possible aspect ratios back in 1950 some filmmakers experimented with an extreme widescreen ratio called Cinerama this process involves shooting a film with 3 separate synchronize cameras hooked together in an arc in projecting that from 3 synchronize projectors we heard the scream was shaking a similar arc kind of wrapping itself around the audience you know for real immersive experience and the final aspect ratio of Cinerama was about 83 which looks like this most famous film shot in around the was the western epic how the west was won but as you can probably guess this process was too expensive and complicated to achieve widespread use it was bad for performers next on the heels of Cinerama came cinemascope rather than shooting with multiple cameras cinemascope utilize something called in and this was a special lens for cameras that recorded a wider image but squeezed it laterally so that everything would fit on a standard 35 millimeter film stock in the film is projected a similar lines attached to the projector would on squeeze the image expanding it back out and projecting it up onto the screen the result was an impressive 25521 aspect ratio audiences got their first taste of it in the 1953 biblical epic the robe and by the end of that year every major Hollywood studio except paramount was licensed to make cinemascope films over time the ratio was reduced to 23521 in the mid 19 fifties the American film industry it almost entirely converted to shooting anamorphic widescreen films it took sometime for filmmakers to adjust a white screen shooting when you move from an aspect ratio of 43 to 69 that's a whole lot extra room to fill so what do you do with it well we fill it with like knickknacks and stuff closeups especially faces became difficult to frame while landscapes got easier at first widescreen was rewarded compass it takes over editing filmmakers built their stories by filling the frame rather than cutting to new images genres like the western the musical and large scale epics all let themselves to these kinds of worldbuilding possibilities in the end the technical advancements of sound color and an aspect ratio that gets around the audience made the powerful Hollywood studios the center of the cinematic universe from the late 19 twenties to the late 19 fifties it was a golden age whose echoes are felt in our films today today we learned about how the American studio system took advantage of sound film in the Great Depression global dominance we discussed the developing of color cinematography and what it meant for filmmakers and film audiences and we examined aspect ratio and how the move to wide screen cinema affected films being made next time we'll learn about how filmmakers in Europe and the United States reacted against the formulaic movies coming out of Hollywood and created a new wave of pretty irreverent and innovative cinema crash course film history is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over there channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like blank and blank PBS space time and global weeding with Catherine Hey hope this episode of crash course was filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking a crash course studio with the help of these aspect ratios and are amazing graphics team is thought //
"2017-06-15 22:21:08"
Breaking the Silence: Crash Course Film History #10
\\okay hello can you hear me you get good that's because of something called synchronous sound it means that the words I'm saying right now are being recorded then matched with the video so when you watch this the sound of my voice is in sync with the image of me talking talking talking we take that for granted today but for the first few decades of film history it was impossible theaters have a supply music sound effects and narration through photographs are live performances and would dialogue was absolutely necessary filmmakers and actors mouth the words and then insert title cards or intertitles in the middle of the scene so the audience could read the dialogue for themselves it took years of guesswork tinkering in experimentation make cinema sound the way it does today but when sound fine forever all you can hear me say why now thanks to I WNED nothing foundations of film industry like the coming of sound by the mid 19 twenties major studios were turning out movie after movie the star system was in full swing and semi have become an integral part of popular culture but in order to sync pre recorded sound to moving pictures artists and engineers had overcome a few major hurdles the first and most important was synchronization how do you get the image and sound to match up at the time image and sound recorded and played back using different devices so there is no easy way to link that second microphone technology was fairly primitive sound quality wasn't good in Mike's themselves were too big to conceal third the process of recording and playing back sound typically required electricity that meant production companies would need more equipment larger crews and access to power in finally there is the problem of amplification speaker technology at the time simply wasn't loud enough to fill a big theater in the search for solutions to these problems when as far back as the 18 eighties and 1889 Thomas Edison's assistant W. calix and achieve a kind of rough synchronization between the photograph and the Connecticut eventually came up with a device called the conetta phone that used a system of pulleys to connect the 2 devices thing is it was buggy everything had to be just right or the whole system fell apart likely at the same time as Dixon inventors across Europe and the United States working towards the goal of synchronous sound film in fact 3 separate synchronizing devices run display at the Paris world exhibition in 1900 none of them solve the whole problem that the common thread in all these early attempts was the photograph that's what they used to play back the pre recorded sound to accompany the film the problem was it was really hard to keep things in sync you guys if the phonograph needle skip to the film Jan the projector which happen all the time it was nearly impossible to rethink the 2 without starting all over again more importantly the photograph Aladdin cylinders artists that could only hold for 5 minutes worth the sound by 1905 virtually all films ran longer than 5 since the photograph seem like a dead end engineers started to look for ways to record sound photographically well that's right they hope to translate sound waves into patterns of light that can be recorded directly onto a strip of film they call this technology sound on film which is not creative naming but it works the first experiments with sound on film began in 1910 when you Jean Augustine lost to work for Dixon in Edison's lab successfully recorded sound right next to the image track on film in 1919 a trio of German inventor this came up with something called the tri ergon process they used a photoelectric cell to translate sound waves into electric impulses which were then converted into light waves recorded photographically onto the film strip most notably the innovated a fly wheel into the projector that would keep the film speed consistent this mechanism was so superior to anything else the time and its patents so airtight that everyone had pay royalties to the tri ergon creators to use it at roughly the same time an American inventor named lead a forest developed his own sound on film system it was very similar to the tri ergon process but the fourth version solve the problem of amplification in 1907 while working in radio broadcast technology discourse patented the audio on 3 electrode amplifier tube my nickname in high school this was a vacuum tube that amplified sound and scented into a speaker sort of like the way projectors lands takes an image and blows it up so you can see it on a large screen in 1919 to force realize this technology might help achieve synchronous sound and by 1922 he developed the process enough to test it commercially he formed the deforrest photo film company and set about making some of the very first sync sound film he called them photo films most were just musical performances vaudeville acts and speech is simply meant to showcase the technology but fewer narrative films by the mid 19 twenties 100 exhibitors in the eastern United States Britain and Canada had wired the movie theaters for sound specifically to screen the forests Phonofilm but Hollywood wasn't ready for it yet because the American studios were very good at producing silent movies and they were convinced that it was worth the expense to change the way they made and showed films just to accommodate sound studio had thought that talking pictures are talkies were just a novelty that would fade away that began to change in 1926 when a subsidiary of 18 he introduced the Vitaphone system instead of sound on film the Vitaphone was a sound on disc process that saw the duration problem by recording the sound on multiple discs genius at first the studios all passed on the Vitaphone they said no way then along came Warner brothers at the time they were just a small studio looking elbow their way into the big leagues and they decided to take a chance to be the first film do you have to make show sync sound film on a large scale they lease the rights to the vita funds as well as the right to sub lease at other studios and set about converting their use to handle sound films now originally didn't intend to incorporate dialogue and to the and their idea was to simply use it for music and sound effects their first effort was the 1926 film Don Juan sumptuous asking drama starring John Barrymore before the film they played an hour of synch sound short films including musical performances and a brief spoken message from will Hayes president of the motion picture producers and distributors of America welcoming the world to the era of sound this is part of what he had to say my friends Noah story ever written for the screen is as dramatic as the story of the screen itself people were blown away they were like well I don want broke box office records in city after city film critics lavished praise on the Vitaphone system and a Columbia University physicist set of the hate speech no closer approach to resurrection has ever been made by science now this doesn't mean that the coming of sound worked out for everybody until now screen actors had been trained to act through gestures suddenly dialogue not to mention your voice and your enunciation had