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Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
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"2017-08-24 12:44:22"
Why Black Holes Could Delete The Universe – The Information Paradox
\\black holes are the most powerful things in the universe strong enough to repost dogs into atoms sized pieces well this is scary enough they have an even more powerful and don property they might delete the universe itself black holes in a nutshell some blood cold appears when an extraordinary amount in the time bass center gravity is almost infinitely stronger and whatever gets too close is written to its elementary Nichols not even light can escape black holes and said we perceive them as fears of blackness if you were to fall into a black hole nothing bad would happen until well after you crossed it's out of order the event horizon you can imagine this and swimming in the river that ends in an enormous water full I guess you flows along imperceptibly the stream gets fostered foster even if you can't see the wonderful yes you could swim to safety until without even noticing as you cross the point of no return no matter how fast you try to swim now stream will pull you towards certain death nothing can escape a black hole waterfall once he gets too close this border completely separates black coals from the rest of the universe we contact access them unless we went into never returned so there's no way of telling what's really going on inside that calls but we have a few ideas about what's going on right at that very ages black holes radiate them mass away like a hot post on the stove losing its water sting this is called hawking radiation Matt Coles constantly do is an extremely tiny amount for that mass the process that unbelievably slow it will take a black hole with a mass of us on the 10000 0 years to lose 0.0000001 percent of its mass this is happening constantly and on stopping and as it goes on it speeds up more moral in the full info future when the last star in the universe has been dead for trillions of years that cold will become tiny and Tanya until they evaporate and disappear leaving behind just a bit of radiation but this is a problem because in the process of disappearing black holes might delete something fundamental information to what is information information is nothing tangible it's typically understood as a property of the arrangement of particles what does this mean imagine a bunch of carbon atoms arrange them in a certain way and you get cold arrange them in a different way and you get a diamond the asses of the same what changes is the information if we make this more complex and adding a few more items we get another change the arrangement of the atoms and we get a squirrel the basic building blocks of everything in the universe all the same and don't care if that part of a bird or rock or a Cup of coffee without information everything in the universe would be the same according to the theory of quantum mechanics information is indestructible it might change shape but it can never be lost for example if you bought a piece of paper you guys acts that's actual never become paper again box if you were able to Kathy collect every single carbon atom in the ash and measured the exact properties of the smoke and heat radiating from the fire you could in theory reconstruct the paper the information that the paper is still in the universe it's not lost it's just hard to rate if you could somehow measure every single atom and particle and wave of radiation in the universe you could see and track every bit of information that race hypothetically you could see the entire history of the universe right back to the Big Bang and hit black holes trickles out in summation tells us how things are different from each other and will use to be won't black holes to the opposite they take different things and make them the same they destroy information this creates the information paradox and this is a serious problem the information paradox it's fundamental for all our laws of physics that information can never be lost existing not existing without information everything is relative when it comes to our understanding of reality we need absolutes how can we solve this paradox there are a few possibilities one information is lost irretrievably and forever this means we have to mix older laws of physics throwing out a lot of stuff that's worked very well so far and to stop scratch what those new laws of physics would look like what that means for us nobody knows this is a little frightening but also kind of exciting 2 information is hidden maybe a little part of the black hole splits often forms a baby universe the information would be true as for it into this new wave place where we could never observed will interact with it but technically it would not be lost it's like having a broken hard drive with all your family photos that you could never access sure it's nice that they've not been deleted but also not very helpful or maybe black holes don't disappear completely off the end of their life cycles but a little pieces left information diamond like a clown car filled with an infinite amount of information clowns but there's a third option information is safe after all not lost or hidden perhaps we've just been looking at this whole thing the wrong way we know the black holes trap information and might delete it later but we never thought about what they do with it in the meantime wait a bad cold stole their information cosmic housekeeping create a bad call with dirty laundry first we fill up a room with a laundry basket the more laundry you want to store the more baskets you put in the room but at some point every single basket is full and the room is completely stacks not a single extra sock fits in the room is at maximum capacity but if we still squeeze a socket with a lot of energy and violence the room collapses in on itself and forms a black hole but the capacity of the rim itself has not changed fitting in most awful information is still impossible so what happens if we throw more laundry into it the room itself gets a little bit bigger to make space for the new information it turns out a black hole grows its surface by turning pixel for each bit of information we throw into it in a nutshell more information means more surface area the information gets painted on the surface similar to what happens when we throw a stone into a pond often the stone sinks to the bottom we concede anymore but we can tell that something went in from the ripples on the surface of the pond even the smallest black hole console more information on its surface than all the data ever produced in human history they do this by storing information in a type of pixel that is unbelievably tiny black holes are the ultimate hard drive this is a bit like taking a paperback and turning it into an ebook 2 things that look completely different but that content is the same it's just encoded and memorized in another way black holes swirling stars and planets is a bit like transferring the whole library onto any Rita this solution is called the holographic principle but if it's correct then everything we thought we knew about the universe is wrong do you do to us is a hologram if information is actually stored on the boundary of a black hole the hawking radiation has a chance of learning about the information encoded that and can carry it away so information is not lost when black coals fade away and we do not need to read to physics the information paradox is resolved but we still have to change our understanding of reality in a fundamental way if everything that falls into the black hole is stored on its event horizon that basically means that 3 dimensional stuff is encoded on a flat surface we have a name for this a hologram the hologram is like a 3 D. photo the flat piece of plastic that encodes a 3 dimensional image the black hole is like a hologram because everything inside his is encoded on its event horizon the person inside a bad cold experience they usually 3 dimensional life but for us on the outside they are flattened images on the surface of the black hole the consequence of this is counterintuitive but stay with us for a moment black holes are very extreme objects but they're still bound to the same rules as everything else so if this crazy to entity between 2 D. and 3 D. works of black holes that it might work for the whole universe and you in it since the person inside a black hole would not realize that their encoded on a flat surface we might share the same fate you really might be stretched over a flat screen at the end of the universe the science behind this is complicated and ready wait with toy universe is to play with string theory and the loss of mass we'll talk about this more in another video regardless of what the true nature the universe radiators we just know that it's strange and complicated and we have to do a lot more physics to understand it the black holes might be key to understanding the nature of reality itself this video was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation and realized with the scientific advice of Alice Andreas wondering //

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