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"2017-08-21 21:02:24"
THE AGE OF EMPERORS Full Documentary
\\early Roman Empire came to symbolize the fine art of governing producing such memorable leaders as pumping the great Julius Caesar mark Antony's but in 31 BC the Republican government in existence 5 cent it wasn't don state of distributing the leadership twin 2 counsels us it had in the past supreme power was not placed in the hands of one man became known as Caesar Augustus Caesar Augustus son of a gun we should establish the age of groomed in last week over fields that what's what's satins ram virgin in 27 BC guy is Octavius dreams better known as Octavian would become the empire's most celebrated leader born in 63 BC Octavian grew up in an Italian aristocratic family he was a spoiled ... over compensated for his physical weakness by studying literature and mastering public speech in 44 BC Octavian's grand uncle the Roman dictator Julius Caesar was assassinated Caesar had always been fond of the young and spirited Octavian since he didn't have any legitimate heirs in his will Caesar posthumously adopted Octavian and wheeled him his estate against his parents wishes Octavian travel to Rome to claim seizes a state and his name once there Octavian ran into opposition from Mark Antony Caesar's former governor who felt the cocky teenager was unworthy of the inheritance you boy who owe everything to a name mark and Caesar's death in Caesar's legacy were a hot political item and for young men of 19 with as Mark Antony said nothing but a name ... it took considerable courage to come to Rome he was called Caesar okay beyond us the magic of that name gave great power overseas as veterans under the Roman Republic Octavian couldn't inherit Caesar's former position in Rome but as a blood air Octavian use that the influence behind sis's name to establish a power base in Rome over the next 17 years it builds up an army defeated his rival markets who subsequently committed suicide after years of bloody civil war Octavian had restored peace and order to the empire the Roman people rewarded Octavian with a new title Augustus meaning semi divine with the new title Kim mother changes the change between Octavian Augustus is a very very important one it's partly a matter of maturity answer from this rumors youthful image of Octavian we moved to a stubborn mature deliberately manly image of Augustus central thing too Augustus's legitimacy of his regime was the idea that room in some senses could be returned to a golden age an age before seen Augustus became the first of a long succession of emperors would rule the Roman Empire for the next 5 years he was now sole ruler of the Mediterranean world which encompassed Italy Egypt Syria Spain gall portions of Asia minor settling into an office he would hold for life a gust this was given the right to appoint provincial governors oppose laws presided public ceremonies trolls the Senate during the Republican empires the Senate governed policies no under imperial rule the Senate was stripped of its previous power they did little more than run the empire's treasury the Roman people unanimously agreed that I should be elected overseer of laws and morals without a colleague and with the fullest power Augustus Julius Caesar may well have been the greatest Roman military commander but his adopted son would become Rome's finest politician August this wasn't the ticket man with a quick wit who knew how to work the Senate unlike Julius Caesar Augustus was frugal and cared nothing about his personal appearance he was so far from being particular about addressing of his hair that he would have several barbers working in a hurry at the same time and as for his beard is now headed cliffs now shaved while at the very same time he would either be reading or writing something so Tony's the but justice was hardly a military leader he cared less about foreign policy matters and more about the domestic is it has namely packs room on a policy of maintaining the peace empire by the beginning of his reign in 27 BC a population of people throughout the empire swelled into the one of the great strengths of the Roman Empire is Roman citizenship unlike Alva empires all other societies Romans a very inclusive in offering citizenship to newly conquered provinces newly conquered peoples citizenship made the Roman Empire kind of melting Paul's Roman citizens were allowed certain rights only children from wealthy families could receive a primary education but only boys from wealthy families could go on to secondary school whereas the girls were usually forced 2 arranged marriage the Roman family was a peculiar institute the figure who held power in the fan was called the paterfamilias the father of the family and he would hold all power that is he would hold power over his son's over his grandsons over is great grandsons in the man alive he would have power over his wife and he would have power over his unmarried daughters he had the power to execute sons and daughters if he wanted to he also had power to force his children to marry you could force divorce domestic squabbles were usually handled within the family however a private matter of marriage soon become a public concern during the age of Augusta's during the imperial period men were prized commodity emperor Augustus knew this all too well as he was faced with a declining male population young men were needed to fortify the dwindling army Ifill covered post as a result the emperor instituted policies that encourage the upper classmen to marry procreate if we could survive without a wife citizens of Rome all of us would do without that nuisance but since nature has so decreed we must plan for our lasting preservation rather than for our temporary pleasure the justice what he did as a result of this was regulate marriages so that if a Roman senator married early and had children children was the key he would get certain dispensations he could run for office earlier he could inherit at in a in a in a easier way if you didn't have children at a certain age there were certain penalties you're not allowed to inherit the full amount that someone might give you I women were also provided scent of Samaria if a wife bore 3 children are more she was allowed to inherit her husbands or fathers property is that before Augusta's took power women had no property nor were they allowed to live independently but even with these incentives having children was still Burton because giving birth was such a dangerous thing for a woman and because so many women died at giving for us birth control and abortion were practiced in both the lower classes and the upper classes we're lucky to have survived being a work by a creek Dr from the first century who writes on these things the methods of birth control one of them was the rhythm method but unfortunately he got the rhythm wrong so it wouldn't help many women as far as abortion goes again we have records of methods practice some of them sound quite familiar I think ... they advise hot bods fan flies jumping up and down the loss they advise lifting heavy objects ... riding animals things like that dust is promoted marriage and only in an effort to reform what he believed failing morals of Roman society however Augustus soon discover that his family values plan would cause a scandal within the imperial palace nnova centuries Romans freely indulged in the sure pleasures and desires partaking in lust for orgies or having clandestine love affairs button to BC emperor Augustus went on a crusade to clean up what he believed was immoral behavior he instituted family values legislation making adultery a crime extramarital affairs were no longer a private matter husband wife they were a matter state if ... a woman was caught in adultery she would not only lose a substantial amount of property but she would be forced by her husband but she would be exiled to an island where she would live under unpleasant circumstances away from the family most important away from Rome Roman men were allowed under law to kill their daughters or wives if they were caught performing an adulteress act women however we're not granted the same legal privileges this very definitely a double standard for men and women we don't justice introduced the laws on the on adultery he himself was courthouse in his own family it seems that Augustus himself committed adultery this is referred to ... probably more for political reasons than that then his interest in the women that he wanted to find out what their husbands were up to Augustus excluded himself from any moral judgment but he enforced a strict moral laws on all Roman citizens include his own family to be the emperor's daughter Julia was caught in an adulteress Augustus himself sentenced her to spend the rest of her life a secluded island Julia had a tremendous reputation of having wild orgies of engaging in affairs with many of the upper class men of Rome and Augustus exiled her to an island she was never ... recalled from exile she died in exile but one thing that is interesting I think is seen in the first imperial family the Judeo Claudian family 5 in prose 6 of the women are exiled for adultery 6 often it's a way of getting rid of women who for some reason ... dangerous we don't know what the reasons are there sometimes suspicions that the men there in full force of perhaps a threat to the stability of the government and so the reasons although there exile for adultery it's not just that August is his wife was one of the few aristocratic women who escaped moral scandal livia Drusilla was married and pregnant when she met the 25 year old justice she eventually divorced her husband and became a ghost this is third one but livia didn't sit quietly in burial pouts she was a shrewd calculating First Lady who wanted her son Tiberius to eventually take over the throne she's one of the very few women who is absolutely free from sexual scandal there is not kids ever made against nivea's private life in that sense and in this way she's very different from the other women who was surrounded by scandals by sexual scandals by stories of old cheese and things like that although the ghost this was a philanderer he remained married to livia until his death the ancient author sue Tony's rope that August this low and the steamed her to the end without arrive by enforcing his moral legislation emperor Gus this was able to influence most aspects of the empire including the arts but in time some of his harsh tools of governing fall out of favor with the citizens of Rome the Roman Empire produced some of the greatest literary minds there was a living who wrote 142 books 3 of Rome and virtual the philosopher poet who wrote the book I need one of the significant cultural ways in which Augustus established his power was bunny funding supporting in controlling a group of court poets who wrote the kind of poetry that celebrated Augustus's moral revolution a new golden age which'll Goss's claimed to have brought to run these were poets who wrote money who wrote on the strict conditions of patronage emperor Augustus and what kinds of books Roman authors could write but it's not all writers abide by his decree a poet Ovid wrote a book called the art of love an instructional manual on how to sing swimming and most how to have an affair with a married woman Augustus was arranged by the contents as punishment he exiled Ovid from Rome this of course appalling irony in all of this because one of the most immoral and disorganized functional families in imperial Rome is Augustus's but the persistent rumors about the imperial family most of on the mine Augustus's own moral stance most in some way that made him appear in public to be more of a hypocrite then he would have wished Augustus's morality laws proved to be unpopular and ineffective the emperor found it increasingly difficult to enforce legislation that he himself disregard Augustus gain more support for his efforts to promote religious worship throughout the empire he did so by restoring pagan temples he was also praised for reinvigorating the popular cult the Vestal virgins that's the was the Roman goddess of the hearth and home her cold consisted of 6 virgins called best these virgins cloistered themselves inside a temple care for the tunnel flame of best the opportunity to become a Vestal priestess was a high honor girls 6 to 10 years of age were chosen by the emperor for 30 years the women would swear their virginity in devotion to the gods violation of their chest could mean imprisonment or death for the Vestal who is proud to chastity for her entire life the punishment is it's quite awful spit on the funeral bier it's carried through the streets where her family mourns in tears their hair and then she's great in a chamber underground a few beans and some water as she is left up to the V. ... goddess Vesta whether she lives or dies I I think in every generation there seems to be at a Vestal virgin scandal this is something that recurs every 30 or 40 years and ... within living memory there have been vessels buried alive during his 40 years on the imperial throne Augustus put forward a litany of reforms that would uphold him as one of the empire's greatest emperors he built a mess of roads and bridges cleaned up city streets and even instituted a fire department he revitalized grow making it the most popular city I left Rome a city of marble no I founded a city of bricks a justice in 14 a D. Augusta suffered a stroke and was near death the 74 year old emperor pondered over whom he would name as his successor success remains problem for me Roman Emperor in a sense they not only have to establish that dynastic credentials their relation to Augustus but they will also have to show that they're the best citizen available to rule those 2 things are often quite difficult to bring them together Augustus had no sons to inherit the throne while he lay near death the Roman Empire waited anxious a patient to find out who would be the next emperor a position inherited by his son or blood relative without a bloody air Augusta's turned over his title to stepson Tiberius although his mother livia went to great lengths to persuade Augustus to will his throne Tiberius really didn't want John assuming impression was a risky business hostile takeovers revolt sound family intrigues become a constant worry of the first 12 hampers for would die peacefully 2 would commit suicide and 6 others would be assassinated Roman imprison you that there was always a danger of violent death perhaps on the battlefield it more likely through assassination whether by one of their own offices all possibly by another Roman politician of the senators were fairly often court involved in plots against the life of the emperor some of the leading figures in the starting to Julius Caesar himself were able to really tight not much notice of this threat Julius Caesar famously said he would rather die once van constantly die so to speak through fearing the threat of assassination but others do seem to have become rather paranoid about the threat of plots to their lives Augustus himself demonstrated taurine guards like today's presidential secret servicemen they were hired to protect the emperor at all costs anyone visiting the imperial palace was heavily searched but sometimes even the Pretoria guards would eventually find it difficult to protect emperors from their own children who often displayed unruly behavior they had dynasties bottes usually younger princes having been brought up in the imperial palace with very few social restraints would be dangerously unpredictable as improve these are the sorts of figures who are depicted Matt as the employer grueling power and wealth many royal princes would go to desperate measures to take over the imperial throne most employers would soon realize the threat of assassination lurked within the palace walls and within the imperial family I Caesar Augustus may have invented the term dysfunctional family but the emperor's who succeeded him perfected it after 23 years on the imperial throne Tiberius died his successor was his grandnephew Caligula who many consider to be insane Caligula was said to have suffered from epilepsy and insomnia his sleep disorder provided him with plenty of time to pluck the executions of his mother brothers as well this committee incest with his sisters he was an animal lover of the oddest sort who adored his race for so much that he threatened to make him with counsel but Caligula's brutal governing tactics eventually got the best of this 41 A. D. he was assassinated by his senators Caligula's vocal one was next in line to inherit the throne when Claudius heard his nephew had been murdered by assassins coward behind a palace Kurt fearing the assassins would also come after him he was later discovered by the Victorian guards without a suitable replacement for Caligula Torrance forced the Roman people to make Claudius their new leader but for Claudius the image of Caligula's murder for ever haunted when he walked his weak knees gave way under it and he had many disagreeable traits he would foam at the mouth trickle of the nose stammered besides I had was very Sheik at all times ... tones Claudius group the sickly child who was verbally abused by his family his mother Antonia the daughter of Mark Antony said her son was a monster of a man as an adult Claudius became a recluse co dependent on drinking sex and gambling as emperor Claudius was always on the lookout for assassins managing to dogs 6 plots against his life over the years Claudius's paranoia led to the exit tions of 35 Senate and over 300 nights that he says might do little did Claudia snow at his assess lurked within his home Claudia said Mary Caligula system Agrippina however Agrippina see he wanted Nero her son from a previous marriage to succeed to the throne she plotted to murder Claudius by serving a dish poisonous mushrooms when the lethal vegetable dish didn't do the trick Agrippina had his physician sneak a drop of poison down his throat with Claudius's death and 54 A. D. his throne was left to his stepson Nero who later confessed he had a hand in Claudius's death Nero glibly remarked over dinner one night that mushrooms with the food of the gods for helping her son ascended to the royal throne Agrippina expected to be rewarded by being made cold ruler of Rome but Nero and other and I like Sharon Nero decided that his mother was rather overweening in too much power over him so he contrived have her assassinated by some of his own soldiers and officials so you can see from this example that there were sometimes very serious stresses within these imperial families which could lead to murder of all the emperor's before and after none received more negative press than the emperor Nero portrayed as a self indulgent tyrant and madmen during his reign he murdered his mother 2 wives and a step brother even castrated one of his male lovers by day Nero got pleasure by ex accusing and exiling countless men women and children by night he prowled the streets of Rome getting cheap thrills from mugging women stealing from stores Nero betrayed friends and family alike but the emperor also possessed a genteel sign he was a patron of the arts dabbled in writing poetry but his greatest passion his music never before had an emperor appeared in a room stage Stroman alive or performing a play the Roman nobles viewed his public appearances scandalous but no one dared to quit as musical