real consequences and that every silent film star was able to make the transition Buster Keaton for instance was known as the great stone face for the stoic expression he wore no matter how things were falling apart around his character but then sound came along the charm of Keaton's deadpan silence was lost when he started to speak kinda like when I start to speak sound fields also threatened musicians that played live music and movie theaters and of course I'm still gonna cost a boatload of money to convert production studios and movie theaters to sound nevertheless by 1927 the writing was on the sound was common in the major studios couldn't stall any longer that year the big 3 studios MGM famous players and first national adopted the Vitaphone process and set about converting their theaters meanwhile Warner brothers had already finished building a sound studio on their lot and producing their next film the jazz singer the plan was to make a film with music not dialogue but would star Al Jolson improvised a few lines the studio agreed to leave the men unlike most lines I improvise for that album Malik out now again kidney I it's an ongoing thing it's like a winner by going to say you know what it feels like I think it can now get it I why don't you make me maybe not but it will do I speak though I don't know in that this incidental spoken dialogue really sent audiences over the tack think about it they know is heard music in some formal watching a film either from live musicians are photographed and they've been spoken to in speeches and performances like the hate speech or the fourth Phonofilm but they never heard informal dialogue spoken to other characters within the world of the film suddenly audiences were listening in on the story and over hearing the dialogue with the story seem more real in some ways I think sound completed the illusion of reality that began 3 decades earlier with the very first motion pictures soon new genres emerged musicals and dance movies are suddenly crossed he led the way in future operating dialogue a short using monster films became more pop effects and music allowed them to ratchet up also newspaper movies but films like the front page and the blonde had reporters trading witty banter is they take stories these films eventually lead to classics Howard hawks his girl Friday and even the great attain ever heard of it old John has got a facelift to companies in particular found new ways to make us laughter dialogue instead of relying on physical humor alone on the technical side the arrival of sound changed career opportunities for women in film as well and not for the better prior to sound women edited more Hollywood films amended that's because at the time editing was thought of as menial labor the grunt work of painstakingly splicing together but to fill then sound came along and the technological requirements of the job multiplied and almost overnight film editors responsible for assembling not just images but the sound effects music and dialogue as well just like that the rate of women in the cutting room was over they saw themselves replaced by men who were seen as more technically minded but women editors in Hollywood did make a comeback from Thelma Schoonmaker who cut every Martin Scorsese film since raging bull or lease a laser who edited just Wheaton's Avengers movies today we talked about the engineering hurdles and breakthroughs that led to the arrival of reliable sing sound the cinema learn how the Hollywood studios resisted the arrival of sound films as long as I could until audience demand force them to give it and we considered how sound film changed the studios the films themselves in the lives of those who made them which sets us up perfectly for what came next the official golden age of Hollywood aus sea event in the pictures crash course film history is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like growth science art rages with Nate and full time kid this episode a crash course was filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking a crash course studio with the help of these nice flight meals and are amazing graphics team is thought //
"2017-06-14 23:00:00"
Software Engineering: Crash Course Computer Science #16
\\hi I'm Carrie and welcomes crash because computer science so we've talked a lot about floating in the series and often co to so if the numbers is only 10 lines long which is pretty easy for a single program it's right plus it shows nothing don't need any special tools you can do it in notepad really but sorting algorithm if in a program it's likely only a small part of a much larger prey for example Microsoft Office has roughly 14000000 lines of code 14000000 that's way too big for any one person to figure out rights bills huge programs like this programs use a set of tools and practices taken together these form the discipline of software engineering time queen by engineer Margaret Hamilton who help NASA prevent serious problems on the Apollo 11 mission to the moon she once explained it this way it's kind of like Rick canal you waited till the end but there are things you could have done beforehand it's like preventative health care but is preventative software as I mentioned in it so 12 breaking big programs into small functions allows many people to exit with famously they don't have to worry about the whole thing just the function that working on Sir if you toss of writing a sort algorithm you any need to make sure it's cels properly and efficiently however even packing upgrading to functions isn't enough Microsoft Office probably contains hundreds of thousands of them that's better than dealing with 40000000 lines of code but still way too many things for one personal team to manage the solution is to package functions ins hierarchies putting related code to get into object for example because software might have several functions relates cruise control like setting speed not XPW down and stopping cruise control together says they'll related we can wrap them up into a unified cruise control objects thoughts we don't have to stop that cruise control is just one part of the engine software that might also be sets of functions that control spot plug ignition fuel pumps and the radiator so we can create a parent engine object that contains all of these children objects in addition to children objects the engine itself might have its own function you won't be able to stop it stop it for example it also have its own variables like how many miles because traveled in general all checks can contain other objects functions and variables and of course the engine is just one part of a call object there's also the transmission windows doors windows and so on now as a program if I want to set the cruise control I never beat down the object hierarchy from the outside most objects to more more deeply nested ones eventually I reached the function able to trigger call then engine then cruise control then set crispy to 55 programming languages often you something equivalent to the syntax same hit the idea of packing up functional unit 6 nested objects is called object oriented programming this is very similar to what we've done all series long hike complexity by encapsulating low level details in high order components before we packed up things like transistor seconds into high level bringing gates now in doing the same thing with software yet again it's a way to move up a new level of abstraction breaking up the big program like a call so faint functional units is perfect for teens once he might be responsible for cruise control system and a single program on that scene tackles a handful of functions this is similar to how big physical things are built like skyscrapers you'll have electricians running wise Plymouth spitting pipes welders welding paints a painting and hundreds of other people teeming life the hall they what together on different possible Taney Slee leveraging that different skills until one day you got a whole working building but returning to a cruise control example it's cut is going to have to make use of functions in other parts of the engine software to you know keep the car a constant speed that code is a pop the cruise control teams responsibility it's another team's cutting because the cruise control team didn't write that they going to need good documentation about what each function in the car does and a well defined application programming interface or API for sure you can think of an API as the way the collaborating program is incorrect because various parts of the coast for example in the mission control object they might be functions to set the RPM of the engine check the spark plug voltage as well as 5 individuals spot plug Sanibel to set limits RPM is really useful the cruise control team is going to need school that function but they don't know much about how the commission system works it's not a good idea to let them cool functions the fire the individual spark plugs Williams in my life maybe maybe I allows the right people access to the right functions and data object oriented programming languages do this by letting you specify whether functions a public or private if a function is marked as private means any functions insight that object and cool it so in this example or any of the functions inside of ignition control like the setup PM function confine the spark plugs on the other hand because the set RPM function is marked as public other objects can cool it like cruise control this ability to hide complexity and selectively reveal is the essence of object oriented programming and is a powerful populates tackle building large and complex programs pretty much every piece of software on your computer or game running on your console was built using an object oriented programming language C. plus plus C. shop or objective C. other popular languages you may have heard of a place than in Java it's important to remember the case before being compiled is just text as I mentioned at a you could write code in notepad or any old web process up some people do but generally today software developers you special purpose applications for writing programs once that integrate many useful tools for writing organizing compiling and testing tired because I've put everything you need in one place that cold integrated development environments all ID's for short all ID's provide a text editor for writing code often reduced with features like automatic color coding to improve readability many of them check the syntax errors as you type like spell