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"2014-07-28 20:17:27"
"Why the French & Indian War is Worth Remembering" by Dr. Fred Anderson
\\well thank you all for coming and I I can't tell you how I hate that kind of build up because I have been introduced this entertaining speaker means that the only thing I can pop point you we then there with me and I'll try at least not to not to want to long Americans are good very good and remembering our wars or more properly moments in passages from our wars some of those moments returning to battle cries slogans and oddly enough those are there slogans that commemorate defeats so we remember the Alamo we remember the main we remember Pearl Harbor and now we remember 911 white writerly choose needs to remember well each is in some way the results and the enemy's treacherous or immoral action slaughter of surrender prisoners at the Alamo suppose murders sleeping sailors aboard the name a sneak attack on Pearl Harbor the horrifying sight of airliners turn into bombs and flown into office buildings on 9/11/2001 we remember these horrible events because we understand each of them is an attack not just on America but on American values and principally and attacks on liberty we remember them to motivate soldiers to fight to remind ourselves that not to allow enemies of freedom to succeed because we failed to take seriously the defense and the values we treasure we do it remember them to justify taking revenge on people we knew to be the enemies of freedom we remember them in other words less is a part of the narrative of the wars they occur again that is powerful symbols in the values that we hold most dear I remember them as ways to remind ourselves of what we stand for you're mine remember them to remind ourselves of what sacrifice me just so that passengers America's long rich military history and we call that we recall and they comport best with the defense of freedom our victories or victorious Morris and in this case we remember them by building monuments to this is one memorials that define the center line of the mall in Washington DC our monuments to America's 3 great Morris for freedom the Washington memorial which commemorates the establishment of American liberty independence in the revolution the Lincoln Memorial which recalls the expansion of liberty to all Americans irrespective of race in the civil war and finally the defense of America and the American defense of liberty around the world in World War 2 the memorial of which sits squarely between the others at the head of the reflecting pool these remind us that Americans will bear any burden pay any price to defend liberty the central value in our political culture these wars in important ways tell us who we are tell us what we mean to ourselves but of course these public memories important as they are do less than full justice to the complexity and America's military heritage and I'm here tonight to argue that we have as much to learn about who we are as a nation from the wars that have no monuments on the mall the imperial wars that fit so awkwardly with a national grand narrative that privileges so powerfully 3 great Moore's for freedom these imperial wars are those who remember with a bit of a shiner because they seem to be a lesson on the finding or defending freedom that expanding power expanding dominion over territories and people who do not embrace us as liberators but rather resist us as they would be conquerors in particular Imperial War I want to talk about tonight is of course the 7 years war the French and Indian war the argument I want to make is that an understanding that more as a part of our larger national merit in particularly in appreciating its connections with the American revolution that followed Dayton barely a dozen years after it we can learn something about the complexity of the relationship between liberty and M. higher in American history as a whole the first thing we need to bear in mind about the 7 years war it's it's extraordinary scope it was by far the largest and most expensive and most destructive war in Europe between the 30 years war which ended the 1648 and polling on a course in the early nineteenth century in an age of indecisive more fair when the most common conclusion to any military conflict wasn't mutual financial exhaustion of the belligerent powers in the piece that restoring the status quo ante bellum for eventuated in the transfer of fortress or 2 along the frontier the 7 years war ended with the extinction of French imperial power in North America and the sharp curtailment of French influence on the Indian subcontinent moreover the belligerents content and not just in Europe and North America but everywhere from the West Indies to West Africa to the Philippine islands no name the war has ever hand in his hand me it succeeded in communicating its immensity and its importance Winston Churchill probably came closer than anyone else in his sister and English speaking peoples when he called it the first World War noting that unlike previous Anglo French words this time he said the prize would be something more than a rearrangement of frontiers and redistribution for persons in sugar I that prize of course was the eastern half of North America in the war in which Britain and one I want it raised with seismic force and invited the midpoint of the 500 years of American