talents for fear of being tortured I have to confess to near is one of my favorite empress a near is one of my favorite empress because he's nothing like as bad as he's portrayed one central to narrow is the idea of acting which of course is central to any form of politics ancient or Morton Nero was a good act like any good American president he acted his way through situations for this he was hated by the people who principally write the history for them he's a man who goes on embarrassing stage tools of Greece seems while Rome burns in 6 before a de Niro last a raging fire swept through the room destroyed much of city many Roman people blame the fly around mir that he intentionally started the inferno in order to level the city that he needed space to build his own amusement there's no need to think that they deliberately set or that Nero was behind this one in fact the great find room cleared a lot of slums in the center of the city and allowed near a to build his golden house a fantastic place upon the pleasure park which we should remember was input to Roman citizens was open to the inhabitants of the city it's only a game the arrows to collapse who rejected and objected to nearest populist policies that sore this is some kind of extravagance this I think was a kind of room in Disneyland funded by the emperor John witty full but hated by those Harris to Croats who thought that they should have possession and control of the emperor mmhm after the great fire Nero's popularity sunk to an all time low his armies in provinces turned against fearing assassination the 30 year old Niro took his own life stabbing himself in the neck with a dad self consumed through the end according to his secretary Nero's last words were what an artist the world is knows in the year following Nero suicide the empire went through 3 emperors each one quick meeting a 5 by the end of 69 a D. this page became the empire's 9 emperor this page an Italian from a middle class background was better like the 3 previous emperors were from Rome's upper class this pasion began to rebuild the burned down city of Rome again in addition to the construction of temples and public buildings a grand amphitheater was erected stone arena dominated the city skyline it would become an imposing symbol of Rome's power turning in 1880 no other site in Rome attracted more attention Coliseum an imperial landmark engineering master the stone arena stood 4 stories high supported by arched vaults each decorated with stone statues of Roman gods inside the Coliseum long echoing corridors leading to row after row of stone seats be neat the imposing structure wasn't underground maze passageways caged rooms commissioned by the emperor Vespasian in 78 D. the Coliseum was completed 10 years later by his son Titus who became rooms tenth emperor on opening day 50000 screaming spectators Peck the theater to watch gladiatorial games perhaps lake admin for to the death using swords tridents hand to hand combat the mission was free the games were a gift emperor Titus for the people of Rome the arena became a political tool used by subsequent efforts to win support from the people and for most citizens nothing was more thrilling for the sport killed I think it's interesting to try to imagine what opening day here with slight the Roman citizens must have seen this enormous building rising up to the skies for 6 or 7 years they must must've watched the process of the building as this enormous construction they must've known it was for them it was their building given to them for the imprint investing tremendous excitement expectation and then in the year 18 the imprint Tyson had great ceremonies they must've been processed there must have been music fanfares it was something that he improved wanted for people to enjoy it so that the people would respond to him that they would support him and that they wouldn't ... rebel they wouldn't cause riots they wouldn't be difficult some gladiators volunteered for this dangerous career they train in special schools hoping to achieve fame and financial rewards however most gladiators were typically prisoners convicted criminals and slaves for them the games or a way to win their freedom or a dangerous battle to stay alive sometimes they'd be matched against each other so they could have the the net man who was at trial because he wasn't weighed down by the heavy equipment 5 seeing ... heavily ... gladiator and people would put money they would back which one they thought would win there is also evidence that some few periods in Roman history there were women gladiators the gladiator spectacles were not only about men fighting men wild exotic animals were imported from North Africa Asia the day of the event hundreds of Tigers lions and bears were kept in cages beneath the Coliseum a system of pulleys hoisted the cage is up to the arena level when the animals were scheduled to fight it was a very easy set program for the games in the Coliseum which builds up to a climax of the end of the day in the morning there were animal finds fights between animals where you'd have a small rental being attacked by larger animal this within graduate Sir animal physis coming in and fighting the animals this then would graduate to another spectacle touched one of the most horrendous spectacles in the mid day session this so called mid day matinee when criminals for people looking to entertain the public from the criminals who think of me execution the Coliseum was just one of the several venues that host to dis spectator sports since the days of Spartacus in 80 BC similar stone amphitheaters were constructed in almost every Roman province I'm in the amphitheater at Syracuse which is an interesting place this after theaters we see it now was built and about 200 A. D. one of the things that the builders of amphitheaters had to think about was protecting the spectators one of the ways in which the spectators were protected from the wild beasts was by having barriers put up and we find frequently is that the barriers were round at the side so that when the animals might try to jump up they would slip down we also find is these could be used for the purposes and here we have a inscription which tells us that this marked out the place the seating ... element the seating area which belong to the family of Stettinius this is the locus that Tilley the place where the family had purchased they're seated because the games grew in popularity each temper had to put on bigger and better shows to appease the public's lust blood violence sometimes the Coliseum was flooded in order to stage mock naval battles years later in one of 7 a D. the emperor Trajan would host the largest slaughtering match 10000 gladiators and over 11000 and really kill it's clear however that human beings are fascinated by blood by violence by Murdoch and in modern societies he can save it similar things we have such as full flight stalled wives the violence that we have program now television but I think in the end the difference between what we see on the television screen the violence that modern people a fascination by is a world of pods from what took place here and that is the deliberate the very deliberate massacre in slaughter of human beings exclusively for the entertainment of the public but the gladiator spectacles weren't the most popular games grown throughout the empire frenetic fans jammed race tracks cold circuses to watch their favorite charity fund to victory cherry had tears in their forces were divided into teams called Reds blues greens ones sometimes 8 chariots with Pete at one time for a cash prize and the sheer glory of when the race is dangerous in the fury chariots often collided turning corners any sudden collision could mean a loss of lives she lives well the Roman people enjoyed public spectacles not all of them involve violence citizens attended the theater to watch a play or musical recital they also sought relaxation by going to the public bath houses Romans visited these ancient health spas on a daily basis to wash exercise or even conduct business meetings visiting the Rhone bonds is a matter of going to a whole sequence of rooms cold warm heart which you may do in various different Otis here Greg echoing room is the frigid dollar in the cold room and at the end is the cold plunge invigorating vypyr and you're right talk to your chin in wartime the money and the interest that they put into bonds shows the importance of fading in round social life let's go through from the cold room and tuned next we reach a changing room ... fists room covered with stuff because we think it's of golf and and men in alma let's go this way and have a proper dip yeah this is almost like it this is a a fumble by again nearly 6 foot deep down the steps so here I am up to about my chest but in the center of the bar is a heating mechanism of very unusual heating mechanism made of bronze ... a circle with another circle in the middle and down below us there's another furnace and this would be ... continuously warm sending up warm water all around the spoon and you can imagine you can easily get 30 people ... here together and it's that that that that fact of of 3040 naked people together that race is fought for the remnants is 1 of them moral worries about the bomb sports happens when you're old just make it together and 1 way they deal with that is to say well at least let's kick keep men and women separate let's have separate bathroom women and men because mixed naked bay thing is too much to ask of any supplies most the Romans didn't have the luxury of owning a bathtub or shower nor did they have such amenities is so so citizens visited the bands often they cleaned it themselves by lettering oil on their skin scraping it off with a curved metal instrument in addition to Beijing the band's offered massages body waxing and hair plucking there's a marvelous description by the philosopher Seneca of how horrible it was I have a flat near public Baathists because he says you can hear all the people squealing and chatting to each other and the worst thing of all he says is when we under arm hapless gets to work fund squeals that come from people as they have that have plucked then the Roman Empire offered a variety of past times for its citizens to enjoy the rituals and traditions of daily life gave the Roman people a sense of belonging established by a customs the first emperors created a cultural tradition would last for centuries they reminded citizens that they too were part of a thriving empire glory's empire well I //
"2017-08-21 18:06:53"
\\the land where desolation and endless desert give way to a narrow strip where water flows life to call from these beginnings bring the wonders of a flourishing Egyptians embolization that would last for more than 3 by the year 1386 BC the Egyptian civilization was 2000 years old and have been ruled by 86 sparrows it was in this year that a young and vigorous came by the name of almond there emerged to become by the reign of the federal amendment Egyptian empire was very well established tremendous inflow income especially for the royal house and each of itself was very stable and prosperous and so with a man who did the third you get the appearance of a really grandiose kind of material culture in Egypt huge temples huge royal figures his vast building projects was centered in the ancient city of speeds it was here that the pharaoh Amon who tipped the third embellished a magnificent temple dedicated to the god I'm the Egyptian lord of creation it signaled a peak of craftsmanship and artist cheap and for the aged it's graceful columns of expensive court remain the pharaoh's mass hi and on the west bank of the Nile river stand to imposing statues of almond hotel they're known as the colossi of the 60 foot time on the soul that is left of the pharaoh's mortuary that once stood here standing beside him dwarfed by his stature is the image of queen Tiye was his wife and the mother of his from trading expeditions abroad and an abundant supply of gold from the minds of Nubia Egypt under I'm one who tipped the third enjoyed a time of wealth and great prosperity the Egyptians have the leisure to start getting involved in a lot of theological speculation ... which leads to what the Egyptians consider the disaster the disaster came in 1353 BC and took the form of a strangely shaped man who some believe was a heretic mmhm the pharaoh Harmon who took the third had been grooming his oldest son for the throne when the young prince this left his younger brother Amon who tipped the force to succeed their father he had been studying religious matters however not affairs of state as a result his reign was a revolutionary departure from the long entrenched traditions of Egypt king should scholars still struggle to understand well was he a fanatic or a great performer a visionary or a madman whatever the answers he was without question the strangest double the pharaoh's for over 1700 years Egypt of the pharaoh's have worshipped my Amon who tipped fourth wanted to Egypt to follow only one because Oct as if to complete the transformation of Egyptian religion the pharaoh changed his name from a common hotel 2 I could not which meant servant of the sun god Oct it was the first time in history that mankind worshipped a single gone this radical change rocked Egypt to the very clay at that stage foundation Akhnaton strain was one of the great crisis points objection history was a period during which the old beliefs were overturned the capital was moved and the temples and cults were essentially shut down discounted been easy for the population the I n't the massive temple complex of cognac at the ancient capital of Steve's remains the largest religious site in the world it was here in 1350 BC at Akhenaton was crowned pharaoh in a traditional sense but then tradition ended great changes were on the horizon they began with the pharaoh Akhenaten's expansion and beautification of the temple of the sun most notably he added a new symbol to the temple just curious disc was called the attack it was designed to symbolize his new god of the sun in year 5 of his rule Akhenaton proclaimed the I 10 Egypt's one and only I Akhenaton occasionally been called his first my in that you get away or at least no longer funded the worship of all the other gods in favor of only one the often with the physical discomfort son his choice for queen was also unconventional my name was Nefertiti she came from a non royal bloodline but appear to hold a very prominent position in her house Israeli one of the most magnificent pieces of sculpture ever honors student Egypt is a limestone bust of Akhenaten's legendary queen Nefertiti appears to have been an exquisite queen but when we examine images about we discovered that his appearance was as bizarre as his ideas early on many representations of Akhenaton cost a great deal of confusion among archeologist at because he was often portrayed was wide hips a protruding belly and breasts he was sometimes mistaken for a woman who may have been masquerading as a it seems possible years earlier queen Hatshepsut was often portrayed as a male she even went as far as to where the false beard reserved for kings perhaps to appear more like a federal Akhenaten's physique has sometimes been attributed to an illness cold prolix syndrome which causes the body to distribute fat in ways that are considered typically female one of the side effects of the diseases that you are sterile and we do know that I've gotten Nefertiti had several daughters and there is some speculation obviously that ... Tutankhamen was a son of his as well ... so if they are that's the case then the idea of this one type of disease probably is not likely but I could not in his mummy has never been found all attempts to diagnosis abnormal appearance had been based solely on other scholarly opinions about Arkan starting appearance look not to medicine for next but of the symbolism tied to his new religion was based on the items Akhenaten's was a radical departure from Egypt but so strong was his conviction but he was willing to defy and eliminate the powerful religious institutions which represented the beliefs of virtually the entire population he shut down the temples of the goddamn moon and declared feeds would no longer be the foremost city of the future a new capital city dedicated solely to his religion would be built the pharaoh called his new city Akhetaten which meant the horizon of the son of god at the center of the new capital was the great temple it was there that the pharaoh Akhenaten cultivated his new religion devoted to the adoration of the sun god he called before Akhenaten's religious reformation ordinary people worshipped outside the temples of the king priests and the elites of society performed there right inside mysterious check Akhenaton changed all that he wanted the people to worship along with their pharaoh out in the open the sun it's like raise it is believed that 3 ceremonies today were held at the great all the first was a dawn sun rose over the cliffs city a second ceremony was held at noon when the sun was directly overhead then at sunset the devoted would recite to him to the sun which I Akhenaton himself but composed it is not known how successful Akhetaten was in converting except believe it is possible his new religion was simply a ploy to strengthen his image by eliminating other gods Akhenaton knew he would appear more like a thinking was removing the intermediaries to clutter up all the intermediate priest ... bulky and cumbersome yeah I'm of hundreds of different days and so forth with the same form of the religion but it was mainly involved with the idea of the king creating a more direct support for the idea of him as a living entity here on the earth Akhenaton did not conduct this worship alone there is evidence that his queen Nefertiti led the sunset ceremony each day Nefertiti was a very important woman we're not quite sure whether it was act not who who granted her some of the importance that you had I or whether she just decided to take it there are some scholars who felt all along that Nefertiti was behind the religious revolution even more than her husband another powerful women of this era was Akhenaten's other her name was queen T. she had migrated with her son to his new city to act we because Akhenaton was absorbed with matters of religion appears queen T. you may have been worse CPO for affairs of state if so there remains a puzzling archive of clay tablets that was sent to the pharaoh Walken they came from outposts of the Egyptian empire in Syria the tablets reported that the out posts were under attack and failing these writings known as the Amarna letters pleaded for supplies to be sent and promised continued loyalty in exchange it is likely earlier pharaoh's would respond with soldiers and strategy in this case however it seems green tea may have been the one who ignored these pleas for help art from this period also underwent a radical change everywhere the pharaoh's image appeared he was shown to be under the protection of the sun's rays while previous pharaoh's were depicted as being physically perfect Akhenaton instructed the royal long distance to picture him more realistically instead of looking like a warrior his statues portrayed him as feminine and he was seen being tender with his children poses with Nefertiti that would have seemed far too intimate just a few years before Akhenaton Nefertiti rule together for 12 