check for kite big programs contain lots of individual source files so ideas about program is to organize and efficiently navigate everything also built right into the ID is the ability to compiling run kite and if your program crashes because it's still a work in progress the ID can take you back to the line of code where it happened and often provide you additional information to help you track down and fix the bug which is a price escorting bugging this is important because most programmers spend 70 to 80 percent of the time testing and debugging not writing new code good souls containing nineties can go a long way when it comes to helping program as prevent a find errors many computer program is can be pretty loyal to the ID's die but let's be honest vin is where it's at providing you know how to quit in addition to coding and debugging another important harbor programs job is documenting that kite this can be done in stand alone files cooled returnees which tell on the program is to read the help file before diving in it can also happen right in the code itself with comments these are specially marked statements that the program nice to cool when the code is compiled they exist I need help programs figure out what's what in the source code good documentation helps programs when they revisit card they haven't seen for awhile but is also crucial for programmers who totally new to it I just want to take a second here and reads right that it's a bone west when someone parachutes unloaded uncommitted undocumented code enjoy that I literally have to go line by line to one state what the code is doing seriously don't be that person documentation also permits countries so instead of having program is close to me by the same things over and eva they can track down someone else's code that does what they need then thanks documentation they can put its work in that program without ever having to read through the kite read the docs as they say in addition to Heidi's another important piece of software that helps big teams what Cooper sitting a bit coding projects it's good source control also known as version control or revision control most often a big software company like apple or Microsoft code for projects distorted centralized service quick heard repository when a program wants to work on a piece of code they can check it out sold like checking out a book from a library often this can be done writing an IDE then they can edit this code only one of my personal computer adding new features and testing if they what when the programmers confident that changes the working and there are no new send they can check the car back into the repository notice committing card for everyone else to use want a piece of code is checked out presumably getting updated on what a fight on the program is needed to lighten this prevents wind conflicts educated work in this way hundreds of programs can be simple tiny city checking it out different pieces of code intrinsically building up huge systems critically you don't want someone committing body cut it because other people in scenes may rely on it that code could crash crane confusion of lost time the most diversion of the code stored on the server should always compile without errors and run with minimal bugs the sometimes Buxton Creepin fortunately source control software keeps track of all changes and if a body is found the whole code or just a piece we rode back to an earlier stable version it also keeps track of handmade each change so co workers can send nasty I mean helpful and encouraging emails to the offending passage fucking goes hand in hand with writing and is most often done by an individual or small team the big picture version of debugging is quality assurance testing okay right this is where team rigorously tests out piece of software attempting to create unforeseen conditions the my tripping up basically basic public schedule the wrinkles out is a huge effort but lights when making sure the software works as intended for as many uses in as many situations imaginable before it ships eve party had a beta software this is a version of software that's mostly complete not 0 symphony tested companies will sometimes released beta versions to the public to help them identify issues is essentially like getting a freaky writing what you don't hear about as much as the version that comes before the beta the alpha version this is usually so rougher buggies only tested intently say that's the tip the iceberg in terms of the tools tricks and techniques that allow software engineers to construct a huge pieces of software that we know enough today my keychain Grand Theft Auto 5 and power plane as you might expect all these millions of lines of code needs some serious processing power to running slow speeds site next episode will be talking about how computers got so incredibly fast see you then crushed because computer science is produced in association with PBS digital studios at that shadow you can check out latest shows like physics go deep blue a PBS space time this episode was filmed at the chalice they see a little studio in Indianapolis Indiana and it was made with the help of all these nice people and our wonderful graphics tuneful cafe that's where we gonna have to hold could catch fire see you next week //
"2017-06-08 21:31:15"
The Silent Era: Crash Course Film History #9
\\Hollywood here we come the glamour the celebrities this scandals I'm not talking about Bennifer Brangelina and they still thinks no I got about attachment not out of touch with the golden age of silent cinema when stars Rosenfels studious perfected the mass production of films an American movies dominated the global film market in some ways it was very different from the Hollywood we noted movie studios wielded enormous power they kept stars and directors under tight control the movies they made were silent and a ticket would set you back a whopping 10 or 25 cents on the other hand a lot of the pattern set during this time still seem awfully familiar today studios marketed films on the power of their stars John is a gangster movies and romantic comedies to cold and flourished and audiences crave gossip about the private lives of celebrities to understand the world as it is sometimes you have to go back to where it all began and for Hollywood that's the silent era still was going a lot of different directions World War in Germany film it's true on the express movement to many later films means on sat creating groundbreaking horror film in Russia Soviet filmmakers reasons the art of propaganda through revolutionary editing tech and in the U. S. the Hollywood studio system was positioning itself to dominate the rest of the world within film studios the entire filmmaking process took place from conceiving writing and shooting the films to marketing and distribution the studios have chosen California for its film friendly sunny weather its proximity to all kinds of terrain and its distance from Thomas Edison who spent much of the 19 tends fighting for control of the American film industry from his base in New Jersey in the early days of the silent era 3 film studios ruled the mall the famous players Lasky corporation which would eventually become Paramount Pictures lows ink which began as a theater chain and first national pictures that only did these 3 dominate the marketplace they exercise near complete control over the creative and personal lives of their stars writers and directors filmmakers often had choose between following the studios orders or abandoning their careers then 4 of the most powerful figures in early silent cinema came together to create their own film studio in 19192 directors Charlie Chaplin and D. W. Griffith and 2 stars Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford founded United Artists their goal was to give filmmakers more control over their films and a greater percentage of the profits kitchen is what the I assume they would of course not many filmmakers could afford to go out on their own like that so the contract system would continue for several more decades in 1924 the most powerful studio merged with Loews purchased Goldwyn pictures to create metro Goldwyn Mayer better and you know which led to MGM studios which led the tower of terror and human Antar there was pretty fun time this is a process that would get repeated throughout the 1920 and thirties a studious merged or sold or split apart pry because that was the prohibition on that and having ousted by the end of the era most American films are being made at studios whose names you might recognize from the multi plex today not only United Artists MGM but also Warner brothers fox universal and Columbia Pictures now the corporate structure of these companies kept changing the process by which they were making films as a remarkably stable and efficient unlike me the major studios became very good at turning out large scale commercial movies with mass appeal 1 of the leading innovators in setting up the way studios work was a man named Thomas H. Ince like D. W. Griffith hints camp the film as a failed actor he directed his first film in 1910 and by 1913 is making as many as 100 52 reelers a year is biggest impact on film came by applying the lessons as production to the actual making of movies prior to its most films are overseen by director cameraman a single person who conceived the story work with the actors and operated the camera it's broke those rolls into separate jobs screenwriter to conceive the story and write the script by director to make creative decisions on set and work with the actors an editor to assemble the footage a producer to supervise a project from inception to final cut and a studio head to oversee the entire studio while other filmmakers have played around with these roles it was into standardize them into a system system still used today by 1912 year and enough money to buy a ranch west of Hollywood where he built his own studio a place he called in Seville yep it was here the first permanent exterior sets were built made to resemble far flung locations like a cowboy saloon a little Swiss street or a Japanese village and isns work to define the roles and streamline the means of production he was able to triple the output of a studio though he died quite young and I he for instance impact film production was thorough widespread in last now Mack Sennett another early film mobile and onetime partner Vince was responsible for discovering a whole slew of film legends whose names you might recognize people like the keystone cops fatty Arbuckle Gloria Swanson Carole Lombard WC fields and the great Charlie Chaplin let's talk a little bit about Charlie Chaplin he was born into poverty in England in 1889 he wanted to acting signed with the prestigious vaudeville touring company and set off for America at age 19 film talent scout spotted in there got hired by Senate and the rest is history that we're gonna talk about because we're dying but on the street smart curious and driven it didn't take long for chapel to develop his iconic tramp persona and begin directing his own films after finishing his first film contract Chaplin struck an extremely lucrative deal with the Chicago based SNE studios to make 14 short films well it as any he found ways to combat finally tuned sense at the end is recognized character with a great through both physical comedy and increasingly clever story lines in fact he was so popular that by the time it's estimate contract was negotiated suggested salary of $10000 per week with another studio the mutual film corporation they also paid a signing bonus of $150000 the equivalent of about 3.