history between the earliest contacts between Europeans and and the Americas and our present day on the far side of that watershed that enormous thrust student needs to American history there's the 7 years war on the far side of that watershed lies a world in which native peoples controlled all or most of North America took part in balance of power politics it influenced every significant historical outcome on our side we find a different world much needed power waned as the United States grew into the largest Republic and the most powerful empire in the world seeing what North America looked like on the far side of the 7 years war illuminates the changes that the war Ross and it's lasting influences now that the classic narrative of American history which still informs public if not necessarily scholarly discourse treats the colonial period as a tale of maturation and begins with the founding in Virginia Massachusetts progresses through the growth and for subsequent colonies and culminates in crises that presaged the revolution this narrative implies that the demographic momentum of the British colonies in the emergence of a new American character need independence and expansion of Anglo American settlement across the continent inevitable events like the conquest of new Netherlands or the destruction of France there for well they might be interesting in their particulars are hardly central to the story that is driven essentially by population expansion economic growth and the flowering of democracy Indians regrettably in this standard telling seem to be fated to vanish beneath an Anglo American time but another understanding emerges if we regard the 7 years war is an advanced central to American history an event that reverses the dramatic polarities of this familiar story and the signs significant historical agency 10000000 people in this scheme the colonial period has 2 faces during the first which lasted the whole of the sixteenth century Indian nations retained control of everything from the Atlantic to the Pacific north of the Rio Grande natives set the terms of interaction with Europeans and determined all significant out the second phase begins when Spanish French Dutch and English colonists around the beginning of the seventeenth century establish permanent settlement beach heads in North America inaugurating 150 year period of colonization conflict by changing the conditions of American life into critical ways first permanent colonies altered in disease environments and they're needed vicinities second they radically increase the volume of train hoods that flowed into native communities the results of this triple transformation are manifold powerful and you know during epidemic diseases smallpox inferior measles playing others there was a series of deadly blows the native populations ironically it was the Indians and the nearest European settlement you sustained earliest and worst demographic losses and they too had privileged access to trade goods and weapons which gave them even as they suffered from the blows of apprehending disease sure Jim vantage's over more remote groups who would have to suffer from academics as warriors rated them for captives that they needed to prop up their collapsing populations they also acquired felts strange for European weapons and wars among native peoples grew ever more deadly and ever more commercialized in this context the 5 nations of the Iroquois in what is now upstate New York grew powerful in the decades in several decades in the seventeenth century I traded with the Dutch at fort orange are already am trading from muskets and then reading for captives from Canada to the Ohio valley the Carolinas Eric white power room enormously during the seventeenth century but it had limits and people who were driven west and north by Iroquois attacks ultimately forged alliances with the French who assumed the role of father among them and say peacemaker and give her and gifts that the father the French father anon tales they call him supplied them with arms encourage them to strike back Iroquois were already under pressure when England season Netherlands 1664 this was a crucial moment because it deprives them of essential ally the only minute arm them in and put in the Dutch place an English ally which was a very poor one militarily and which had little interest time because of that shape an English foreign policy in opposing France as a result Eric with fortune spiral downward until the beginning of the eighteenth century when a battered 5 nations finally clawed its way back from the brink of extinction Franken defeat by assuming a position of neutrality between the French and British empires in North America neutrality created a new kind of power for the Iroquois because it enables them to plant contending empires off against each other an acting therefore is a kind of balance wheel in the wars that Britain and France fought during the first half of the eighteenth century the 17 thirties half a dozen Indian groups is to Mississippi Farrakhan's creeks talk doesn't Mackey's in various are gone wins as well as the Arab women we're engaging in balance of power politics and rendering the maneuverings in the French British and Spanish empire's against each other indecisive while it lasted this fragile balance of power permitted Indian and European groups to develop along parallel paths when that