years and then curiously there is no record of the queen after that the disappearance of Nefertiti is one of the greatness after being such an integral part of her husband's can ship almost a co regent suddenly there are no more mentions to fiction are to be found the reasons for this are still in debate some believe she may have died during childbirth at one time it was believed she was a discreet in some way in Arkansas supposed still others suggest that she lived on past Akhenaton Nefertiti could have in fact been the more devout cloistered herself away to remain loyal to the they got are they the general basic situation seems to me that she actually died on there is evidence that she was buried in the wall to come on in the book is called him while walking beyond the confines alfi low sitting in any case Akhenaton did not have to suffer from the lack of companionship he appointed a new male co it's name was spend come some believe he may have been the fair it is possible that he marry one or more of the story if you did that that would not actually be unusual for a fair but in the case of the act not we also have a suggestion of that he had a homosexual relationship with ... his co rule listening Tara towards the end of his reign ... which would make of McNaughton one of the first bisexual people presumably since he also has children from Nefertiti his unorthodox appearance and descend from the old religion cost history to label him still there is little evidence that the pharaoh Akhenaten's new son called ever really took hold of my the excavations of the ancient city of akad have revealed that even before his death many of the inhabitants kept idols of the old gods in their home with a ignoring the new religion or did they sense the inept Akhenaten's religion was failing Akhenaton died in 1334 BC during the seventeenth year of his reign and with him died is religion based on the worship of the sun desk soon after there was a tremendous backlash against his religion and heresy which led to the destruction of anything that bore his name it is believed however that in order to protect his remains Akhenaten's follow was removed his body from its 2 Itamar I was an Egyptian custom too I gather together to try to hide and conceal and protect foreign for the future about the remains of important pharaohs and burials and I think it's a strong possibility that perhaps what did happen and it remains to be discovered for archaeologists in the future with a heretic Akhenaton dead Egypt prayed for a strong pharaoh to restore its faith and reassure its people instead this burden fell upon a boy just I ... behind the great clips of dar el bajo in the Liza golden landscape I'm more deal WNED the leaving a series of gullies and dries Cole what do you it is within these can in a place known as the value pick the Egyptians of the new king very good it was here on a balmy afternoon 2218 a modern day discovery saved the legacy most from evidence recovered it was learned that this came name to become was the son of the heretic pharaoh this may explain why so little was known of 2 when the Egyptians tried to erase the memory of our it may have also tried to erase the memory of his the list of kings inscribed on the walls adopted does curiously omits to along with I'm not this is led scholars to ponder the question who wants to mmhm I he was born and raised in Akhenaten's Amman his birth name was too long Barton which meant living image of the sun god but with the death of his father the old religious beliefs and the cult of our world remains accordingly he removed the art and from the end of his name and replaced it with a moon to become the legendary boy came his new name meant image of the god of life artifacts exist which depict him as a robust king attacking Nubian and Syrian enemy but experts believe it's unlikely that young Tutankhamun was ever actually involved in any military such responsibilities were probably handled by an experienced general named Horan had he was an ambitious warrior inscriptions identify him as commander in chief of the army and deputy up the key or mayhem served as military commander for pharaoh sick proceeded to it was his mission to reassert Egypt's military might and restore respect from its neighbors were there others in this boy king's court but also we did great power it seems that the boy suddenly thrust upon the throne of the great empire would need senior officials for advice and guidance the question is was to become just a puppet for the real power behind the throne perhaps the answer lies with the member of team 2 incomes court who overshadows everyone else he was the king's busier and high priest cold on a skilled and determine civil servant his name meant divine father scholars believe it is on along with Holden who were responsible for the stability of Egypt during this time or would have on a line between them how appearance to the ancient gods how moon it is they principally who disc golf if the religion of the ox and on the call and religious focus has moved back to ancient on faith Martin Knoxville although of course they actually hold the inscriptions still with the virtues of 2 trying cal moon but a pulse bureaucrats the civil servants but general forum have the high priest ally who are essentially running the country rubber stamping everything uhhuh ... what extent any pharaoh was involved in the day to day business of foreign and domestic affairs still puzzles experience Egypt had a fully developed bureaucracy of administrators and stronger you're oil like the for him and much of his life locust ceremony designed to reinforce his king as a person is hedged around with royal symbolism ... yes people watching him from the moment he gets up to the time he goes to bed so to a great extent dislike it simply circa might have found state if there is in fact quite onerous putting on those heavy crowns and and all that regalia and look forward to the time that he could simply take them off and ... go off and play with his friends 2 can come move had a clean she was 2 years older than he was it appears Akhenaton was the father of books this made the pharaoh's pride or so his hand her name was on consent pop we do know that she was very important to him they were married when they were fairly young from there representations we see that she sits nearby him ... she seems to take an active interest in some things that he was doing in hunting and fouling fishing with the old religion of many gods now reinstated the reign of king Tutankhamun seems destined to be a period of rebirth and renewal for but then at about the age of 20 the young fellows suddenly died some believe he was murdered forensic analysis of his money shows that he died damage to cranial cavity this suggests a blow to the head further examination reveals a small hole in his skull scholars have constructed theories as to how it got there one is that he was thrown from his chariot about highly unlikely because of the nature of the damage to the skull others that someone crept upon him in the night thrust a small pointed object into the brain and therefore get away with him in a silent and stealthy manner and still others that he might have died of a cerebral hemorrhage was there a conspiracy to murder the pharaoh some believe to damage to to come in scope didn't occur until after he was dead it is known for a fact that in bombers were not very careful and there have been evidences of ... spare legs that are in coffins and in some cases ... in order to make sure that any any individual fit into the coffin and the toes were cut off ... into our Commons case it's also clear that the imams were not very careful so my guess is that the con damage that was done to the skull was probably now the embalmers fall and not cause of death I the short reign in sudden death of the young king did not allow enough time proper loyal to this is probably the reason that his burial site and adopted plunder is through the ages the entrance had been obscured by law should stumped during the cutting of a later king I Trish responded to comes to help or the modern world up until their discovery men could only imagine once brilliantly colored temples and artifacts would it appeared in the the contents of the young pharaoh's to reveal the true opulent here but we're the richest chosen to accompany this relatively minor into eternity only into what had been buried in the 2 really great some historians have suggested that we should not assume the larger 2 rooms were filled with even more trash the pharaoh Tutankhamun is burial may have been richer than most the people may have been great the restoration of the old religion or there might have been an emotional love pouring first the untimely passing of the king not only called the royal tomb builders unprepared but his left Egypt once again without a throw sadly there is evidence the young royal couple try to perpetuate their 2 mummified fetuses were founded to you're almost certainly the remains although it is only a theory some experts speculate that inbreeding may have been one including disease politics in warfare should be due to the decline of including comments case inbreeding mayor printed his children to free with no where to inherit this room was passed to I closest is record shows that right after she died I prepared to marry to with to help justify his assumption throw there is evidence that she suspected I was respond husband try to avoid desperate the widow Uncas enough sought help from outside he turned to a land in the east troll by the Hittite and wrote to their king me one of your sons you have many that I may marry one and he should become king but I have known here whom I mean marry if you send one of his sons to be married to thank SNL Muna become pharaoh of Egypt but consider the bureaucrats Orrin hatch was the general in charge of the army all I was the chief well I preached curiously enough it type thing Scott as far as the borders of Egypt money was that it this I am married to comes with a win 1325 and became pharaoh before the deceased king's burial had been we know this from a painting in 2 incumbents to it depicts online already wearing a king's blue crown body performs a ceremony during 2 incomes better of course it is possible that I was just the logical choice to assume the throne after airless but there is one more suspicious spectrum the archaeological record right after I ascends to the throne there is no more mention of she disappears why should the next victim in this 3000 year old I reigned for only 4 years and like to come had no heirs to carry on the 18 soon the throne of Egypt would belong to a new dynamic lifeline among them would be the greatest of the pharaoh he would usher in a period of building an expansion never to be and he would take the image of the Pharoah's of god to the extreme the the city of the ancients seems the pharaohs of Egypt were drawn to this land that lay along the banks of the Nile river queen Hatshepsut and embellished it with an obelisk grand temple to its patron con deep southern okay when the rich to the pharaoh to move the royal court back you don't and his busier 1321 be the general cold horror proclaimed himself to be the pharaoh of it's name meant for us into bullish or us is a gypsy hawk a bird of prey I got to I'm the throne after a long and wished me which began 4 administrations earlier when Harmon who took the third was king he was later appointed the great commander of the army by Arkan and under king Tutankhamun he was given the title of the king little is known about foreign heads pitch it was not from a royal bloodline and therefore had no claim to the throne the remedy that by marrying thus creating a feeble into the hello already middle aged forum have immediately set out to restore Egypt which prior to one at speeds he reopened the temples of armed but to avoid a power struggle with he appointed priests from the army since he was a military man I felt they could be after this forum have initiated the destruction of the great tap bill tonight I got he used the thousands stone blocks he removed filler inside the pylons and walls of his new building but his efforts to erase all traces of Akhenaten's ended up having an ironic the result is now off to us many thousands of years later as an archaeologist worked to restore and study these monuments one of the find they find these thousands of temple blocks that harm had thought he'd buried forever and a since they've been buried all these years of the scenes depicting a mountains cult directing much better preserved than any of the scenes which depict harm him whom also usurped many of the statues immediate predecessor this was done by simply replacing their names with him 2 statues at Karnak are labeled with the name of horror but most egyptologists believe the facial features are similar to to comments while to us this may seem to be the epitome this practice was not uncommon for many Egyptian snarled might have not put such a negative spin on it and they might have ... considered more of recycling but it was also a royal prerogative in a way because when a king took over ... key became divine and therefore since the office had always existed then he in that office would always have been around and would always exist it was a right and a privilege that the reigning monarch had Lauren had ruled for almost 30 years but when he died in 1306 BC he'd like to do in common and I cursed by not having an air to avoid the chaos caused by a fight for Lauren had nominated his trusted vizier for the 2 this pharaoh took the name of rams it would begin the nineteenth dynasty one of the greatest periods of Egyptian is Ramsey's had been a career army officer was probably in his fifties pharaoh Ramsey's plan to continue rebuilding but his reign lasted only 2 years he did manage to accomplish something his 3 predecessors have not Ramsey's produced a male heir to inherit throw Ramses and was set he had been the vizier and true during his after inheriting this room said he gave himself the additional time repeat births to signify the beginning of a new era during his time as pharaoh Egyptian art and flourished tremendous building projects will select at Karnak city enhance the building of the great hypostyle hall here in the he also began to repair and augment the religious sites these efforts helped him to legitimize his non royal plots the dose was the ancient center dedicated to the cult of Osiris the god of the dead he was originally built in the old king since for women to do the temple set to the first built for him he does it's considered one of the masterworks of the era inside is like this is depicted alongside many of the costs of it is believed that the gods actually world within the temples which we dedicate the war relief Sierra considered some of the chips they will come up with great precision and the more difficult race technique state of the quick strike said he was also the pharaoh who had the list of king scribed in his temple adopted it not only on those who came before him but also elevated name city means he of the guard sense Seth was the deity of storms in war said he lived up to its name on the battle he has grown up with ... me he says a different kind teacher charmed life and certainly to willow tree on the high national he fights incredible campaigns yeah all fear against the Syrians amongst his great foundations awesome pack a template Konak along the north wall you find read a play longer huge reliefs of seti tacking fortresses drawing the enemies Egypt is a mighty warrior in 1278 such as the first died after reading for an extremely productive 13 years he was originally buried in a tool prepared for him in the valley of the but to protect cities remains from great his mummy was later removed and taken to a hiding place Doug high into the cliffs above queen Hatshepsut temple a donor slightly over 100 years ago in 1981 archeologists unearthed this to it revealed a remarkable collection of 100 known as the boy setting the first was among the pharaoh's just is is the finest example of old we exist during his lifetime city's primary queen was a woman named like her husband she was from a non royal family with the military their first son died their second child was a daughter but their third child was a boy destined to become each celebrated ruler the dog star Sirius is the brightest in the Egyptian each year it disappears around the beginning of may to reappear about the 18 July to the ancient Egyptians its return signal the new year and the time for the annual Nile floods a new layer of one year during said he's rain floods were particularly high Egyptian legend told this was the good omen announced the next Egypt this was Ramzi Ramses the second has become the name that is almost synonymous with pharaoh but it may have been cities careful preparation prince it's really predestined Ramsey's I'm just a second was probably one of the best prepared pharaoh's because by the time that he came to the throne they really I had a fairly regular process of making sure that all the senior royal princes I had a lot of experience in military affairs governance so when they came to the throne they were already experienced and effective what a fairer needed to be by the age of 15 Ramsey's was already a couple on the right military can by 22 he led his first command to put down a small revolt to you also ambushed Mediterranean pirates who was searching for plunder along the mouth of by the time city the first rain was coming to an end his son had already proven himself as a military leader would do you can possessed with unmatched vision and self confidence the future king was poised to leave his indelible I and I I //
"2017-08-18 23:45:34"
HOW MAGNETISM WORKS - Full Rare Documentary