$5000000 today should change is what they would have said at the time the movie strapline made with mutual brought him international stardom they marked the first time is focus on the poor verged into social criticism a place silent comedies rarely if ever went true to his roots and despite being one of the highest paid people in the world Chaplin's films often focused on the gentle accidental heroism of the downtrodden time and again he made the powerful the butt of his jokes and display tremendous empathy for the poor and humble then in 1919 at age 30 he co founded United Artists in an effort to exercise greater control over his films I'm 36 I better get moving what followed was a string of classic movies that rank not only among chaplains best but among the best film comedies of all time the kid his first feature film and smash hit the gold rush City Lights modern times and its controversial take down of Adolf Hitler the great dictator because later career would be hampered by legal problems and socialist sympathies which would land on the infamous post war blacklist but at its height known benefited more from the silent era studio system Charlie to director making a as quickly and efficiently and as an actor command salaries and unheard of creative control and he wasn't the only one to turn the system to his advantage checker directors like Buster Keaton fatty Arbuckle and Harold Lloyd achieved great success making their own shorten feature length comedy stars like Mary Pickford and Gloria Swanson parlayed their celebrity to tangible behind the its power now still became more more central to popular culture some people started to get nervous they worry that movies pose a real threat to public morality itself films promoting materialism cynicism and sexual license this would be a debate that would come up again and again in American culture about movies or music or video games until now we solve all those problems is the medium causing society's problems are just reflecting them a few real life Hollywood scandals at the time took the scales bringing on the first real self censorship of American cinema the gossip press fed reader stories about stars dealing with addictions affairs and works the most famous of these centered around fatty Arbuckle who's accused of the rape and accidental death of an actress named Virginia Rappe pay although he was ultimately acquitted after 3 highly publicized trials the scandal self all but ended Arbuckle's career and left an opening for a government crackdown on immorality in films in the film business rather than wait for Congress to get involve the major players in the film industry banded together to form the MPPT eighth the motion producers and distributors of America they hired a retired postmaster generally will Hayes a conservative evangelical to prove they were serious about cleaning up their act and that's exactly what Hayes did in 1930 putting together the motion picture production code also known as the Hays code a catalog of things filmmakers could and couldn't show on screen fun the code also suggested a strategy called compensating values the idea was that film could show characters engaging in vice for most of the film as long as virtues triumphed in the end no one employed this technique better than director Cecil B. DeMille he was a man Esther and giving the audience access they could handle for the first 3 quarters of the movie before virtue other filmmakers found their own ways around the Hays code German director Ernst Lubitsch came to Hollywood in 19 a 2 and made a successful series of witty sex comedies that relied on suggestion and innuendo rather than skin for many of these filmmakers however the Hays code was about to become the least of their worries a seismic event was poised to shake up Hollywood and not every filmmaker of the silent era was in a the other side with their career intact the world was about to get its first taste of synchronous sound and it tasted good hi maybe I don't today we toward the silent era the first golden age of Hollywood filmmaking we learned about the innovations of Thomas it's on the rise of the American film studio and we discussed some of the most important solider filmmakers and other scandals both real and imagined let Hollywood institute industry standards governing the content of the film next we'll tackle the biggest shift in the history of film yet as movies find their voice as crash course film history is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like the artist sign gross science in PDF infinite series this episode a crash course was filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking a studio with the help of these industry standards and are amazing graphics to stock cafe //
"2017-06-01 23:18:11"
Soviet Montage: Crash Course Film History #8
\\the Russian Revolution marked the first major civil war fought in the age of cinema and the big winners in that struggle understood the unique ability of film to change minds and inflame hearts today will be a bunch of filmmakers who spent as much time studying films as they did making them we'll see the founding of the world's first film school and will watch the rise of a cohesive self conscious and game changing film movement that would unlock the power of the cut to create meaning shape public opinion and call a hungry populace to action it's time to cut Soviet montage in 1917 the second of 2 violent revolt in Russia over through the czar and brought the Bolsheviks to power Bolshevik means majority in Russian by the way in this political movement grew from the peasant and working classes who acquired their power through persuasion and force that's important you should remember that //
"2017-05-31 22:00:50"
Data Structures: Crash Course Computer Science #14
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"2017-05-26 00:00:35"
German Expressionism: Crash Course Film History #7
\\the earliest days of film or possibly 1 cinema was its most global as a meteor there is no synchronous sounds the filmmakers had to tell their stories visually with tools like framing shot size and editing instead of the spoken dialogue because of this film could be understood across cultures some throws a punch at the camera and you flinch whether you speak English or Russian or eagle so far we've been focusing a lot in France and the United States where many advances in film technology storytelling in commerce were born but the rest of the world wasn't very far behind Europe had a vibrant film culture leading right up to 1914 when World War 1 began which profoundly changed world history as world wars tend to do and left an impact on to know that still felt to this day German film especially became stranger and darker as filmmakers attempted to disorient the audience and immerse us in the heads of their main characters it's time to delve into the psychological depths of German expressionism we think a World War one you might more fair gore's affect on the burgeoning well that's political ecological powerful in countries like France Italy in the U. K. world where one brought feature film production to a near standstill because the infrastructure and facilities were destroyed or because filmmakers in their equipment were scripted into the war effort you see film was used to bring images of battle and its aftermath to audiences far from the frontline the 2 national film industry's most affected by World War 1 where those of Germany and Russia for now let's focus on Germany we'll get to Russia next time prior to the war German films fell firmly within the idea of cinema of attractions they were spectacles designed for entertainment like me as film became a more sophisticated media many German filmmakers took a page from the French film dar movement to begin thinking more about the craft of narrative filmmaking telling more complex stories rooted in specific characters experiences sound boring to me where the explosion merit and they call this kind of film auto ran film or famous authors fill in 1913 still arrive at a film called their student von Prague or just for Prague that find shackled in film from theatrical staging to proceed him arch approach we talked about before this free the camera to enter a scene and join the action rather than sitting back to observe by the mid 19 tends the German government realize that its film industry wasn't at the same level as that of the United States France Italy or England combine that with Germany struggles with pre war depression an anti government propaganda and you had a recipe for trouble in 1917 the German military supreme command to control all the major film studios and production come consolidated them under one enormous state sponsored entity called who fought the idea was to centralize all the film talent equipment and facilities in the country and a focus on nationalist films a pro German pro government cinema that would help them win the war imagine if the US military took over in combined Warner brothers paramount Disney universal box Sony cannon films Breakin 2 electric boogaloo all the major film studios and then told them what they could and couldn't make that is a lot of resources and a lot of power now spoiler Germany lost the war badly and in the aftermath imperial rule ended and the National Assembly in the city of Weimar gave birth to a new Republican government this Aaron German history which we call the Weimar period was marked by hyper inflation