period imbalanced competition ended however DataPower declined no war in North America after 1763 was ever decided by union intervention or Indian diplomacy whereas most of conflicts prior to that he had been the 7 years war was what brought about that shift opening a 4 decade long overture to a third American age which lasted from the mid eighteenth century the beginning of the twentieth century religion and hires a revolutions the shift was not immediately perceptible however for every stage of the 7 years war shown the importance of media power it originated in Iroquois and war that is originated in Iroquois miscalculations concerning the Ohio valley and its peoples which allowed agents of French and British empires to confront each over other over control of the forks of the Ohio site in modern history in the key the trans Appalachian west the fortunes of war in North America and flow during the war according to the engagement or withdrawal and Indian allies who acted according to their own calculations of living so the war began it's open hostilities began in 1755 with Delaware Shawnee and mingle warriors from the upper Ohio valley joining new France and its traditional native allies in attacking the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers the decision of those Indians on the Ohio to abandon the French and to make a separate peace in 1758 enable the Anglo American forces to seize the forks bringing peace at last after for Moodle years to the Virginia Pennsylvania back country that in turn persuaded the Iroquois league to shift its stance from neutrality to an open alliance with the British that might turn permitted the American the Anglo Americans to take fort Niagara on the Great Lakes in 1759 in 1760 Iroquois diplomats preceding Jeffrey Amherst invading army persuaded the last Indian allies indifference to make peace thereby allowing them bloodless conquest and the French and Montreal and bring the war to an end 1760 in North America recognizing the central role of Indians in this story does not deny the importance of French and British interventions in North America or diminish the critical part that was played by the mobilization of colonial population those 2 were crucial those 2 were part of the worldwide extension the fighting Britain's great war minister William Pitt knew that the British Army was too small to confront the forces of France much less the forces of France and Russia and Austria on the battlefields of Europe therefore he used the navy and the army together to attack France's most vulnerable point its colonies well subsidizing Prussia in smaller German states to do most of the fighting against France France's allies in Europe similarly for late fifteenth 1757 0 pick promised to reimburse north America's colonial governments for raising troops to help attack Canada in the French West Indies that's treating the colonies less as subordinates and his allies this policy plane into the perception of Anglo Americans in North America ... on themselves as partners in the empire it stimulated an enormous thrust in another surge in patriotism British patriotism among the American colonists from 1758 to 1716 and numbers of Anglo Americans voluntarily participated in the war against France as soldiers sailors privateers camp followers civilian contractors approximately equal the entire population of my friends it was a mobilization of manpower far beyond anything that happened before in North America for me on anything that would happen even I'm to most in the American revolution itself this enthusiasm last and in fact the on the conquest of difference Montreal fell in 1760 and Britain's colonists continued to enlist as him his 61 in 76 2 in numbers that reflected their belief that they were full partners in the creation of a new British Empire greatest empire since Spain belatedly entered the war is France's outlines and 62 American provincial troops in semen joined with red coats and Jack tars and attacking Cuba with an intensity of success I persuaded the Spanish crown it's New World empire was at risk and product quickly to make peace these extraordinary exertions need for decisive outcome but one that came at a fantastic cost and that in turn had an impact that extended far beyond the piece in Paris and so 3 paradoxically the war seemed to damage the vanquished less than a Victor despite the loss of its north American possessions in the destruction of virtually its entire navy France recovered with remarkable speed because the British chose to return the most profitable colonies they'd taken from the French that is the west in the insurance and then to retain Canada which it never did anything the sinkhole public funds French economic growth resumed at approximately pre war rates in 1764 because the French crown and fun than are defined in this following rearmament program by borrowing there was no text here's your whole in Haiti revealed that her and sweet using state of the art designs the army re equipped with the most advanced artillery of its day underwent reforms in the recruitment training and discipline ministration and emerge stronger in and then it had been since the age of Louis the fourteenth these measures were intended to turn the tables on Britain and the next war and that was exactly what France did when intervened in the struggle for American independence in 1778 the expense of