\\I I for but I to for how the laws of there was no magnets is I mean all bets are off it knows what the world would really and truly would be that ... say that all well we would hours or anything so if you listen light Bible no one apparated that the light forced so powerful so fundamental our world in the beginning humans first cover of magnetism small miracle doc's I simple force in a time when fire was tainted tools when the stars were all some rob it was an when when science began began 3 colony of the leaders the morning well so of people started saying look let's look for a logical at it's world and ... lodestone is where Paul Loadstar I or jewel make the Greeks found upon so that in the province of magnesia and that's how magnets they're the I ladies while he was busy inventing medicine a lot of thing is curious as lodestone must be good for so so he claimed it had healing power so by the Middle Ages lodestone was believed to charm and restore marital harmony people believed it cured everything from heart disease to god the mariners told tales of ships sunk when lodestone now pull all the nails from their home by 1269 actress peregrinus began to explain the magic yeah he reported that all lodestone if allowed to rotate freely they pointed in the same direction rock I this rock has some very very special properties it does turn that's true her green is also demonstrated that the rock could transfer its magnetic power to an ordinary iron needle you can hang it up on the deck sailors were going to say no north travelers no longer had to depend on the sun and stars to guide them magnetized piece of iron floated or mounted on a pivot and you have a compass ready to guide the Sunday saying start with close to I'd love all closed it in 1600 William Gilbert's revolutionary treatise on the magnet disclosed that pounding heart earlier induces magnetism in the metal he also reported that a magnetized needle when floated in water not only pointed north but also slanted down towards the earth the needle seem to be reaching for something Gilbert this meant the earth had a magnetic so right isn't researchers today believe that magnetism comes from currents in the liquid metals in the earth's core but there are still as many questions know that magnets it also as large as a world and today we know that the origins of only I mean the and it comes from the way the world works the way the world works is the Adam charges they have names electron in the nuclear essentially the 2 parts of the and the nucleus is trendy little small things floating in the middle of a giant volume in which electrons whiz ran if you have an electric charge that's moving you create a magnetic field just use magnets and misaligned so here's a North Pole and South Pole there's a North Pole South Pole and rule every which way and the net effect 0 that's what most substances are they have no mag in some middle they're poles and and direction these are called and suddenly you have an accumulation of all north pole one side will south poles and a bar magnet that for all the iron filings over a bar and it and the magnetic field is it has in that beautiful magnetic line the earth is large Michael magnets the earth's field line verge at polls it is still you don't put cosmic radiation son B. powerful stars com Lee objecting a ... rather power charged particles fly throughs and were they to hit the and it hurts the radiation that they caused could damage US could give a skin cancer cataracts the earth's magnetic field channels those charged particles so as a barrier to prevent them from striking the atmosphere however the earth's field guys in to the atmosphere at the North Pole and South Pole when those charged particles hit the atmosphere they ionize it they make a week clansmen like we see here plasma a superheated gas in which electrons are stripped from their nuclei so sheets of plasma that you see that rippling beautiful life that we call the Northern Lights curtains of lived in the legend all of the north the inlet in Alaska thought the Aurora borealis Celeste you about she Germans believe this I was on fire Chuck Iberia souls of third day I even today the Northern Lights have the power to capture the human imagination I the magnetic forces that shape the glow in the sky can also be used products mmhm far to the south in the heat of California's Death Valley the history of the earth's magnetic field is locked in layers of rock when rock forms some of its magnetic particles lined up with planetary magnetic field by cutting samples from the different layers of stone researchers can show the earth has had the same magnetic alignment for 700000 years but he'd only your lower than that and the rocks reveal that there have been times when come its needles would not have pointed north one of the strangest things in your magnetism is the magnetic reversal the idea that the interplanetary magnetic field can come to scuffled from from the rotational axis through instead of pointing north magnetic field might be pointing east for awhile and then re establish itself in dear compass needle points south mmhm valley is an ideal place to learn about magnetic reversals there's an active fault zone that runs through the bottom of Death Valley here it is taking these lake beds turn them on and thrust them up and then the streams of dissected down through them so we have almost 100 percent exposure one of the few places where we can go into right the magnetic fields started in on normally magnify safe here and 34 meters up there tonight discreetly reversed state and yet what we're recording is the history there's field each little bed when it is formed preserve precisely the magnetic field the time because core samples are analyzed in the magnetometer to determine the strength and direction of the magnetic field I researchers can use that information to plot a geomagnetic map that tells the history of the earth's field reversals far from Death Valley there are other reliable places to study geomagnetism volcanoes molten lead dropping from the earth's inner chambers description I when it cools it locks includes not just about the earth's magnetic field also about how the score 4 it's a little liquid magnet comes up it's a place solidifies in the rules this grains becoming the important thing is as they become magnetic the lock in their magnetic direction parallel to the earth's field at the time beneath the surface of the ocean cooling lava locks in magnetic information as it creates new see full over millions of years a stripe pattern forms creating a timeline of the earth's field reversals these patterns tell geologists that is new stripes form that means this observation led to a major breakthrough in understanding the way the earth works theory of plate this new parallel in the history of science were one set of observations meets a chick keep changing the entire field turn oven perhaps have the only one that's comparable saves the Darwinian revolution in biology which still has ramifications eclectic rock revolution was it was a similar thing in geology and that was driven by magnetism whether on the sea floor or in Death Valley magnetic stripes also hold clues about when the earth's field might reverse again studies indicate that we are in a period when the magnetic field is declining fast the year 16 some if the the earth could lose its tire magnet field in about the useless the northern light would vanish and our globe would be exposed radiation no one can be sure if this the magnetic field could also reverse being in tact medic world we've come I mmhm ... look at our fellow inhabitants on earth they seem to know where they're going but how do they know I am magnetism may be the well there's been this elation for a long time the earth's magnetic field fighting you actually after humans were able to use ... the magnetic compass as a navigational aid people speculated well the earth's magnetic field could also provide a cue to all other organisms in navigating their way through the world the mystery condoms can navigate is it compliments and analogy how does an animal now to do that and various groups of of biologists have studied this and it turns out you've discover I was extremely clever pigeons for example can hear sounds both higher and lower frequencies in humans they can hear 3 vibrations in New York in in home they can see polarized light patterns in the sky they have a certain companies and more time pigeons hadn't known without sunlight and bridges to guide them there had to be another technique the birds were using to find their way the answer came on a cloudy day in 1974 when Cornell University researchers attached magnets to agents heads birds that normally flew directly home became hopelessly disoriented findings that pigeons can use magnetism to navigate prompted new studies in animal migration one of the most intriguing aspects of all of this work is simply that you have a large number of very simple animals that evidently has evolved the ability to perceive something that we ourselves cannot see it is late all and off the coast of Florida spiny lobsters are on the move their only chance at survival is to reach the warmer calmer deaths before winter ndem able to hold their courses spike the fact that they often migrate at night they often migrate when a tremendous amount of settlement is suspended in the water so that visibility is poor they're able to migrate under conditions in which waves and water current are infringing upon them from different directions find out if lobster the magnetic say and Logan said where he can troll the magnet so once in the tank the lobster on a leash orients its based on the existing field and Taylor going so we just have to wait for the lobster this is a North Sea in lobster that change the field 5 secs nothing diverts the crew from its course to the direction of the magnetic field is reversed yes and our results from the laboratory experiments demonstrate that lobsters have the ability to Korea licensing dear it's magnetic field this suggests that they may be able to guide their migration by detecting the earth's magnetic field the a migratory dance along magnetic lines of ability to do feels goes beyond lobster scores of animals seem a magnet to this this might be traced to small grains of lodestone or magnet founded question news how small can you go and still find by a magnet Richard Frankel collects bacteria from salt water marshes on the California coast study their magnetic properties these bacteria have a problem they seek food insecurity in the muck under the pools of water but they don't have eyes to guide them and they are so tiny they're unaffected by gravity the bacteria may be simple single celled creatures but they navigate the same way Columbus did looking at the monitor here we can see bacteria swimming out of the sediment particles and accumulating at the edge of the drop closest to the yellow and of this bar magnet and now after they've accumulated for awhile I can show you that if I turn the bar magnet around the bacteria swim away from the drop unlike the pigeons and lobsters we can actually see the bacteria's internal direction finder this is a sure from an electron microscope the organism magnified Andrew 0 the bacterium is a living bar magnet know what the bacteria did or what they do in fact they're doing it right now out here is they make these single domain size particles of magnetite and they lined them up in a chain and this forms a permanent compass needle that isn't just large enough so that the bacterium is oriented in the earth's magnetic field as it swims but are the bacteria actually heading north not really they're swimming down to where the foodies it works just like the floating needle experiment if this is the north seeking end of my internal compass needle if my flagellum is back here if I just start swimming straight ahead then the earth's field will a line in a particular direction and all swim down to the settlements when you look at these bacteria you see this chain of particles looking very much like back bone running through the cell and in fact there's an interesting correspondence between the fact that bacteria can mineralized can produce an internal mineral mean that's what we do that's what bones and teeth are mmhm 10 using idea but it could well be that the skeletal system that we now have an ourselves evolved in these magnetic bacteria to keep these magnets and in line if that were the case is kind of an absurd collusion that perhaps we wouldn't be here if it weren't for the magnetic field driving the evolution of this if we have magnetic microbes to thank for hours find is it possible that you need to have internal compass when he's not digging in that valley Joe Persian he's busy in his lap dissecting brain tissue looking for magnetite he finds it miniature magnets among leann the discovery of a family magnetic material in human tissues ... is surprise take a magnet doesn't normally stick to my head but my fingers and the assumption was that it's probably nothing ferromagnetic there but it turns out nobody had left what Christian did was turn his tissue samples into a kind of brings suit a strong magnet placed in the liquid cooled iron oxide crystals hundreds what we know at the moment is that all of the crystals that we've seen in extracted and purified and study are perfect biological bar magnets the crystals in our brains are almost identical to those in the bacteria if you realize that birds and fish and other vertebrates are cousins evolutionarily also produced this Ariel should be that much of a surprise that we do it as well it's our ancestors in real life so we've got magnets in operate but they don't seem to be enough of them to serve any purpose in human beings perhaps at a distant point in our evolutionary past the ability to sense the earth's magnetic field was extremely important to us and its importance may have diminished over time as are other sensory systems became more and more sophisticated human magnetism may be more useful as a conversational metaphor then as a direction finder we talk about people having a magnetic personality some people you find attractive so we find repulsive those major differences we called poles apart and track shouldn reason and energy love and hate and Mississippi to human except in the late 17 hundreds friends Anton Mesmer propose the existence of a force called animal magnetism to him it was more than a metaphor and his theory was that there was some kind of a flu with that flowed from the earth's poles through the human polls and so forth and so if that flow was unblock that constituted health but if you got blocked somehow then you got sick and his therapy was to rub people with maggots one subject swallower concoction containing iron for attaching magnets to different parts of her body she reported feeling streams of a mysterious running through her veins it ms Moore also hosted what he termed therapeutic seances at one patient sat around a fact of sulfuric acid while holding on to iron bars they were mesmerized declared a charlatan and a quick bio the magnetic link between magic and medicine the yeah yeah 200 years later came a divisive actually put magnetism to work from medicine magnetic resonance imaging revolutionized health and the acronym M. R. I. ocular lexicon WNED a patient is based in the magnetic field 5000 times stronger than the earth's WNED this field causes some of the bodies nuclei to behave like spinning Cup needles and line up then the nuclei are hit by Paul and radio waves once the pulses the nuclei dropped back to their original state in the magnet the energy released it's like miniature radio stations the signals are delivered to a computer where they are translated into an M. R. I. images save lives life for there's like this bring to earlier and more safely than other imaging it's like extra magnetism has really opened up a new cents I called a 7 create with these large man the technology we I felt so I think it's really whole new insight into the body in which is still scratching a surface as far as how much this new sense in this new information can provide us about the functioning of our bodies and in life in general nmsiis magnetic machine provides more than static pictures of the bodies by taking several images in a row scientists like Bob Balaban make a few and we'll ask you to hold your thumb down after placing a patient's home on a hot plate Balaban use the M. R. I. chart areas of the brain reacting scientists are also using Mar I study so Abel maladies whether detect Sir or analyzing thought M. R. I. provides a magnet rooms human next more than an interest in the earth together with electric magnetism ignited the machine age created them electricity magnetism motors run video tapes work they're used in our cars and our stereos the part of our world if you choose not to know about something like that then becomes magic understanding what seemed to be the magical link between electricity and magnetism begin with an observation which ships are hit by lightning this is on the board swing while I in 1820 Dane named Hans Chen or stood recreated this natural phenomenon in this lab he placed a compass near a wire attached to a battery as the electric current flowed through the wire compass needle kicked I'm first it had shown that an electric current generates a magnetic field are and in England Michael Faraday took or studs work a giant step further n't his 40 year study of electro magnetism would bring about a technical revolution that's I don't I don't first Faraday showed that a wire placed next to a magnet rotates when an electric current flows through the wire do that was the beginning of the electric motor you got it we have a motor later Faraday made his he found that moving a magnet in and out of the coil of wire creates an electric current him that was beginning of the electric generator no mechanical energy could be inverted into electrical energy and electrical energy into mechanical energy a New World the parade began the nnsl and magnet says the poor old workhorse just keep going along magnetism is involved in motors and all kinds of machinery involved in electric generators that plant that you see in the distance there is producing ... electricity by using magnetic induction basically ... so magnetism is it's not a rarity in our world far from it its ever present visit the set of a major motion picture and you'll see just how present it is okay so hard liquor are we like the current are you sitting down correct ... no I'm standing and standing up and stand up right now who is passed from the machine and to the information another technological revolution brought to you by magnet it's another magnetic force happening well well the theoretically well I more action magnets in the camera motor move to fill your phones have magnets that move little metal diaphragms to reproduce sound picture on the video monitor is painted by an electron beam controlled by a magnet the computer stores it's bits and bytes on a magnetic disk a magnet in the record head stores audio information is entrusted to reflect on the fact that one teaspoonful of Russian power that coated onto floppy disks in the video chains can store more information then all of the clay tablets in ancient Egypt I n't he'll take a computer disks and video cassettes all store information magnetically put data storage is only come electromagnetic waves enable us to transmit this data all over the world most important single function of magnetism can transport energy so the universe he wouldn't feel the radiation from the sun if there were and electromagnetic waves to transmitted electric and magnetic fields that vibrated right angles to each other create the waves to transport radio and television signals through space even light travels in the form of an electromagnetic wave so life is a vibration with the changing electric part induces a magnetic part which induces the electrified which induces the magnetic part and the whole thing keeps inventing itself moving outward and then a lot and that's what's that's what's coming out of the sun that's electro magnetism that's coming to us the unified force of electro magnetism that makes a motor run also transports the light and energy that's the stains life on earth after it magnetism has made our modern world journey is not over I don't know the rain about ready again wasteland on Iraq it's sad go leann many why when we ride into the 20 first century we may be doing it on a magnet I don't this is no ordinary train so magnetic levitation vehicle known as maglev a machine that uses magnets fly put 2 north ends of a magnet together and their push to the force that propels a toy car can also lifted Eaton mag Lev off its tracks strong magnets vehicle in do forces in the aluminum is your face it in a mere there's no instruction between them permanent magnet and the aluminum because aluminum is not like that and if this woman on this movie then it produces a very strongly opposes the loss on their woman that's because the magnet induce says image of itself in the aluminum and it seems a large metal like polarity knows full