political extremism violence and deeply troubled relationships with the countries that had won the war but Germany was left with a huge infrastructure for film production and confusion that actually grew during the war while the rest of the he went into free fall meanwhile the rest of Europe's filmmaking capacity had been all but decimated so by 1920 Germany had the only film industry in the world able to compete with Hollywood the first post war films made by ... file were beautiful costume dramas or costume film aptly named their aim was to compete with the popular large scale historical spectacles made by Italy before the war to entertain and distract audiences from the devastated economy filmmaker named Ernst Lubitsch became the acknowledged master of the custom film known for his huge crowd scenes and mastery of artificial lighting hopefully no first costumes too I would think and it's because of them now you better at customs his first big international hit was a damn to bury also known as passion made in 1919 and in just over a decade he would become the first time filed your great to have escape the rise of Nazi rule now with you for a second up all the filmmaking out in Germany there wasn't much room for independent production companies and yet a few persisted 1 of them called Tecla knew they couldn't compete with you for terms of scalar resources there even hamstrung by the rationing electricity which limited the lighting they could use so the producers knew they had to do something different to get people's attention and they did their break out film would reshape the German film style and eventually influence the look and tone of Hollywood genre movies altogether it was called the cabinet of Dr Caligari this little studio made a movie that change the face of cinema written by Hans yahwism Karl Maier this film is thematically based on their experiences a soldiers in World War 1 and their distrust of authoritarian leadership he tells the story of a young German man who meets a madman doctor who some nebulous to kind of sleep walking zombie may also be a serial killer targeting the young man's best friend and the woman he loves the story gains a level of complexity at the end when it's revealed that spoiler get ready our hero is an unreliable narrator who lives in a mental institution and may have made up the entire plot using his fellow inmates in the director of the asylum as models for his characters creepy right what made the film stand out in 1920 and even today is its use of means all sent me the onset refers to the arrangement of things that appear in front of a camera all the physical stuff in a shot sets props costumes makeup actors and the blocking and the lighting pretty much everything in Calgary's innovation was to use museums and expressionistic lead rather than realistically but is instead of making things like the sets costumes and props as realistic as possible director Robert vine and his 2 production designers deliberately distorted everything within the friends all designed to look deliberately artificial and throw you off balance chairs desks and doors that are way too tall to possibly roofs and even shafts of moonlight painted across the set the pale face dark I'd make up of the characters as well as the way they move particularly the sleepwalking killer tesserae was meant to be sued creepy this is the heart of German expressionism using an exaggerated distorted means on send reflect the inner psychology of the characters it's the world's first taste of highly subjective filmmaking as well putting us in the mind of an ins in character spirits the world as he does given its anti authoritarian themes exaggerated means on send subjective point of view and twist ending the cabinet of Dr Calgary is a powerhouse of a story made at least for breakthroughs all at once for the history of film and although Calgary was an immediate hit other filmmakers soon began to pick up its techniques even who first started borrowed style and before long expressionistic mesons and became a hallmark of German cinema in the Weimar period because if it was the largest film studio in the world at the time it attracted young filmmakers and technicians from all over Europe including a 25 year old Alfred Hitchcock then as Germany took a hard right towards fascism many German filmmakers fled to London New York or Hollywood taking the techniques of German expressionism with them watch a film a walk in the 19 thirties or a horror film for the night the forties or even a studio melodrama like Douglas circus all that heaven allows from 1955 and you'll see the deep influence of German expressionism tactic another look at David Fincher 7 and tell me those grisly murder scene that ending would exist without Calgary what's in the box now another German filmmaker from the Weimar period we should talk about is Fritz Lang Lang started as an architect and boy does it show in his work his films depict grand epic spaces any pays incredibly close attention to the details and structure of his narratives they feel solid like you could live in them he borrowed heavily from Calgary's use of means on sent to amplify his own rich and morally complex stories but as films were less intellectual and more interested in exploring the visceral emotions of characters Lange's masterpieces the sci fi epic metropolis which combine German expressionist techniques with his interest in special effects the film is set in a futuristic society in which the wealthy live in luxury high above the toiling masses it's a love story between the son of the ruler of the society and a poor worker from down below which you know is par for the course for dystopian story truck was was a precursor to everything from Blade Runner to the hunger games but it was also a huge financial failure at the time it took decades before it was hailed as a dark and sinister classic no no discussion of German expressionism is complete without mentioning the other major director of the time F. W. Murnau Murnau was an art historian before he was a filmmaker and wanted to make a film of Bram stoker's Dracula but couldn't for the rights to the book so we just fudge did a bit he changed some of the names rearrange some locations and made his own version of the same story in 1922 called Nosferatu use heavily inspired by cal Gary but instead of building exaggerated sets my now focus more on lighting staging special effects and makeup to get at the character's inner psychology right now would eventually turn his attention to Kammerspiele film or the intimate theater film tradition tried to depict the impressiveness of middle class life in contemporary Germany remained as experimental as ever particularly with camera movement his 1924 film the last laugh for instance is a master class in what we now call the Unchained camera from pans and tilts to Dally in crane chats his camera never stops moving in an attempt to make us feel what its characters are feeling can you move our camera for the rest of the media Nick now that's that's fine that same year the United States and its European allies implemented the Dawes plan to try to help Germany pay for the extensive damage it because during the war for the extra aid from the dos plan was good for the German economy over all but it was a gut punch to the film industry among other things it strangled exports meaning the German films had a much harder time that in turn made it harder for production companies to get loans from the bank so many independent companies ended up declaring bankruptcy before 1925 American film studio saw the chance to take out their greatest rivals and fled to Germany with Hollywood films Germany's days as a leader of global cinema were over that's said German cinema of the Weimar period has had a profound and long lasting influence on film history like few other movements have from silence of the lambs to don't brief to anything M. night Shyamalan is ever put on film some German expressionist creeping us out to this very day today we talked about how the political climate during and after World War one in filmmakers across the world in the German film and we learned about styles and techniques that emerge from this post war society like German expressionism is exaggerated means on sand and Murnau's Unchained camera and we look at how filmmakers like vine Lubitsch in land cut the world to use these tools of cinema to bring audiences more directly into the minds of characters it's time will witness how the Russian Revolution inside and a lot of filmmaking study in innovation too especially in editing and delve into the theory of Soviet montage crash course film history is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like culminating reactions look this episode of crash course was filmed in the doctor Sherrell seeking a studio with the help of all these unchanged can't and our amazing graphics team not //
"2017-05-22 20:00:21"
Cultures, Subcultures, and Countercultures: Crash Course Sociology #11