that revenge against Britain temperament suite was somewhat but it was only in 1789 that the king and his ministers in France learn how steep the reckoning would be Spain's loss thought of Havana fall in 1762 following Spain's belated entry as a French ally suggests an enormous weaknesses in Spanish empire in the New World and provoked a series of reforms that in fact improve the colonial trading economy don't new connections between colonial elites in the crown and reinvigorated name higher then a bit tiring for defeat to an extraordinary degree between 1763 and 1810 the population of Spain's American colonies double Mexico's standard of living reached the highest levels it hadn't seen since the conquest and the highest level it would seem until 1900 this renaissance lasted until the wars in Napoleon creating the protector attracted crisis in Spain that ultimately led to Latin American independence movements in the 1920 force Britain and its American colonies the war on the other hand indeed surprisingly and let me Pitts prodigal expenditures in the expansion of the empire to take in the eastern half of North America creating enormous problems of public finance territorial control the virtual doubling of the British national debt between 1756 and 763 Chris demands for retrenchment even as administrators tried to impose economy coherence and efficiency on imperial administration that scene suddenly haphazard and ineffective the goal of these ministers was both to control the 300000 or so Canadians in Indians in the war in former enemies at the war and I should into the empire but also intended to make the north American colonists cooperate with each other to take direction from London and help pay for their own defense this of course and not go down well with the colonists written regarding themselves as partners in the empire and he's had been treating his subordinates who hated being told what to do but what was most pernicious effect was to persuade my whole persuade the British ministry the Britain was in fact militarily unassailable the extraordinary battlefield triumphs of 17582762 name has seen a reasonable inference and that made it all the more perilous insofar as the conviction that Britain had grown too great sales contributed to the peremptory tone that imperial officials talk with the colonists fully expected reform insofar as a conviction him in and of invincibility informed that tone that Tony came the very nemesis an empire Britain's American colonies as I said won't imagined they were members of the trans oceanic political community bound together by common allegiance interests laws and rights imperial administrators found censored even before the war they proposed reforms that would have made it clear to the colonists that they were anything but legal and constitutional equals of subjects and live in England but the war had put those reforms on hold and then fits policies of reimbursement and autonomy had encouraged the calls to understand the empire as the voluntary union of British patriots which they always wanted it to me therefore when the empire's administrators moved to reassert a hierarchical conception of empire in the aftermath of the war Thomas was shocked an outraged in I'm going fury of colonial protests in the 17 sixties misspoke intense feeling and betrayal rooted in the recent experience of victory what happened the colonists wondered to the patriotic union that had won the war why are we suddenly being treated as if we were conquered instead a fellow conquers in the 12 years between the peace of Paris in the battles of Lexington and Concord calling us clarifying their beliefs using language sufficiently inclusive to build a broad base of support proposition to parliamentary inviolate Thora he in time those nineties became the basis for a national political culture but between 7 in 63 and 1775 those Republican ideas were not yet revolutionary principles rather what took place in those post war years was a protracted increasingly acrimonious debate over the character of the empire a wrangle over who belong to it and on what terms a debate over the principles by which the empire should function the dispute became so bitter precisely because the colonists believed in British patriots would prove their loyalty by taking part in the great war for the empire they love the dispute became so bitter not because the colonists heeded the British but because they love the British Empire it was themselves that they were fighting the irony here is intense and there's examination the most decisive victory in a European conflict since the end of the 0 years war quickly became a terrible thing for the Victor or as the defeated powers suddenly recovered soon recovered promise purpose and momentum it would seem clear that a decisive victory therefore can carry enormous dangers for the winner and least insofar as victory can foster the illusion that military power is less limited then in fact it is Britain emerged from wars most powerful nation in this day only to find that the rest of Europe here and it enough to align against it Britain undertook reforms to unite it's colonists and any Britain undertook reforms and its colonies only to unite the colonists in opposition to imperial authority finally when Britain used the military in my opinion that the minister's assume was unassailable to compel their rebellious