season though don't you so repelling magnets lift mag Lev 6 inches off its but what propels of the go forward attraction alternating magnetic fields of interact with to move the floating maglev for if all this seems vaguely familiar maybe it's big floating vehicles have been real life maglev in New York in 19 I need that today Pat very for it worked so well the wall of his life Ashley Henry calm and others have their own maglev dizzy with vehicles already entre pan Americans like coal more waiting to see they're maglev will fly magnetism has already slash our society in many ways waiting in the wings to do loosing they're doing new things at MIT's magnet lab using magnetism to create energy from water if you split uranium atoms some of their masks converted into energy lots of energy this is nuclear fission you can also make energy by squeezing atoms together used to hydrogen atoms and you get one helium plus energy this its nuclear fusion at MIT they're using magnets to create energy from fusion if you're in a way the helium atom that you made and compare to the weight of the 2 hydrogen atoms that went into the reaction you find that the helium wait just a little bit less and that small difference in mass is converted to a huge amount of energy by the famous equation equals MC squared E. is energy M. is the change in mass from book 2 hydrogens to one helium and seen is a number which represents the speed of light which is 186000 miles per second C. squared is the speedo light multiplied by itself isn't an unimaginably huge number so an extremely tiny difference in mass release is a tremendous amount of energy and that's what fusion as well and that's what keeps some burning but if you captured a little bit of the sun what could you keep it the answer is magnetism a magnetic bottle Steve Fairfax's chief engineer of MIT's plasma fusion reactor tokamak he is of the bottle we send the power for a medium sized city through these 5 foot thick concrete walls and on into the magnets of the tokamak former use them to produce a very powerful magnetic field inside the tokamak we're going to get a gas the 50000000 degrees now the center of the sun is only about 15000000 and there's no material on the planet earth that will stand the drug even 1000000 it's so we use all this power to make a magnetic field and create a magnetic that holds a plasma away from the walls of the at MIT they use 0 every day to cool their electoral 300 greens below 0 once cooled they can send energy magnets the magnetic force is so great that it would lift a stack of cards as tall as Mount Everest 0 boats like this I'm flying apart inside the machines donut shape chamber gases are he did until the Adams lose their electrons the gas but because it's too hot see inside the tokamak Fairfax has a model that shows how magnetic fields are you to induce now if I take this horseshoe magnet and put it next to the plasma you can see that the magnetic field from this magnet is having a fairly strong effect on the plasma can move it around now we don't use horseshoe magnets in our research we use electromagnets like this so when we turn it on now MC the plasmas clearly been squeezed away from the walls of the 2 because it's not touching the too many more the plasmas hotter it's not being cooled off as much by touching the 2 and that's what makes a brighter so this is the very same principle that we use in our machine only where this class was a few 0 degrees in our machine we're shooting for temperatures of 50000000 degrees the tokamak now requires more energy than it produces by fusion but when they reach 50000000 degrees they will be one step closer to producing power to like the world power to replace fossil she it means that we will have the means to extract energy from sea water without causing pollution in the form of radioactive fuel elements of to view this post we will produce nothing but pure energy and like that's the doing to understand the beginning of the world remains one of our greatest how did this fella Ghent and complex universe come to be and fear me land outside Chicago they're using magnets to mimic the moments of creation here they discover magnetism is not just one of man's to the electromagnetic force it's self key to unraveling the mysteries of creation if you look from the top floor of this building you see a large circle which 4 mile circumference and particles go around that circle and what do you think makes them go around the circle I give you 26 guesses as to what makes particles go in a circle magnets magnets forming the circular accelerator pull a ton particles around the 4 mile track 0 person when these particles collide it's a miniature big from the debris emerges of how the the Big Bang we think the world was dean Lisa one particle one force made forcing the particle was saying and then the universe as cool calm today in our universe there are just for fun graphic all planets and galaxies polls slow disintegration of we the electromagnets finds the lectern glee I ties holy grail surface is a theory that would link all 4 forces line signs in 30 years of his trying to connect rather primal force the earth summit's orbit around the sun makes an down old tree gravity in electoral Boeing you without 6 unification in the still with us all sign only to we can electromagnetic you know 6 think we've been able to replicate laboratory for me like here because the week intellectually then it all are representative of which we reduce collisions laboratory to achieve total unity would need an accelerator one light years away even if seller writer could fashion no one knows what that's how it's forms on the compass creation this steering use force Mooers acts 2 world all we can do now is say look important for humankind to know the world in which we live live in this world we get here what is the process by which we got here what is the surely rivers crosses understanding magnet created a fast humans live a better life WNED I I I //
"2017-08-12 01:11:23"
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"2017-08-06 17:25:49"
\\I remember Americans are struggling to find a place to live where do you think you're going to go I know where god wants a hotel with the government spending billions to help why are so many left behind only one in every 4 of housing get Brookline an NPR reporter Laura Sullivan investigate the affordable housing crisis so it was 6 years to get my voucher this is really a very very dire emergency the programs we have proven track occurred it's produced good house and that's a very well run problems it's property they do not want in their neighborhood and if all the money is going where it should we think we sought and millions of dollars it was amazing I mean this is a huge amount of money if you are following the money how do you know that the low income housing tax credit is working tonight frontline and NPR take a hard look poverty politics and prior for I never imagined that a story about low income housing what we need here to an upscale resort in Costa Rica I Lou swing uses a dream world with fancy condominiums and private villas a first class hotel golf course and its own private marina I come here because our investigation into the money spent to house the war had taken us into a hidden world secret bank accounts and shell companies I but I'm getting ahead of myself to understand what brought me to Costa Rica I have to take you back 9 months earlier to where our story begins as I said it because the number of affordable home compass and shrinking last year we started spending time in doubt in neighborhoods like this we're making rent has been getting more and more to the sterling Israel out here I mean you know this is ... visit everyday and where you die because you stand it checks are just going up and up and up and I don't see any end these are people who have jobs and children you're saying that no matter how hard they work yeah this is the elevation alright there are more than 40000 eviction every year she spoke by phone an estimated 2.5 yeah a couple more people here you guys are moving this over the past decade average household incomes have client while friends have been rising and that's pushing more and more people like Carla powers to the edge so what happens unit and I was at work I work 2 full time jobs I'm trying is a struggle in Israel in this in this hard seriously yes how hard is it been defined housing on your horrible I'm just freaking horrible and that's how I ended up in this song I didn't want to be here ... I don't want to be here I don't have formal grading it you know Adam Sandler is just Harley is just hours like millions of Americans Carla and her family are caught in the long wait 2008 financial what happened when we hit the foreclosure crisis is that all of a sudden millions of families lost their homes they became renters Keating in the same rental housing mark and at the same time incomes were going down even if you keep your job and that led to a rental affordability crisis in this country that's as bad as it's ever been in our I'm going to go with the dialogue NPO for 11000000 renter households that are paying more than half towards that that means that they are no one emergency ... one broken down car one illness one mistake at work away from not being able to pay the rent they're really at risk of losing their homes all together and becoming homeless a every year the federal government spends nearly $50000000000 to help the poor with rent and get them on the road to better lives over the past year we've been investigating the 2 key programs that try to do that to see whether they're working the way they should and why so many people are struggling in Dallas and elsewhere we kept hearing how the largest of the program section 8 vouchers covers just a fraction of those in need she ate applications thousands of residents fighting for a chance public housing assistance when the vouchers are handed out the response is overwhelming in the a lot as tempers flare of the city's plan 8 occasion I mean the voucher pays the difference between the monthly and what renters can afford more than 2000000 households use them but we less can be years long how big a deal is it to get a set Ginny about only one in every 4 households that are eligible for and in need of housing assistance get it it was a dangerous thing thousands of people hoping for section 8 vouchers ran for a spot in line they're hoping to win what is essentially a housing lottery so it's the 25 percent who have the vouchers that are the lucky ones with in this kind of a system we wanted to see how section 8 would work out for 3 of the lucky ones in Dallas which like many cities has a tight rental market that that works fearing Kyle's and her son happened saying her ex husband's apart for the past 2 months we had a what kind of fast they're not going to get to school on time for a break don't keep up she's held a variety of jobs since moving to Dallas 7 years ago I've been a cashier I'm not a Stocker of that I care giver of than a welder clerical works home on the coke but even when working she says it's been hard to find a place you can afford what did you think when you have the I ... how yeah I felt like it was an opportunity for me to gain more stability in this area in general I would like to get away from what is it about getting out this neighborhood work worked out on a limb near a place where there are better job opportunities and it took me 6 years to get my voucher but I got it you can best believe llama utilizing yeah Heidi there's except the section 8 vouchers in Linda Hagen says one unexpected event offended her life leaving her so distraught shipping jobs has been difficult I was working at JC Penney my son died house to but start there different people the paneling why not able to afford to pay rent it's something a section 8 voucher means a lot to you the I have been a place of her own for since 2002 met see artists Harris and Walmart part they Sirius has 7 kids and was living in a shelter before that she says they often lives here in her van slept in here were 7 kids for a couple of some were all level yet he was animal tale or other people have sleeping they do what my pen that we would you know go price or a part is that they have who do you see the kids Vander stand yeah they know you're thrown in given area you don't 111 19 why because I don't I don't know how how nobody breaking into my house or light on a be that my children are break into my car utilise somebody and deal with yeah I'm tired and I why would I want a better bag I'm way from ... apartments limit my pants women as shelter right yeah I'm not gonna go backwards I really love bowl where you know you press the button but we kept in touch with faring Linda and see artists as they try to find a place that would take their vouchers they have up to 90 days or they'll lose them and what they're hoping for is one of the main goals of the section 8 voucher a chance to move to neighborhoods better opportunities researchers from Harvard and Stanford took a look at this and found conclusively for the younger kids they're significantly more likely to finish school go to college finish college get better jobs earn more money none of teen pregnancies not get involved in crime and drugs and the younger the kids are when the families make the move the bigger the impact is it good is destiny that's no joke one of the hottest zip codes in Dallas is the northern suburb of McKinney 3 years ago was ranked the best place to live in America by money magazine today the area is booming new apartments are popping up everywhere I was meaning a developer was trying to bring more low income housing to the community the more I think Terry Anderson Terry Anderson has spent her career in the field of affordable housing if you could put this time she's building apartment complex here between McKinney in the neighboring city of Frisco yes tell me what's it going to look like well the 2 very large buildings and 14 persons plan is to build 132 apartments it's classe construction and we're really excited about it some market rate summit reducer affordable rates and some units set aside for section 8 vouchers but her plan hit a roadblock with the first go city council we thought we were going to have support and instead the city actually called a public hearing for our property in about 250 angry residents showed up some residents voiced concerns about traffic others about overcrowding in their schools and some were worried about having low income housing in their neighborhood well I checked Nicole Humphrey is the local opponent of the development what is your concern when it comes to section 8 and low income and the last I feel like and that is because the section is usually working on single not a single moms or and people who are struggling to keep their heads above water and it's not a bad thing but it's not earn it's just not people who are I guess in the same classes I switched sounds bad but I don't mean that in a bad way to some people would say you know look they maybe not have not had the opportunities that their kids are not I have the opportunities their kids are going to have in this neighborhood for a kidney Sharon that and that the problem with that is I hear a lot of them unfair and ... we hadn't given this or not that are hidden afforded things that you might have been afforded and I don't look at multi millionaires and think why don't I have a yacht why don't I have a private jet it's it's a mindset affiliate do you think that you maybe our series have been the folks how I really am 100 percent it's not enforceable things I I'm definitely not a racist and not they get and I I think I hold a little bit of a stigma against people who are different we don't know Manson or people who don't have roots I just don't want that to be what my community is about okay let's go right into other white Anderson Dominic structure now see a lot of support a vote on whether to help Anderson get the money she needed was brought before the fresco city council in March of 2015 I can't support apartments and I couldn't do that this time I don't see anything in this development that helps us take it to the next level the opponents won the day emotion past 60 to deny but even without local support Anderson was able to line up loans and grants to move forward with construction then more problems our superintendent has been threatened ... issued a warning a criminal trespass warning the police had actually blocked are entrants have you ever seen anything like this in the years that you've been developing have not if there's an issue with ... some building on the he's making the right away Frisco city officials say they support affordable housing and are trying to stop Anderson's project they just want her to comply with the city's building goals Anderson complained to the department of housing and urban development which is now investigating whether her project is being discriminated against it is a concerted effort to shut down development of our property they do not want in their neighborhood 2 years ago just miles away I confrontation between McKinney police and black youth when thought city became another flash point over policing in race but behind this confrontation with tensions over housing sorry white pages at the pool shouting and black patrons your section 8 housing it verbally abusing telling me I need to go back to my section 8 home is the lake that then the kiddie pool party was a reminder of how inseparable housing in race have been and a federal policies that divided our cities more than 80 years ago 1933 the public works administration began to build public housing and the important thing to know about this is built segregated public housing in cities across the country that never known segregation before then in the 19 forties and fifties the government bankrolled a mass migration to suburbs the federal housing subsidized single family home outside central city 4 white families only 2 thirds of the people in Iraq we now live in a metro mostly the growth is and the same time industry urban areas so poverty became even more concentrated making low income segregated neighborhoods more desperate economically than previously I would like yeah by the 19 sixties the segregation and desperation boiled over race riots swept the country occasion was something that was eating us most of the focus of civil rights work had been in the south but by the mid sixties we were making that turn towards the north and in the north segregation was the issue housing segregation in particular we want a strong fair housing bill and that's the only and so it's no mistake that of the fair housing act which have been stalled in Congress it's past just days after Martin Luther king is a sad the act outlawed all discrimination in housing and went further the fair housing act was now saying we're going to aggressively and affirmatively look for ways to create opportunities for integrated housing and to encourage local jurisdictions to do so within years as conditions in public housing deteriorated new alternatives were enacted like section 8 vouchers so the section 8 voucher program was created to continue assisting low income people with their housing cost needs right so households could take their voucher and moved to higher income higher opportunity neighborhood vouchers would help some of the poor pay their rent but is old public housing projects came down new affordable