\\how many cultures are there in the world we've talked a lot about the things that make a culture a culture things like norms and symbols and languages so we haven't really discussed how you lump all those little things together and say yes these are the things that belong together these things our culture a and these other things our culture beat so what are the rules of culture well culture isn't just about nationality or the language you speak you and another person can live in the same country and speak the same language and still have totally different cultural backgrounds within a single country even within a single city you see lots of different cultures and each person's cultural background will be a mish mash of many different influences so there really isn't and never will be a single agreed upon number of cultures that exist in the world but that doesn't mean we can't recognize that sure and understand cultural patterns and cultural change and think about how different cultures contribute to the functioning of society are you more likely to spend your free time at full game or at a modern art do you watch NCIS orchard do you wear JC Penney or J. crew these distinctions and many more like them one way of distinguishing cultural pattern terms of social class because yes class affects culture and vice versa so one way of looking at culture is by examining distinctions between low culture and high culture and okay yeah those are kinda gross sounding term but I wanna be clear high culture it does not mean better culture in fact so called low culture is also known as popular culture which is exactly what it sounds like low or popular culture include the cultural behaviors and ideas that are popular with most people in our society high culture meanwhile refers to cultural patterns that distinguishes society's elite you can sort of think of low culture versus high culture as the people's choice awards versus the Oscars the hunger games probably are going to be winning Best Picture at the Oscars but they were massive blockbusters and the original movie was voted the best movie of 2012 by the people's choice awards by contrast to the winner of Best Picture at the Oscars that same year was the artist a black and white silent film produced by a French production company very different movies very different types of culture now you can also look at how different types of cultural patterns work together hunger games in the artist may appeal to different segments of society but ultimately they both fit into mainstream American media culture mainstream culture includes the cultural patterns are broadly in line with the society's cultural ideals and values and with in any society there are also some cultures cultural patterns it set apart a segment of society's population take for example hipsters they make up a cultural group that was formed on the idea of rejecting what was once considered cool in favor of a different type of cultural expression yeah your beard and you fixed gear bike courier bleach blond hair and a thick framed glasses they're all part of the material culture that signifies membership in your own specific sub culture but who decides what's mainstream and what's a sub culture I mean the whole hipster thing has gone pretty mainstream at this point typically cultural groups with the most power and societal influence get labeled the norm and people with less power get relegated to sub groups the US is a great example of this in large part because of our history as a country immigrants the US is often thought of as a melting pot a place where many cultures come together to form a single combined culture but how accurate is that after all each sub cultures unique and they don't necessarily blend together into one big cohesive cultured just because we share country and more importantly some cultures are valued more than up for example everyone gets Christmas off from school because Christian culture holds a privilege role in American society that might not seem fair if you're a member of a subculture that isn't folded into mainstream culture so it's not really a melting pot if one flavors overpowering all the other flavors and this brings me to another subject how we judge other cultures and sub cultures humans are judgmental we just are and were extra judgmental we see someone who acts differently than how we think people should act ethnocentrism is the practice of judging one culture but the standards of another in recent decades has been growing recognition that Europe or the preference for European cultural pattern has influenced how history has been recorded and how we interpret the lives in ways that people from other cultures so what if rather than trying to melt all the cultures into one we recognize each individual flavor one way to do this is by focusing research on culture that historically gotten less attention for example Afrocentric is a school of thought that re centers historical and sociological study on the contributions of Africans and African Americans another option is expanding and equalizing your focus instead of looking at behavior through the lens of your own culture you can look at it through the lens of multi culturalism a perspective that rather than seeing society is a homogenous culture recognizes cultural diversity while advocating for equal standing of all cultural traditions in this view America is less a melting pot and more like a multicultural society still the wisdom which cultures and sub cultures fit together if at all can vary depending on your school of thought as a sociologist for example from a structural functionalist perspective cultures form to provide order and cohesiveness in a society so in that view a nothing part of cultures is a good thing but a conflict theorist might see the interactions of subcultures differently prioritizing one sub culture over another can create social inequalities and disenfranchise those who belong to cultures are at odds with the mainstream it's hard to encourage individual cultural identities without promoting divisiveness in the U. S. at least it's a constant struggle but sometimes sub groups can be more than simply different from mainstream culture they can be an active opposition to and this is what we call a counter culture counterculture's push back on mainstream culture in an attempt to change how society functions let's go to the thought bubble to take a trip back to one of the biggest countercultural periods of the twentieth century the 19 sixties in the United States the 19 sixties were rife with counterculture's was a time of beatniks and hippies of protests against the Vietnam War and a protest for civil rights and women's liberation these movies were often led by young people and were seen as a rebellion against the watcher and value the older generation this was the era of free love for people embrace relationships outside of the traditionally heterosexual a monogamous cultural norms drug use especially the use of psychedelic drugs was heavily associated with a sub culture and was celebrated in popular culture think Lucy in the sky with diamonds are the B. authors books about acid trips but this kind of culture was also a pushback politically against mainstream culture many cornerstones of the politics of the American left have their origins in the counterculture of the 19 sixties antiwar pro environmentalism pro civil rights feminism LGBTQ quality Stonewall riots the Vietnam War protests sixties counterculture was where many of these issues first reached the public consciousness think thought bubble soap counterculture's can often act as catalysts for cultural change especially they get big enough to gain mainstream support a culture change all the time with or without the push I'm subcultures and counter cultures and different parts of cultures change at different speeds sometimes we have what's called a cultural lack were some cultural elements change more slowly than others take how education works for example in the U. S. we get the summer off from school this is a holdover from when this was a more agricultural country in children need to take time off during harvest day there's no real reason for summer vacation other than that's what we've always done so how's cultural change happens sometimes people invent new things that change culture cell phones for example have revolutionize not just how we make phone calls but how we socialize and communicate and inventions don't just have to be material ideas like about money you're voting systems can also be invented and change a culture people also discover new things when European explorers first discovered tomatoes in Central America in the 15 hundreds and brought them back to Europe they completely change the culture of food what what pizza be without tomatoes third because of cultural change comes from cultural diffusion which is how cultural treats spread from one culture to another just about everything we think of as classic American culture is actually borrowed and transformed from another culture burgers and fries German and Belgian respectively the American cowboy an update on the Mexican back at all the ideals of liberty and justice for all and trying our founding documents heavily influenced by French philosophers like were so it will tear and British philosophers like Hobbes and Locke as well as by the Iroquois confederacy in its ideas of representative democracy whether we're talking about material culture or symbolic culture we're seeing more and more aspects of culture shared across nations and across the oceans as symbolic interaction to see it all of society is about the shared reality the shared culture that we create as borders get dinner the group of people who share culture gets larger whether it's the hot dogs a gift in Germany or the job coming from African traditions more and more cultures overlap as technology and globalization maker world just a little bit smaller as our society becomes more global the questions raised by 2 of our camps of sociology structural functionalism and conflict theory become even more pressing are the structural functionalist right does having a shared culture provide points of similarity that encourage cooperation and help societies function orders conflict theory have it right does culture divide us and benefit some members of society more than others in the end they're both kind of right there will always be different ways of thinking and doing and living within a society but culture is the tie that binds us together today we learned about different types of cult like low culture and how we look at different ways of categorizing into sub culture contrast to 2 different ways of looking at cultural diversity of centrism and multicultural we discussed the role of Qatar cultures and explore how cultural change how and lastly we looked at a structural functionalist and a conflict theory perspective on what cultures mean ports crash course sociology film the doctor shall seek any studio in Missoula Montana and it's made with the help of all of the site our animation team is stock or to meet with adobe creative cloud if you'd like to keep free for everyone for ever you can support the series of hatred crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love between a patriotically like to thank all of our patrons in general and would like to we thank headmaster of learning dated such thank you for your //
"2017-05-18 20:59:24"
The Birth of the Feature Film: Crash Course Film History #6