columnist cement they turned resistance into insurrection an insurrection enter revolution one of the Indians for them the war's effects for transforming and tragic by eliminating the French empire from North America inviting the continent now the center between Britain and Spain the peace of Paris made it impossible for the Iroquois in the other native groups who had played one empire off against another to preserve their autonomy and to manipulate the balance of power a former native allies in France came to understand the tenuous Nissen their new positions soon after the war when the British high command begin to treat them as if they and not the French had been conquered because of course the Indians never work they simply need peace they were never conquered during the 7 years war but in the aftermath of the war economizing British hi commandment Jeffrey Amherst suspend the diplomatic gift giving which is a kind of massive subsidy of I'm given to Indian allies in in various forms and clothing and weapons and food ... and and and suspension of that and program the subsidy or gift giving precipitated a Xun's Pan Am here insurrection we call upon yes more what the Indians and him and do what the trench teach the British how an empire should behave toward its allies by driving a British troops from their interior forts and launching raids that once again emperor on the frontier in his refugee crisis the Indians compound the British to resume their offensive policies and didn't touch them today it is known as wish they would I asked what was in that sense and then the in victory yeah by 1764 when the various native groups women in her belly against Britain began to make peace I then native leaders understood that their ability to carry on a war was strictly limited because now they had no competitor empire aren't supplying him and now they simply could not sustain resistance once they had run out of gunpowder land and spare parts for their muskets actually the only the only placing debt were from other European powers meanwhile the bloodshed in a captive taking of the war and death a Pontiac's rebellion further deranged relations between Indians and Anglo American colonists in places like Pennsylvania indeed in Pennsylvania a place that had never known an Indian were before 1755 the indiscriminate hatred of Indians became something like majority sentiment I 1764 when most into groups siding with the British and the revolution that followed Indian hating only became more prevalent by 1783 Americans were willing to allow neither Indians nor X. loyalists with whom the Indians and cooperate in any place in the new Republic except on terms dictated by the Victor Indians in the eastern United States of course continued to resist expansion of white settlement after the revolution but they can only do so if the British in Canada armed supplied them and once again the British proved in constant allies when they withdrew support for Indian resistance in the Ohio country in 1794 the Miamis Delawares Shawnees and others would stood off the Americans for more than a decade after the American Revolutionary War with enormous success suddenly found that they could no longer resist in any peace within a year those Indians were compelled seen most of what became the state of Ohio to the US government similarly pen in hand resistance animated by the religious visions intense but how honored diplomacy at the concert flourished before the war of 1812 when it suited the British to provide them with arms and supplies at the end of that war British support right up forever that's my 1820 Indian resistance east of the Mississippi was all but a memory Andrew Jackson who made his military reputation first by fighting Indians in the battle of horseshoe bend the battle that ended in the massacre was well on his way to the White House now in the familiar narrative of the early national here in the fate of native peoples and make it clear that Indians were acted upon more than they were actors that's because that narrative really begins with a revolution consciousness and the Indians as losers stems from the faded Indians in the aftermath of the revolutionary war but if we include the 7 years war historian the founding the United States we've seen of the Indians were neither in doom Gramm then nor noble savages we see them as human beings can behave themselves with a cannon is and the fallibility there was equal to that of the Europeans we see them as and then women who act and was just as much courage and brutality and calculated self interest as the hero American colonists did in seeking security and hoping to profit from a competition between empires native groups took actions that led to a world altering war in the 7 years war which in turn produced the revolutionary changes and move them from the center of the American story to its margins no irony can be more complete in no outcome I would submit convened more tragic finally treating the revolution as an unintended consequence I'm an Anglo American quest for empire offers a way to understand the persistence of imperialism in American history we read that rhetoric of the revolution opposition the British Empire in such a way as to convince ourselves that the United States has always been a fundamentally anti imperial nation but this conviction this reading of the revolution makes it impossible for