option were needed and by the early 19 nineties the government had launched a new construct relying on the private sector it was called the low income housing tax and so the idea of the low income house credit the merged as a way to created a new public private partnership that would allow more affordable housing the program would spur billions of dollars of private investment to remake the image of public housing it would also open the door to a whole new set players and politics see you both were interested in the same back in Dallas I met developers who were among the earliest to see opportunity in the new tax credit program together Brian and Cheryl detached Nick became some of the most successful affordable housing developers in the country I think at one time we were ranked in the top 10 and the largest in the state they got their start in the neglected neighborhoods of south Dallas areas where the demand for affordable housing was greatest and the tax credit program was set up to help well for instance you can see that the testing showed me how the program works but for the IRS gives billions in tax credits to the states then the states award the credits to developers this is you guys we sell them for cash to investors mostly banks the developers use the cash to help build apartment buildings and because taxpayer money pays for most of it they can charge the lower rents that are required it's like I am when you buy a house you have to put a down payment yeah that's your equity yeah thoughts the tax cut is give us equity to dole department could you build these properties without tax credits no and it would be possible to both the quality of housing out the tax Dallas where Laura Miller Katherine inflated out when the early 2 thousands of attachments were making millions off their developments and looking for new opportunities beyond the inner cities yeah we at 10 have a very scientific process for how we found found land weekend the car I've around but we started driving north and and west instead of south and what did you find when you lie north without a good side and that site was in the northern suburb of McKinney what kind of push back did they get I just got hell no you can't come many argue that there was already enough low income housing in the community but that's see Julian a leading Dallas civil rights attorney says she heard other reasons at a public hearing him Kenny in 2003 I went to the ladies room if you want to hear really ugly racial stuff go into the ladies room at one of those hearings anywhere they sang ho I another repeat what they were saying but they were talking about how the tax credit deal with past have section 8 because that's what they really were afraid the task next tried to get around the opposition and negotiate a political deal we had hired a console and who is a state senator who is also a lawyer useful and it has all ads and he got us an appointment with the lieutenant governor but Dan we were told that we needed to hire another console and it's but we couldn't know who that consultant was not really hire somebody whose name you were not allowed to lobby the governor we would get calls from consultants are kind of the governor I know the senator I know this one I can help you here I mean it just rampant is just pay me this amount and don't worry about how I do it the last don't ask their deal fell through and their development plans to build in other communities that didn't want low income housing generated broader opposition soon text again require local help get tax credit deals done one of that mean for the price when you had to get a letter of support well basically meant that if neighborhood and one at operatives not gonna get the letters of support gave politicians more power to determine the fate of development so the task next double down to try to get the political bias they needed developer Brian protest it has the mayor's here what it comes to meeting the city's name for 30000 affordable housing units so I found myself spending a lot of time city hall talking to a lot of the Titian's it all began years ago with getting those letters of support became high stakes political game and in 2000 714 people including the detached next were charged in a bribery and corruption scandal the largest in Dallas city hall history experts say it suggests the protest X. funnel drives through conspiracy for apartment construction approval it was a corruption case you were accused of being an of a pay to play situation why did you do it if you want to use that term then it becomes about access and especially when for the system itself is set up so that you need those people to approve what it is that you're doing in order to do business there's a lot of pressure coming from a lot of different places certain decisions were made certain things happen and we should've walked away at some playmates from that pressure week and and we sort of sacrifice those those projects that were in question and just gone in a different direction by it you know we didn't they pleaded guilty to conspiracy to bribe local officials Brian good gesture danced away after receiving is sent 14 months in prison his wife Cheryl was given 2 years of probation as this Dallas city hall corruption scandal draws to a close nearly 20 states now rely on letters of support to help decide which projects to give tax credits to civil rights lawyers my Daniel and Betsy Julian say that's a major reason why so many projects and up in low income neighborhoods however the tax credit projects being put in in low income areas they've been put there because he's here to do there won't be any opposition to it and you don't have everybody mad at you ... you get you deals done after examining the tax credit program they calculated that more than 90 percent of family developments in Dallas had been built in high poverty areas over a 25 year period they filed a lawsuit against the state that went all the way to the Supreme Court and help set standards for fair housing nationwide and in 2014 they sued the department of treasury claiming the tax credit program perpetuate racial segregation our case was about the fact that tax credit properties were only going into low incoming arterias city of Dallas and we were looking to get tax credit housing into some Harper juniors as well which were predominantly whiter areas that case is still ongoing but it highlights challenges to affordable housing around the country and raises questions about whether the tax credit program is working as it's supposed to if uhhuh last November I went to Chicago for an annual gathering of attack credit industry it takes a lot of players bankers brokers law firms consultants developers to put affordable housing deals to get over the past 30 years housing tax credits have helped build more than 2.5000000 affordable units the program costs about $8000000000 a year an amount that's been growing but that hasn't kept up with the need for affordable housing and that lack of housing makes for a booming market Stacey necklace is a vice president for one of the largest brokers syndicators well the housing market has been very robust and so investors really like it I believe us so I think you're giving back to the community but you're also able to get a good after very strong I a demand is on the program is often described as a win win poor people get good quality affordable housing in the private sector makes money Rick Lazio a former congressman now lobbies for the industry people ought not to be getting rich off of this ... but they want to be incentivized what their capital at risk in the field so they can get a reasonable return is this the most efficient program this is one way to do it gets the most amount of units built which is what is required to have a lot of different again you have the public and so the ones looking at we were looking at it too with so many people struggling to find housing we wanted to see how well the program's been working we analyze available data about the primary tax cut given out over the last 20 years here's what we found from 1997 through 2014 the number of units produced fallen from more than 70 to less than 59000 but the program is costing taxpayers 66 percent more in tax credit nbatv after adjusting for inflation the estimator rising construction costs only accounts for about half of that we ask representatives of the tax credit industry about what we found and reached out to more than 20 top investor in syndicator firms none would agree to an interview but in written responses the industry said that several factors have affected tax credit production such as the loss of other federal funding or soft subsidies and the increased costs of trying to help the poorest renters they also claim that business is less profitable than it used to be so these are just our number 3 we took our findings to the group that represents the state housing agencies that oversee the program I think there are good reasons that the programs produced fewer units and some of those is that we're trying to produce more units in areas of opportunity areas that are perhaps more expensive were also trying to do things like ending homelessness so the low income housing tax credit program has a 30 year proven track record and it's produced good house saying that's very well run but not everyone is convinced Republican senator Charles Grassley is investigating the program my suspicion is that there's a lot of things wrong with the program it may not be serving all the people it should serve there may be people in the middle getting more than they should you would think that this would be something the R. S. should be looking into because they have to police to see where the money is serving the purposes also Sir and are the policing no they are there's only been 7 audits in 29 years well if you weren't following the money ... how do you know that the low income housing tax credit is working mmhm that's what we were doing and that took us to Miami what we found a troubling story about the tax credit program yeah 9 if I met up with Michael Cox he spent 15 years as an affordable housing developers he showed me one of his prize projects liberate place I don't like yeah it's a $25000000 development with 90 units half of them for formerly homeless like Mike foreigner yeah you would never know where the people came from in this building where they come from well like myself there was just about to be worn street South Florida is one of the tightest housing markets in the country and developments likely break are much in demand and it's approximately 2 to 3 years later this to get into the building yes it has a community room a small gem this is a great room its own laundry which are leaving open 2004 hours because of the the residents that work supportive housing actually saves taxpayers money every year because it costs more to have people on the streets using services like emergency rooms police and so in the long run it actually will save taxpayers money over the lifetime of this uhhuh but there was more behind the story of flipper a Cox had a partner in the project the Carlyle development group Carlisle was founded by Lloyd beau via a leader in Florida's affordable housing industry and it was run by his partner's son mac Greer together Carlisle in Cox's company Biscayne housing became a powerhouse between 2006 in 2009 the 2 companies had more than 0.$25000000000 under development this can housing went from nothing to the number 12 affordable housing developer in the country and while in Carlisle became the the number 3 developer in the country in the country and it was exciting but the partnership had problems Cox says he suspected Carlisle was cooking the books he discovered documents about secret accounts they showed about $6000000 in construction of funds had been kept secret how could they have $6000000 in extra funds I had no idea Carlisle secret accounts would soon get the attention of federal this is a Carlyle development that involves boy bowed your mac assistant US attorney Michael sure when I spent nearly 5 years investigating the tax credit industry in South Florida I sure win in his team dug into Carlisle and Biscayne's construction contracts they discovered a kickback scheme this is the actual contract that was this is how it worked on 1 Carlisle deal for housing wants to know how much is going to cost you Carlisle to actually build this thing a tell for housing we signed this contract in skin cost 14000800 66 0 to build now there's an email between Carlisle and the contractor and a negotiated this the day before that we're only going to pay you contractor 12750000 to build were telling the state we're gonna pay you 14000000 861 day later exact so they knew a day before they submitted that didn't actual cotton instruction costs $2000000 less Ndamukong allow UC inflated cost us I to win more tax credits in the Florida finance agency it's not a very complicated scheme it's a lie for money contract is inflated so this ally enable them to get sass of $2000000 just on this one deal by the time they were done investigators discovered the 2 companies still $34000000 from 14 projects what did you think when you saw the millions of dollars in cash I was amazing I mean this is a huge amount of money and this is all on top of that tens of millions that was made a legitimate fees and pray this is the apartment and prosecutors discovered something else nearly $2000000 have been stolen from will break the apartments for the homeless and Michael Cox was a part of it they were extorting me saying we will kill these projects unless you agreed to this kickback scheme unfortunately this is where good people make bad decisions Michael Cox does not go to Florida housing Michael Cox does not go to the FBI Michael Cox says nothing and accept the money you spent the next several years taking the money and a lot of people are going to wonder why you did that why did you take I convinced myself that this was okay and that I was building amazing projects in the community went from fighting monsters to becoming a monster I tried to reach the other partners in these developments high ... Mr Rovio but none would talk all of and I wanted to ask them about where that $34000000 went some of it was tracked back to both you personal accounts one was called Caesar and Cleopatra season Cleopatra those some names and his 2 over 12000000 floats that one account through that account that was going to ask for his correct other kickbacks to build your career and Cox came to a cut out called S. S. H. H. construction this is a fake construction company should set up sh construction it's literally construction Iraq playing as an H. H. like he's trying constructions does use to hide the money and prosecutors trace some of the money back to Boquillas house I believe his house about 11 to $14000000 his mansion in coconut Grove he like political lifestyle ultimately though Gail Greer and Cox pleaded guilty to crimes related to the kickback scheme a scheme that had gone unnoticed by state housing officials for years these housing agencies don't have a lot of funding they don't have a lot of manpower looking at Florida housing small office with a limited staff that is in charge of managing hundreds of millions of dollars in state local and federal money said iris is relying on the housing authorities to ferret out problems and corruption correct in Tallahassee I went to see the man who was running the agency that oversees the tax credit program in Florida what was your reaction when you first heard about this investigation certainly disappointment that anybody would and I would do that with programs that that you know are designed to ... to serve folks and need a prosecutor in the case describes how the agency is in bed out matched when it came to developers with millions of dollars and lots of resources do you think that's accurate tout managed earned in most the folks that that we deal with our ... are good folks that do good work you know ... presumably that's similar in all states that's why you've got few foreclosures and Indiana one relatively few yet have scandalous incidents I'm trying to figure out if there are so few scandals incidents because they're not happening or because they're so difficult to catch there's a lot of financial risk to a lot of folks known Anna for playing that game seems very this is kind of a one off or a bad apple yes absolutely so the officials the Florida housing say that this is a this is a onetime thing this was an aberration dizzy that's true now I know I I mean I I don't think it's true ... will see what the future holds but there's a lot that needs to be looked at and there's a lot of people I need to be held accountable for what's been going on and what's to come I think in the future soon the head of the Florida housing agency we've interviewed would resign in scandal and as we kept looking into the tax credit program here we heard about allegations involving another major affordable housing developer my name is David Deutsch and I'm one of the co founders of pinnacle housing group we discovered a company called dacs was owned by the principles of pinnacle bring something new to us to affordable housing a source in the development industry told us that dax was being used to hide extra profits from pinnacle projects so one of the other one so we're looking at is this dax company which is it has the same address as another really large Florida developer ... pinnacle down here in Florida we've been told ... through a source that this was a ... a company that did actually do any work in I can't comment on this I don't know the baby later but not now because you know this one I can't say I know it but it's probably best if I don't say anything about this turns out sure when did know about Hannibal and dax 3 months after our interview he charged axe was stealing federal tax the company signed an agreement with prosecutors admitting it inflated costs by more than $4000000 on 4 projects it returned the money and pay a $1000000 fine under the deal the charges will be dropped if the company continues to cooperate with prosecutors but we still had questions about dax it's definitely the name of the company I agree I'm just wondering if it's civil the dax is a person Costa Rica that's the rumor the leadership in the company was going down there that our investigation Costa Rica see what pentacle was doing there back he later that night just outside the low swing us resort we found Jack's head of beach side restaurant I think yes I love the eggs dax said he wasn't a pinnacle business part he said he was just a guide and a driver and that the name the shell company after him same name the company after yeah they told me that they thought they thought me but I mean this new maybe they believe you didn't know ID than that he said he had no idea what the company had done you want but he did know partners have been coming to Los Buenos for years principal Monday WNED we found out why they have a Costa Rican company called casa away 6 he that company turned out to be a property right here in the secluded area of looks when you at the top of the resort I found because a waste it's their multimillion dollar price hello where they take vacations and we might I've taken bankers and syndicators last week Florida's housing agency went to court to ban chemical from affordable housing projects for 2 years saying the company had used acts to engage in