\\if you've been doing to me from the beginning of our journey through the history of film you might have noticed something none of the filter talked about so far look like the movies you see today yes Ryan Gosling got very little play the 18 hundreds but what I really mean is we haven't talked much about story character narrative like you know go to the megaplex today by a bunch of popcorn and sit down watch movies of trains entering stations are horses running in slow motion that's because there was a period in the history of film a really important and kinda problematic one would film evolved from a technical curiosity into a powerful visual storytelling machine artists technicians and engineers started devising ways of making films longer more complex and more narrative this is what I began to develop its own language through the power of editing and the way films were made and watched became more familiar to film studios began to pop up movie theaters proliferated systems are created to develop film shuttle movies from theatre to theatre and publicize them to hungry audiences as Phil's physical and economic imprint became more stable so too did its visual language taking shape that more closely resembles movies you see today this was due in large part to the exhaustive work of D. W. Griffith a failed actor turned filmmaker whose own legacy was complicated and sprawling as one of his films it's time to tackle the W. Griffith and the arrival of the feature film as the film industry took root that whole system began to take shape that's recognizable to us modern movie goers first there's the studio when entertaining company grows big enough to have its own production facilities from offices and sound stages the props costumes and editing rooms we call it studio the studio was where the films are made by the production company second is the distributor its job is to market the movie to its audience but the films on the screens and then deliver them to the theater so the distributor actually gets the films out into the world thank you distributor I like watching movies finally we have the exhibitor this is the company that actually provides the film to the audience movie theaters and big theater chains are exhibitors as are streaming services and in the first few decades of film production in the U. S. many of these companies were vertically in that means that the studio on the production company and the distribution company and even the exhibition company while this made a lot of sense for the owners of the studios to be able to control the process from production to exhibition would eventually be ruled a monopoly at that point the studios would be forced to break off their distribution and exhibition businesses and open the field the company but that came later in the early days from about 1907 to 1913 the major film studios had tremendous power like me eager to please a growing and ravenous audience the studios looked of success that manufacturers like Henry Ford were having with mass production and try to make films in a kind of assembly line process write a film shoot the film at the film distribute the film screen the film and repeat as fast as possible and as often as that's how you make art it was about quantity not quality of the movies are good that was cool but it wasn't the goal experimentation of any kind was discouraged time was money stated like this film was about 10 to 16 minutes or one reel of film to create a name that came up with for these films one reelers but despite the flattening out of quality this was a period of astronomical growth for the film industry in the U. S. and western Europe it per demand was through the roof and filmmakers working overtime they were also stealing copyright law was still in its infancy and as with books prior to 1893 most films are considered to be in the public domain this meant the prince can be stolen and duplicated without legal consequences it was kinda like the wild west and it can be as confusing to make sense of as it was to live through yeah so let's see if we can work our way through it the person in the best position to bring some order to the chaos of this burgeoning film industry is our old friend Thomas Edison Edison claimed that he held the patents on several elements in almost all motion picture can so I believe that he was entitled to a cut of every are sold as well as every movie that was made sold or street and who is the competitor who most got under his skin his former lab assistant and the man who actually invented the first motion picture camera William Dixon after I left Edison Dixon started his own production company called Biograph which made films using a camera similar to Edison's Connecticut wrath but different enough to survive lawsuit and sue Edison did no fewer than 20 times in just a few years I mean Edison was suing everybody this air became known as the patent wars as gangs of men connected at us and I show up independent film studios and threatened filmmakers eventually Edison realize he was wasting time and money in court independent producers and distributors were popping up all over the place and he was left playing this big high stakes game of whack a mole sound like fun but it's not trust me so we proposed a truce and partnered with Dixon's Biograph in 8 other major film studios the country's leading film distributor and George Eastman the biggest supplier of them stuck together they created the motion picture patents company also known as the trusted effective monopoly on film production and instead of selling films to distributors and exhibitors studios would rent them out and read and all legal rights to them this gave studios control over which films or screen how often and in which theaters sounds great no it doesn't plus because he's been was a member of the MPP see independent film companies could get their hands on film stock without permission which meant that Edison got decide who could and couldn't make movies in addition to the stranglehold that the trust put on the end 3 it also per simply line prop as a result the films themselves by large became an imaginative stale and static but the independence refused to go quietly they banded together to form groups aimed at resisting Edison and the MPP see the last about successful of these was the motion picture distributing and sales company many of them also decided to move their production facilities as far away from Edison's New Jersey headquarters as possible can you guess where they ended up not Schenectady that's right Hollywood California which had the added benefits of year round sunshine and a diverse in handy assortment of natural landscapes also earthquakes that's not a benefit that's just the thing it had finally in 1918 the United States Supreme Court broke up the MPP see an ordered film studios to sever their distribution and exhibition branches ending Edison's run as American films great gate keeper while all this was going on film themselves are struggling to check and though no one knew it yet features were on the way a feature film is a movie with a running time long enough to be considered the principal filming a program usually features clocking up between 70 and 130 minutes when Edison's Fosse was in control the MPP see strictly forbade films longer than one real or 10 the minutes of filmmakers began looking for creative ways around the lights restrictions some would make 2 reelers and then show them in a serial format the first real this week the second next week sort of like what they did with the last Harry potter book still not over that 3 films in particular pave the way for features by convincing studios that longer films could be commercially successful the first was the crusaders and Italian film for me in 11 that was for reals law the second was another 4 Wheeler a French film called the loves of Queen Elizabeth that starred megastar Sarah Bernhardt and made a ton of money in 1912 and finally quote bodice in 1913 Italian spectacle that boasted huge crowd scenes in big special effects and ran night reels and likes and working steadily through all of this was a director named D. W. Griffith the son of a Confederate colonel Griffith was a failed stage actor who happen to be on it and when US Porter set 1 day and fell in love with Phil within a few months he was directing 1 reelers at an astonishing rate he was going to make more than 450 in less than a decade was even more impressive as he was able to integrate an actor's understanding of new Watson character with the film grammar laid down by pioneers like Porter he made incredible innovations in a film to be shot and cut and most importantly he grounded all these new techniques in the service of character and story for example Griffith is credited with innovating the close up coming to a shot of a character's face and a moment of high drama is also required and rewarded a more subtle style of acting in film actors often delivered can get a close up Nick drama right wing close up now why he also used in search shots close ups of objects or characters hands to draw attention to symbolic props are key narrative moments used increasingly expensive flashbacks to add depth to characters in their stories any found ingenious ways to use cutting through to the audience level to make us empathize with his characters to really care about what was happening to them and it's remarkable how modernist films feel today that's why remarked on it sure there in black and white in their short and they don't Starkad in America or vin diesel's car or an Oscar worthy but it appears that the way the shots are framed in arranged hasn't changed all that much since Griffith and Griffiths biggest achievement was the film birth of a nation this is the film the pave the way for feature length films to become the gold standard it was successful enough both financially and in terms of its massive scope mixed with its detailed attention to character a motion story that audiences demanded more like it and would no longer be satisfied with the program of half a dozen 1 relates further nation is also deeply racist film that offers an extremely sympathetic view of white southern former slave holders under reconstruction here is at the end of the film are the reborn Ku Klux Klan who right across the countryside racing to save poor white southerners besieged by a mob of murderous former slaves it's stunningly effective in its use of cross cutting and screen direction is also profoundly disturbing in its message and imagery this is a double edged sword of D. W. Griffith a master of cinema on the 1 hand an apologist for a legacy of hatred violence of persecution whose work inspired actual hate groups to reconstitute in this country the film faced protests at the time particularly in places like Chicago where people of all ethnic backgrounds objected to its twisted view of history and race relations there is a very small but vibrant underground African American film industry at the time that responded to the racism of birth of a nation with films of their almost famous was Oscar shows within our gates released in 1920 the story of a