us or at least very difficult to integrate into the larger picture her national development those time 18121846 1899 for example when Americans seem to men bent on conquering other states and peoples and bending them to America's will such an assumption of the anti imperialist fundamentally peaceful nature in American on life makes it difficult to perceive the continuities that unite the colonial era in the early national hero in an area market runs not from empire through revolution to the Republic but rather from empire through revolution to a new and more successful form of empire based on Republican rule in imperial Republican other words capable of dispossessing Mexicans and Indians in their territory in the real belief genuine belief that doing so was to expand the sphere of freedom but the story of the 7 years war encourages us to do in psalm is to imagine that empire has been as central to our national self definition behavior over time is liberty itself has been that entire liberty can indeed be seen as complementary elements in American political culture in American life that empire and liberty are indeed is intimately related has 2 faces of a single point now I'm I'm given other versions of this talking when I had a hand in the past I I'm always shifting at this moment to talk to examine George Washington briefly and Tim look at the implications in this rather different narrative of early American history for understanding of our first president who emerges from it not just as a hero in the revolutionary war and and then present first president United States establishing political institutions and practices that survived in this day but rather in Washington is the founder of an immensely successful American empire the imperial Republic that would more than a half century after his death stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific the Great Lakes the Gulf of Mexico but insofar as this year 2008 March 200 fiftieth anniversary of the decisive here 1758 and the building of forms is Rome and because as you all know Carlisle stands on the trace in that room and wasn't in the sight of one of its principal force instead I want to turn briefly to examine the figure of brigadier general John Forbes the builder of the road man who more than anyone else was responsible for bringing the war on the Pennsylvania Virginia frontier to an end in 1758 first came to Pennsylvania in that year to take command of a province that was in dreadful shape as it had been since 1755 following general undergrad ecstasy on on Gilo since 1755 0 warriors equipped or rather in 1755 native warriors equipped and encouraged by the French and 4 contain rain hammer blows in the colony's frontier radiating panic from farms in Hammonton trading posts until refugees spring east along the roads driving their livestock before them hearing whatever possessions taken Highlander carts and when it ends choking roads heading east and rolling a frontier back to in the 70 miles of Philadelphia itself their accounts of family slain farms late in ashes and women children taken captive further triggered flights and settlements miles distant from any Indian Army by mid 1756 Pennsylvania's outermost white settlements had contracted 2 out of the smallest frontier then fringe that Pennsylvania had seen in a half century reference is crowned in Lancaster York Bethlehem in other towns that Connelly reporting caustic fort Randall for Alan in other posts that the province hastily erected to shore up the frontier against collapse they banded together with their neighbors to for help in dozens of stockades they go with their own 3 long years after that Indian warriors appear like race from the forest to attack and burn farmstead sometimes anything very walls and forced into a bill to protect them before they faded back into the woods they took care to mutilate the corpses of the dead I arranged in protest templo to announce what they had done and can do again and again and again it will contemporaries understand such you access Sam injury that modern analysts recognizes signs of asymmetrical warfare like the okayed it I decker's who attacked the World Trade Center and the Pentagon 9/11/2001 Indian warriors used surprising shocking violence to make up for their lack of numbers terror in turn through their vastly larger less flexible enemy into a panic defense in okay on building forts and waiting to be attacked Pennsylvania's government seemed utterly unable to respond 1755 3757 the only successful military strike and hold harm was one led by Colonel John Armstrong I'm a provincial forces who reigned in the Delaware County containing on the Allegheny 35 miles in the forks a raid that killed that noted warchief captain Jacobson 8/8/1756 and the rain that serves only thereafter to intensify and unit tax on the frontier everywhere east of the of the Ohio this was the military situation and the John forms our next when he arrived in Philadelphia as a brigadier general in April 1758 charge of organizing an expedition that would strike at the root of the problem fort Duquesne force in the higher like many officers the British Army in the eighteenth century it Forbes is a Scott as fortune could be better reckon ambition in pounds sterling and the train is a doctor before he purchased commission is occurring at ensign in the Scots greys regiment in service that Reginald