fraud pinnacle declined our request for an interview but told us it would contest the man and said it did not violate any state rules 3 developers in Florida were charged half was stealing from the program how can the housing finance authorities make sure that that's not happening in their backyards in their states we really encourage our publics of people who are out in the community people who are working with developers to really ... come to us if they see issues that they think are not right with the project we just encourage people that if they see something say something okay the other things that we do we have architects who get the final say when the cost certifications are filed to check the reasonableness of those costs there's not a lot of documentation provided so the housing agencies in the underwriters other than basic building block documents the application contracts ... affirmation letters so it's ... it's really ... a program of trust did you just call an $8000000000 tax program a program trust yes it is a program which Ross the US attorney in Florida called this a a program of trust do you think that's true this is a program where I communities states developers investors work together and certainly there is an element of trust in any development project I think ... the vast majority of projects really come through pretty well the tax credit industry told us that it supports more stringent auditing and doesn't tolerate fraud of any kind the developments are phenomenal and people needed thus no need to extract extra money it's it's it's like killing the golden goose that's what they're doing how widespread do you think the corruption as look I don't have them died metrics to tell you but I know that this fraud doesn't just reside in South Florida there's too much money involved and you know based upon information we've looked at this fraud exists in other jurisdictions Sherman says he's now investigating other national developers as well as bankers and syndicators last December the Carlyle executives were sentenced Lloyd bogey overseas nearly 5 years in prison mac career 3 years in prison Michael Cox had to repay the millions he stole and received probation because of his work with the homeless and cooperation with prosecutors I leann slated the number of housing units act produce decreases and we are building last housing I get it I'm not against the making of cases in a case against capitalism more rich people abide in this is money that was going to behold long come out Florida and it didn't it that money that they took could have built hundreds of additional extreme especially at this time but there's a housing crisis cross United States and you were hurting homeless people on the street because you were taking money I've belonged to them absolutely and we ended up died really really hurting the people we serve and betraying their trust I I after taking into the tax credit program it's much is clear there are a number of reasons why it's producing less of housing costing more but without strong oversight of the billions flowing through the private sector it's hard to know exactly where it's all going you've got a bunch of developers and you got people in between nobody saying they shouldn't benefit some but are they doing it in the most efficient way to provide the best housing for low income people that's what we as policy makers are trying to get out of the government accountability office should this program be continued under the same circumstances or to what extent should be changed I wanted to ask officials at the treasury department about the tax credit program they run they wouldn't agree to an interview and officials at the department of housing and urban development which runs the section 8 voucher program also declining we returned to Dallas one last time can you spell his performance it had been 3 months since we met the women who had just receive section 8 vouchers what they're talking about upping you up sharing dials had started a new job in north Dallas and hearing talks about my third promotion and hope to move to a neighborhood near work but she wasn't having any luck using her voucher anywhere Babineaux oak cliff up in the south Dallas I've been a pleasant Grove I've been way down south nobody wants my voucher in January Farron ran out of time to use the voucher and gave it up but she did find a place in Dallas public housing we've been following families down really strong to use these found well this isn't a good example of that affordability challenge that we have are a crisis there is some discrimination against please who want to use these vouchers we need to figure out ways to make sure that those families when they have a voucher can be successful in using the money but vouchers on a silver bullet we need ... housing policy that focuses on building more affordable housing that's why the tax credit is important so that more housing is built and that it's more affordable it should be is how much are after searching for months thank Sir Linda Hagens was unable to find a place that would take her voucher she's back on the section a waiting list again where do you think you would be if you weren't hearing your uncle's how is probably out I going from shelter to sheltered to just who knows Israeli not good and I don't want to see the Belcher ... section 8 go away you know I know revenue president and has it won't see it to go away you know because we have more people and history then than we do now this is really a very very dire emergency for wholesome lots the population in this country they are lifelong renters and yet we don't talk about that we don't talk about the challenges they face and it almost is behind the veil it's just simply not part of our national conversation what happens to the millions of people who need to be able to find affordable rental housing to raise their families when I caught up with C. artists Harris she and her kids are gone out of the shelter there's no where if without but they still weren't in a place of their own they were temporarily staying at a friend's apartment Lucy orders have been given extra time to use our voucher but had given up on the prospect of moving out of her neighborhood I was never me live in the us like wow I mean back in the hood I get like that the world's like they don't you know don't don't discriminate nicely because everybody else was judging yeah one it seems like a lot of because we were talking and was an interruption and life on the margins suddenly became even more difficult for her that is not our part way OneNote not peripheral they've yeah I'm what she'd fallen behind on payments in her van was repossessed car away I think I'm a car nut about solo uhhuh without her van see artists Harris had lost her last safety net a place to sleep when she and her kids have nowhere else to go like millions of Americans she's still trying to find a place she can afford to live mmhm //
"2017-05-24 23:29:36"
Quantum Theory : The Illusion of Time Full Documentary HD
\\lying just beneath everyday reality we suppress taking world where much of what we perceive about the universe is room physicist and best selling author Brian Greene takes you on a journey that fans of the rules of human experience why don't we ever see a fanciful in reverse order according to the laws of physics this can happen it's a world becomes to white green hold back to the very high of matter itself he's here empty space how universe may be one of many 3 dimensional world Marat but how could this be would we be so wrong about some so familiar because it bothers please as no principle built into the laws of nature so you theoretical physicists have to be happy it's a game changing perspective it opens up a whole New World of possibilities coming up look around any trains they and you can see how time rules our lives the time she there may be no distinction between past present and few that time is what we all think it is then what is it and how the beginning have an end where did it come from the inclusion of time fabric of the cause right now no we David each and discovering new now AJ and I and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your PBS station from viewers like you major funding for the fabric of the cosmos is provided by the National Science Foundation we're discoveries begin and the Alfred P. Sloan foundation pouring original research in public understanding of technology engineering thematic tional fun is provided by the Arthur vining Davis found dedicated to strengthening America's through education the U. S. department of energy's office science and George de this once upon a time phrase getting up every good story but what is story of say that time flies that time is money we waste time kill time we try to save time but what do we really know about well like this river time seems to flow endlessly from one moment to the next and the flow of time seems to always be in one direction toward the future but that may not be right its coverage over the last century shown that much of what we think about time nothing more an illusion contrary to every day experience time may not flow at all the our past may not be gone our future may already exist it turns out time itself beat up or slow down and events that we think can unfold in only one direction also unfold in reverse but how could this be how could we be so wrong about something so familiar and if time is what we all think it is then what is it did have a beginning will have an end where did it come from we'd like to corner time as a thing that it defies that please please by being momentary bye bye only having definitions time is this thing that everyone knows intimately until you ask them tell you about what is time is really $64000 question to visit basically no aspect you we really fully understand I the so how do you begin to unlock a mystery as deep and elusive this time welcome one way is to measure it and using clocks of all different shapes sizes and kinds and even measuring time with ever greater accuracy thousands of years the first clock was one that you could say tex just once a day the rotating earth from the repetition of our planet's daily rotation on its axis to its yearly orbit sun we have always used the Balkans that motion of the earth to measure time we're always looking for things that over and over again and that rep cycle of forms a clock that's all time becomes some repetitive process measuring the earth's motion with the sundial we divided the day into hours the earth rotates one today and we tick off the days the sun with the swing of the pendulum we divide our rugs into minutes and seconds the vibration of a quartz crystal we improved accuracy to the thousands but the national Anderson technology in Colorado is the place to go if you really want to know what time it is this is U. S. full time it doesn't get any more accurate than here they measure time mindboggling using one of the smallest in the universe a rare medal hold cesium Adams have a natural frequency anything that vibrates nmsiis giving you repetitive motion can be a clock frequency and which the cesium atom ticks is the rational behind for the world when a cesium atom is pardon with 53 your checks giving off over 9000000000 second takes on the cesium atom and then cesium atom thousands and so every time you how often one seconds on my and you get one second for once I this is just astounding that kind of story we we take one measure of place it been constant forum Prof years matter how lots of time means the mystery clocks tell us what time it they have Dallas time itself what is it were actually measuring we may not know what the areas of the fundamental I have a lot the I the we're always about remembering the past living our lives with it 10 there I mean look around any train station and you can see how time rules our lives what may not be so obvious the rise of travel played he rolled in one of the most startling discoveries about time I is to accept and running on time in the early days of train travel Hein posed a unique problem back then each town set their own particular time noon is when the sun was directly overhead more or less time it wasn't enough the world hardly matters to complicate things even further trains with carried the time of the city where they began their journey so I was going to Geneva powers on hold when a sense that's where I started we're going the other direction from Geneva to Paris I beyond you need to talk as you began to have more and more train lines and more and more times located at that entered it became a nightmare of confusion the need to coordinate clock over great distances became a huge issue actually when the cities were connected by a single track here's where the modern story of begin as the need for synchronized clock ever more critical a young physicist Albert Einstein took a job top in Bern Switzerland it was a ring side seat to all of the great inventions of the time the package showed how new and exciting ways to synchronize clocks with exchange of telegraph signals hawks were synchronized by radio waves all made the synchronization of time and what time was and how it was measured something immediately important exciting for I Einstein with soon shake up the world with the radical insight the nature of time and these mechanical device provided unexpected inspiration Einstein realized that these attempts to prize clocks they were much more than merely creative inventions steady realize that they were revealing a date crack not understanding time itself most people view time in a pretty simple straightforward way time takes the same for everyone everywhere it's a human sense picture established by the father of modern science Isaac Newton time for Isaac written something that is an immutable property of the universe time always changes at the same rate time just goes along and there's really nothing we can do about sensible as Newton's picture of time may seem Einstein realized it wasn't right n't he discovered that time could run at different rates strange as it sounds this means that time for me may not be the same as time for you Einstein's discovery smack Newton's conception of reality I think there's a time is not just a label on the whole universe time is experienced individually I think it was a much much richer picture where everybody has their own private time which ones did their own private rates there isn't time in the sense of a universal tictoc there were times Einstein came to the shocking revelation 5 uncovering a hidden connection space and time Einstein figured out is that this not only tween motion through space in the past time roughly speaking one the other see how this works let's take a little ride nnova right now heading the north the mouse and all my motion in the north where direction but now turn different northwest still going 60 miles an hour but I'm not make as much progress toward the north as I was a minute ago I northward has been diverted or shared with my westward motion Einstein realized that hi our link what's the same way North and west are mmhm with this surprising in Einstein would overthrow the since idea time takes the same for everyone he here's what I mean that time say that I'm not moving at all but I am I may not be moving through space but I am moving through time I mean after all I want to just a time ticking and taking and as long as I'm standing still that is not moving through space Einstein said that all of my motion through time but look what happens I walked for that guy we've exaggerated but because I'm now in motion we'll proceed my what's king slower that's because from his perspective some of my previous motion through time being diverted into my motion space and it's not just my watch if we really exaggerate the effect he's perceived all my movements my voice everything about me slowing down and now that I've stopped moving time to watch is once again agrees this was Einstein's key insight that motion through space effects the passage time it's mind blowing that you and I will not agree on measurements time isn't time separate from us and why should my Mr time and on how I am moving her you're moving but to make any sense time it's it's running more slowly for the per it's moving that's amazing known one I hope for Einstein ever imagine it happened that was you make the Einstein so why don't we ever see in everyday life well at the slow speeds we moved here on earth motions impact and time is so tiny don't experience it all but the effect real can be measured to do this all you need are Cup clocks and a jet airplane this experiment was carried out 71 when scientists flew an atomic clocks around the world and they compared it to one on the ground Einstein predicted 2 clocks no longer agree they deferred by only a few 0 billionths of a second but that was very real proof motions affect past time Einstein's theory has been tested Canada Canada and all hangs together it really forms the basis for the way we understand much in the way nature works these effects which used to be considered to have secure in my smaller marrying your face with today's technology with the discovery of this unexpected link between space and time Einstein realized that the 2 could no longer be fond of a separate thing instead space and time are used to gather and what came to be called based nice thing unified the idea of space with the idea of time it is 4 dimensional structure called space time and this fusion of space and time would lead Einstein to perhaps the most mind bending realization of all sharp difference we see past present and future may only be an illusion nnst in our data day live we experience time as a continuous flow but it can also be useful to think of time as a series of snapshots war moments and everything that happened can be thought of as the unfolding of moment after a moment how after a moment we picture all moments lined up every moment here on earth every moment of earth orbiting the sun and every moment throughout the entire universe we would see every event that has ever happened or will ever have every location in space and each and every moment in time from birth of our universe the Big Bang 14000000000 years ago to the formation of starts in the Milky Way galaxy to the creation of her 4.5000000000 years ago to time of the dinosaurs 2 events happening on earth today my me working in my office thinking about space time like this that Einstein to overturn our everyday picture of past present and future if to get a feel for this you have to think about the seemingly simple concept of now for me a list of things that I consider to be happening right now might include the tick of new I my office clock my cat and just now jumping from the window sill things happening far away like pigeon in Venice taking flight at this very moment and media or just now hitting the moon explosion of a star far reaches of the universe these and all other events that I think are happening at the same moment in time but in different regions of our universe make up what I intuitively think up has now you can picture them is lying on a single slice of space time let's call it and now slice common sense would say that you I everyone else will agree on what what exists right now moment after moment after a moment that is we would all agree on what lies and they give them now place Einstein showed that Rangeley when you take motion into Hamann sense picture of time goes out