mixed race schoolteacher who encounters violence and prejudice as she tries to make a better life for herself the most successful African American filmmaker of the time Michelle examined the racial climate in the United States in a way that this new Austin searing as Griffiths is bigoted and inaccurate whatever else it is birth of a nation marked the end of the silent shorts era and challenge film studios to allow filmmakers to make longer more complex films it'll grand stories with unique characters and powerful emotions the pictures may have moved before Griffith but now the audience was moved to today we talk about how the film industry is divided up into studios distributors and exhibitors and how all those systems used to be controlled by the same people then we discussed the independent filmmakers resisted monopolies started up Hollywood and began creating longer feature film instead of one relates we introduced you W. Griffith was an innovator and master of film language but his big achievement is a film cloaked in hate and racism and next time we'll talk about how the violence and politics of World War one influence cinema and how filmmakers began experimenting with horror psychological twists and a distortion of reality crash course film history is produced in association with PBS digital studios you can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of their latest amazing shows like shanks FX Hindi Alaska and deep look this episode of crash course was filmed in the doctor Cheryl see Kenny crash for studio with the help of these one reelers and are amazing graphics team is thought Catholic //
"2017-05-15 21:19:52"
Symbols, Values & Norms: Crash Course Sociology #10
\\you're about to cross the street what do you do if there are no cars coming Tuesday the crosswalk waiting for the light to change or do you just go for it you look left first before you cross or do you look right or maybe it is dark across the street shouting Hey walk in here no matter what you do in the situation it's going to depend on culture now you may be thinking how can something like crossing the street be a cultural phenomenon isn't culture like opera and galas and fancy art openings with tiny or d'oeuvres for maybe think culture is bigger than all that that culture is your heritage traditions of been passed down for generations like kids in Aaron's bar mitzvahs are between 16 parties the fact is all of these things //
"2017-05-12 23:34:00"
African Pantheons and the Orishas: Crash Course World Mythology #11
\\okay there I'm like Rigoletto this is crash course mythology and today we're gonna finish up our look at pantheons with African gods about some crash course fans are already scratching their heads because they know that it's very hard to speak up African anything without drastically oversimplifying it's enormous and filled with diverse peoples Africa as the saying goes is not a country it is however a song by the eighties band toto maybe some karaoke later tote so goodbye yeah removed here is no one African mythology or pantheon just like there's no single native American or Asian mythology there are similarities in the stories of different groups but no one consistent family of gods so this episode gonna focus on an African people with a well documented set of deities the Aruba of western Africa in particular we're gonna look at their pantheon of orisha and one very wise Amelia you will is a language and a term used to describe the people who speak it your river people live in the region around the bite of Benin in the countries that are now Benin Togo Nigeria Ghana and Sierra Leon these regions are important their home to millions of Africans and were also centers of the African slave trade meaning your river traditions traveled from Africa to the Caribbean Latin America and North America some of these traditions have been modified and translated into the set of practices called vodou in Haiti problem you know the best as voodoo vodun is a word in the fun of language that means spirit new ruble myths however are not the equivalent of vodou and most Modou cults are actually a lot less intense than what you've seen and like horror movies and stuff the rumor region is currently home to many religions including Christianity and Islam the fact that the river people have maintained their orisha stories in the face of other religious traditions is a testament to the power and importance of this cultural heritage the recent stories are similar in this way to the native American myths okay now let's meet the teams reaches are the gods and semi divine heroes of Europe a culture according to outscore go there are countless deities in the Europe a pantheon of a reaches and each one of them in one way or another has accomplished deeds whereby the ancestors fought it was worthwhile to include them in there oral traditions of story telling known as each time out of the hundreds of orisha as there are a dozen or so that feature prominently in the myths not unlike the 12 Olympians first there's all a room a Cape alone do Mar a sometimes hyphenated he's the great sky father a dad and ultimately responsible for the creation of world order then there is an issue the trickster he like many tricksters represents accident and the uncertainty of life will give him more closely in a later episode Ogun is the giver of iron who was also a hunter and a warrior like in the Greek pantheon not all gods pair mononymously Ogun had lovers including all ya around me on a son of a gun is another warrior and also a fertility god of sorts being the creator of dry land and the shaper of infants before their birth so if you know someone having a sonogram tell them about around me on that's his handiwork old coon is the god or goddess of oceans and Alosa is the goddess of lagoons so I imagine there are some arguments over who has jurisdiction over in let's say as with other pantheons summer reaches have dominion over natural phenomena as well the Arusha thunder god it's Shonda who is also the same as around Friday Zeus Thor and Shanto should meet up sometime but the conversation would be electrifying I'll just myself out okay bono live is the goddess of earth's soil and it also welcomed the got a field farms and agriculture ODIs the goddess of wins and the Niger River she's one of shingles wives or room gone is the god of air he's the son of a guns you got of the wilderness and you Moshe goddess of the river Ogun and if not all positive phenomena either oboe Louis a is the god of small pox disease and death so what is a real treat a parties you might have noticed that there is some overlap in divine responsibility when myths exist mostly of oral traditions and come from such a huge and diverse geographic region a certain amount of redundancy is pretty normal we saw this in the Egyptian pantheon to for instance multiple reaches are considered warrior gods and others seem to control aspects of the human condition arena is the god of individuality and fate while you are is the goddess of character a number of reasons related to regional geography like forests particular rivers and hunting and some represent seemingly hyper specific but key aspects of African life such as OB I the god of crushed kasaba now that is a god who I bet is a real treat at a party and just read his revenge out there the show that not all are reaches have ancient origins kasaba was introduced to Africa as part of the Columbian exchange other than sky dad all around the most important Risha is his oldest son Arun mela the god of wisdom and divination according to Leonard and McClure Arun mela by reading pine nuts and calories communicates all the rooms irreversible intentions and therefore personifies fate so I think that the next time you're having passed out many of the region myths feature around a lot including the one that explains how the a reaches got their powers yeah let's go to the thought bubble the riche's lived on earth and before they each had a unique powers they were equals whenever they needed some special knowledge they would ask all the rune or around me love for health one day in a region and OQO wondered why he should have to do that he thought that if he had a special knowledge of a certain thing that people could ask him and not have to hassle around me so ... go ask Rene left for special powers distinguish him from human so good also asked a really love power world go soon all the rich wanted powers arena was distress he held all the riches in equal esteem hits shared to whom should I give one power or another one day he went for a walk and met a game the commute who asked really love what was wrong arin Miller explained and a game all responded perhaps it would be best to leave the distribution to chance return to the sky then send messengers to announce that on such and such a day you will pour the powers down on the earth let each orisha catch what he can or retrieve it from the place where it falls whatever power and reach a collects in this way will be his by sending your messengers you will have given everyone equal notice and no one can say a roomy long neglected me or Mila followed this advice when he sent out the messengers Berisha said Arun Mila does a good thing thank him for us we will receive what few rains down on us 5 days later the powers fell from the sky a reaches waited in the field and ran to catch they were all equally fast strong or persistent so not all were able to get as large desirable a portion of the love Balti but everyone got some place up a little so man I love this origin story explains how the a reaches came to have their roles I like the Greek Olympians who were seemingly born with their attributes that reaches well not exactly human don't have any special abilities or knowledge until a renewal of brains them down and after he does they're not all equal in their abilities explaining why summer reaches have a lot of power and my son just get to make really delicious side dish I think about a room Miller for a second he seems to be all powerful he could easily assign special characteristics to a reaches as he sees fit dust increasing his influence over them or he could just ignore them altogether is powerful why help these new but no not only does he distribute divine favors but attempts to be fair in the process providing a lesson for how humans and a specially rulers should behave and despite his own power or women look can't solve his problem without the help of a very wise chameleon demonstrating the fallibility of a reaches and the connection between their