the window you see what I mean think of space time as a loaf of bread Einstein realizing just as there are different ways to Carlos bread and individual slices there are different ways to cut space time into individuals now slice that is because in motion facts the passage of time someone who's moving will have a different conception of what's happening right now so they'll cut below into different now slices they're slices will be at a different angle that person who's moving will will tilts the night will be carving out the slices and an angle they won't be parallel to my slices of time to get a feel for the bizarre effect this can happen imagine nearly here in a galaxy 10000000000 light years from earth in way over there on earth the guy the gas gauge now if the tour sitting still not moving in relation to one another clocks tick off times so they share name now slices it cuts right across the low watch what happens if the alien hopped on his bike and rides directly away from earth since motion slows the passage of time yeah clocks no longer take off time same rate and if their clocks no longer agree they're now slices no longer agree either the aliens now slice cut through the love differently it's angles for the past since the alien is biking at a leisurely pace his slices angle to the past by only a minuscule amount but across such a vast distance that tiny angle results in a huge difference time so what the alien would find on angled now slick what he considers is happening right now on earth no longer I who is our friend at the gas station or even 40 years earlier when our friend was a baby amazing the aliens now slice has swept back through 200 years of earth history and now includes event that we consider part a distant past why he told finishing the fifth symphony even a relatively slow speed we can have vacuum tremendous disagreements on our labeling of now happens at the same time but if we're spread out far enough in space and if that's not strange enough the direction you move makes a difference to watch what happens when the alien turns around and bikes toward her the aliens knew now slow angled toward the future and so it includes event that won't happen on earth 200 years perhaps our friends great great great granddaughter teleporting from Paris to New York once we know that your now can be what I consider the past or your now can be what I consider the future and your now it's every bit as valid as mine now then we learned that the past must be real the future must be real they could be your now that means past present future all equally real they all exist you believe the laws of physics with just as much in reality to the future in the past is there is to the present moment the past is not gone in the future isn't nonexistent past the future and the present all existing in exactly the same way just as we think of all of space as being out there we should think of all of time is being out there too everything that has ever happened or will happen it all exists from Leonardo da Vinci laying the final brush stroke on the Mona Lisa to the signing of the declaration of independence your first day at school 2 events that from our perspective are yet to happen like the first humans landing on Mars with this bold insight Einstein shattered one of the most basic concepts of how we experience time the distinction between past present and future he once said only an illusion however persistent but if every moment in time already exists then how do we explain the very real feeling that time like this river seems and mostly rush forward well maybe we've been deceased time does not for perhaps the river of time is more like a frozen river every moment forever locked in place the most vivid example about the way the world is do with this flow of time physics does radical to this everyday X. our entire expanse of time is constantly in the present and all we ever grasp is that instant moment there's nothing in the laws of his the other night view points and it feels like things are changing just the way an entire movie relive celluloid all moments of already exists to the difference is that in the movies Jack your life up for selects each dream as it goes by but the laws of physics there's no evidence of something like a projector light that selects one moment over another our brains may create this impression in reality what we all experience as flow of time really may be nothing more than an illusion but if time like this frozen river is not all of time is out there is it possible to travel to future for the past yeah and if we could time travel would it be anything like what we imagine 23 guys into a world that is time revelers summing up again brought death me too anywhere we want to attempt no one outside of Hollywood working yeah pricing we time travel might be possible morning like 24 to blacklisting this next one one way to travel through time is to make use strange feature of gravity the familiar force that it's our feet planted to the ground can have a profound impact on time I yeah see you later much so well eerie shit wrath motion time see if gravity can pull one time slowing its past WNED the stronger the gravitate Paul the more time slows here on earth effect is small to notice but still very real care to someone living on Florida skyscraper someone living on the bottom spirits this time lapsing a little slower because gravity is just a bit stronger closer to the ground but if you could travel to a black hole the effect of gravity on time would be here formed when large stars collapse in on the black holes have immense gravity whole millions even billions of times stronger than the earth's if someone wants to travel close to a black hole they see time for you slow down dramatically you near the will appear to Fran far away to be moving slowly hawking slowly biologically aging slowly to them here's our and while for you it might be minutes so depending on the black hole sun plus I get if I spend an hour to an orbit earth I will have to travel earth the answer long time no see time travel becomes you think I'm like a so when I return I find myself in the future everyone else will have H. fit 2 years but me Ave it's only a couple of hours now try and travel to the future is one thing but what about time travel to the past well that might be possible to using something predicted by Einstein's equations known as a worm hole nnova more laws exist they would be kind of like short cut space time Thomas that would make not just one place with another but also one moment with another a worm hole connects one part space time to another pardon space time which is at an earlier time NCCU sort of subway system through time so now I want to go back it myself beginning of this program if a worm hole connected here and there all I need to do through I back well that would be kind of weird but the real problem with time travel to the past is that things would get pretty can pretty quickly I mean imagine I would change something about my past like preventing my parents for me that mean I'd never be born if you do travel to the things that we know are true about the they already have so if you go back kill who you thought were your grad with your grandpa that must've been some other guy you thought was your grandfather and everything must some beautifully self consistent even if it's in a twisted way and if you can travel to the past why haven't we been overrun by tourists from the future I mean think about it we haven't seen any intrepid time travelers popping into and out of our world knows least most people don't think we have so it's probably safe to assume that time travel to the past just isn't possible at least not yet but since the map hasn't yet ruled it out we can't dismiss time travel to the past entirely so it's not at all clear that could ever be cool reality but at least in principle it doesn't seem to be for a bit my guess is that it's impossible but it's striking that we still haven't been able to rigorously prove that well it seems likely Pat reach what about the comment where everyday experience time itself seems to move in only one direction for the future we call this the arrow of time the arrow of time is probably the most blatant fact diversity live that we don't completely understand why we live in a universe it has a direction albeit is a mystery this is not true of space space I can go from New York to Chicago and then I can change my mind and go toggle to New York so there is a one way aspect that we don't understand at a fundamental level why does Nickelback what is even leann that time goes forward from the pack in the future so what can where the why do we only see it then fold in one direction why don't we ever see them happen in reverse order well it must be the laws of physics meat surely general how something like this tax I well they do the laws of physics are the mathematical equations we use to describe everything Adams to this world galaxies they've been devising confirmed through centuries observation and experiment but surprisingly there's nothing in the laws of physics that says events half to one full through the familiar sequence we called forward in time according to these equations events could just as well unfold in reverse order most of the questions we use I let me see the universe around us don't have an arrow of time attached their equations that works equally well moving forward in time movie Packers there's this contradiction between the physics it seems fundamentally reversible and so much of our life that seems irreversible though it flies in the face of everyday experience the laws of physics actually say bizarre things like these are possible but how could this be well the answer is not as far fetched as you might think why we all know what we'll have drop this glass of wine now the idea that this mass it somehow verse itself and form back into a solid glass filled with wine seems absurd but according to the laws of physics this can happen all I need to do is reversible lost these everything every piece of glass every drop of wine every molecule Ndola glass table in air just reverse all their velocities and while I I it's so if the laws of care about or uncheck why don't we ever see them and shatter how can we square the laws of physics weather everyday experience something must be missing an understanding but what what's responsible for the arrow of time like many good mystery this one leads us to a graveyard search for clues in Vienna near the final resting places the Beethoven Brahms Q. Burton Strauss his nineteenth century Austrian this is Ludwig Boltzmann tombstone etched on top is an elegant equation else it was K. long he'll be it's the mathematical formulation of a powerful concept known as entropy entropy is a measure thing that we're all familiar with this mortar or randomness and it's an important idea because there's a tendency if everything in the universe to move from order 2 disorder here's a way to get a feel for the idea take my book all 569 pages of it it's very order with the first page followed by the second followed by the third and so on but now let's tear the pages out and let entropy go to work as you can see the pages become buried this order and the reason is simple there is only one way for the land in order but a huge number of ways for them to out of order and so it's much more likely that the land all mass this is what we experience in our daily lives things move for order I just wonder in this case from I need to order book pages that are randomly scattered everywhere we look we see examples of or just order creasing would time in a breaks and splatter nice lose their quarterly shape as they melt to water billowing smoke becomes increasingly dis order ordered states come disorders states and that appears to be perhaps direction of an arrow of time we see sort of degrees of messy a measure of disorder tends to increase in one direction of time so that from also begins to create an arc of time so maybe this is the answer maybe the arrow of time come from the tendency of nature to a VOB toward ever greater this order this sure seems like progress but there's just one small problem with this reasoning because the laws of physics don't distinguish between the future and the past entropy should increase not only toward the future but also toward the past and that makes no sense that's like saying that entry should increase either direction we look we can look backwards in time and it should increase we could look forward to time it should increase that would mean the pages of my book in the past B. disorder and then come together to form the neat order book in my hand and when's the last time you saw something like that happen how could our everyday experience be so at odds with the laws of physics there must be a piece in the puzzle that's missing if we're sure the past had to be more order Stuart disorder as the equations of tell us is there some else signs the laws of physics might explain well think of hitting a baseball laws of physics can help you predict where will land but those laws are not the only things you need run the film backwards see that you also need condition how hard the ball was hit similarly if the laws of physics can give us an explanation for the arrow of time maybe we need to look further to the initial conditions of the universe that brings our attention back to the Big Bang if the history of the universe were like a movie and you ran it backward you'd see an increase in order to further back in time you go gradually today's universe with billions of galaxies clumped year in there turn back into clouds of gas and dust as everything contracts these clouds of gas and dust move closer and closer to me very so if you get far enough into the past they're squeezed into a smaller and smaller Bali now come to the place where the box finally stops if this represents all of space at each moment of time and we can see there simply isn't any more space and time before this single mom so the ultimate source of water of low entropy must be the very beginning of the universe the Big Bang the Big Bang highly ordered state probably the most ordered then all of so everything has come been an increase disorder with the Big Bang gives us is a reason why the universe different forward moreover when we go back to early times universities look not just different Hey highly work why was the entropy low we don't know but at least we know that there was a point that the universe began in when the entropy was slow sort best understand that big banks what's at the hour of time have you can picture this is something like a wind up clock just as the stored energy tightly wound clock is released as an online the universe has been unwinding since the big day becoming ever more disorder our universe started out in a very unusually orderly state and that's ultimately responsible for the fact that time seems to have a direction we don't yet know why our universe began and Heidi ordered state fact is this means that every time the glass shattered it's actually carrying forward something set motion billions of years ago the glass breaks but doesn't unbreak because it's following the natural drive order to this order that began with the big day you only ever move from the past to the future and everything we see around us all the changes from the formation of stars to our lives is all little at the phenomena surfers riding the wave of increasing disorganization in the universe finds a different past and so then Big Bang have stamped the arrow of time in our universe everything that's happened since may simply be the drive toward ever greater disorder again that that 13.7000000000 years ago but if time had a beginning and this order is always increasing does that mean that time will have an end what will the universe means a lot in the far far future recent discoveries are shedding new light on the the explosive force big space now result reverse the still expanding today until recently most people thought that expansion must be slowing down that is we thought of space filled with galaxies as kind of like a car traveling down a highway early when I another sound of the car if the driver takes his foot off the gas car gradually slows down similarly we thought the universe was expanding but at a slower and slower rate pricing late dramas found the expansion of the universe is not slowing down with xcelerated it's as if some not off the gas stepping causing it group Lister kick in that's making the expansion of the universe up more and more our special keep accelerating if you not slow down it goes against everything we kind of this has some very strange in cations future because the expansion of our universe if salary far future after 100000000 years or so all of the other distant galaxies will approval out of sight from it will appear as if our galaxy I we're in the middle nothing a surprising outcome is that our descendants will be a terrible loss light from distant galaxies trouble so far to reach us that when we look out at them actually looking back in time so in the far future when those distinct galaxies are no longer visible strong numbers you find that the past cosmic turn is out of reach and as for the end of time one theory suggests that eventually black holes will dominate because males then they too will evaporate leaving nothing but random particles drifting space in a far distant future where everything Kate and everything's just sort of smooth it out there's no change and without change we don't really have a clear notion of the you don't have a fence happening then it's hard to see how you would even imagine but there was time can't even tell which direction 5 times forward in which is backward in a very real sense time itself in one day lose its meaning uhhuh about 350 years ago Isaac Newton who was one of the first to about time scientifically wrote that he did not need to define time because it is something well known to all but trying to square outbreak parents of time with the true nature of time we've been forced to challenge some of our most deeply held beliefs we now know that in every event goes from order to this border there's a link Big Bang itself giving us the arrow of time the common sense notion one through time governs universe has given way to a picture in which time is different for each everyone of us and the flow of time seems to us real as the flow of the river may be nothing more than an illusion past present and future make all exists on equal footing our everyday experience of time will always exert a powerful influence we will continue to imagine that time is universal past is gone is yet to be but because of our scientific discoveries we can also look beyond XP and recognize that we are part of a far richer and far stranger reality major funding for Nova is provided by David the and discovering new now 18 and my and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your PBS station from viewers like you major funding for the fabric of the cosmos is provided by the National Science Foundation where discoveries begin and the Alfred P. Sloan foundation pouring original research in public understand technology engineering after tional fun it's provided by the Arthur vining Davis found dedicated to strengthening America's through educate the U. S. department of energy's office science and George de yeah nnst I we yeah I nnst //
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