surgeon at age 50 after nearly 3 decades of active service news experienced approval commander who earned the respect of every superior officer whom he served and he was determined above all to avoid the kind of catastrophic defeat to general Braddock and suffered on Monongahela through your for Brad it's great errors forms new and then to scorn Indians Tim for goal indeed offers in reliance on the one hand and he said is marked against Ford came on the other scorning Indians as allies and uniting the scouts he needed to gather intelligence concerning the French and their allies he speed had meant that he had outrun the supporting column that followed him by good 60 miles and was roughly 100 miles from the nearest permanent basis supply fort Cumberland on 7/9/1755 when an Indian in French force half the size it is now swarmed out of 4 New Canaan shoot his command in bits even if it occurring the Braddock order retreat from the nightmare he blundered into he effectively deprive themselves of a place of safety to retreat to Forbes therefore was determined to make his mark across Pennsylvania in the form of what was called a protected advance building an adequate road to carry material in reinforcements foreign and stunning and days March with block houses in a greater distance with a series of forts fort Loudon for little conform Bedford for like an air as bassist which is troops could retreat should they ever suffer a blow like the one that had fallen on general Craddock it's important to forms as the strategy protect and enhance however was his determination to build and utilize alliances with Indians to support his expedition in the center not immediately 16 his initial attempt to recruit Cherokee warriors from an expensive failure slow to understand that they were willing to serve as allies but not to subordinates forms alienated them so completely that they left the army and discussed before the summer ended and ultimately they rebelled against Britain itself in 1759 as a result of this in this fiasco but that's another story this was a setback in 1758 that nearly doubles Forbes's determination to find some other Indian can and then he forged through a remarkable Quaker from Philadelphia emerging in Israel Pemberton Pemberton had been a leading member of the Pennsylvania legislature but in withdrawing from politics and 7056 because had he not done so he would have had to participate in a war then violated his pacifist immediately thereafter Teman found in an organization called the friendly association for maintaining and preserving peace with the Indians back as it measures and this was an age before acronyms if you if you if you parts that when I would be for people which I when we never imagined they would say we start with the acronym and then work back to me disastrous their results the friendly association for regaining in preserving peace when the Indians by Pacific measures was actually at what we would call an NGO a non governmental organization I'm by which he sought to open a diplomatic channel to the French allied Indians on the Ohio in hope of encouraging them to make peace Pemberton a partner in diplomacy and that was genius com chief of the small Delaware band that lived at the force of the Susquehanna near 40 Dustin terribly far from where we are right now did you ask I had been on the war path until 1757 when with Pemberton's encouragement he had made peace in return for a need and a promise and on the Pennsylvania government's part to provide these people with a permanent reservation he in Pemberton work afterwards and thereafter to contact delivers on the Ohio northern away from the fringe Forbes did everything he could to support these negotiations even though doing so put him at odds with the pen family the proprietors of the province and with a variety of powerful British imperial officials and producing William Johnson in New York who believes that Quakers and Indians had no business meddling in the in the diplomacy of the crown he also supporting the mission that is to say reports also supported a mission by another team yes comes in Pemberton's associates a singularly brave Moravian missionary named Christian Frederick post travels in the Ohio to invite the Indians to send representatives to a peace conference with the governors of Pennsylvania New Jersey another royal officials to be held in Houston on the Delaware above Philadelphia in October and semi 15 a post whose wife was Delaware exceeded in persuading the Ohio Delaware's to send their legal chin has become to Easton there is at home promise to try and persuade his people to withdraw from the French alliance if Britain in return would promise not to allow current white settlement me on the Alleghenies in this way the preliminary terms of peace for settled on 10/25/1715 immediately thereafter this goes on and post maternity Ohio to urge the end user to ratify the agreement meanwhile Forbes is expedition continued its advance and deliberate pace extending the road building forts and block how ever further west when the forks so Stalin was his advance across Pennsylvania that the provincial officer among his subordinates who was actually most experienced in frontier war Virginian from Virginia colonel George Washington actually wrote to speaker in the Virginia house of burgesses in September denouncing forms for not using Braddock's own room which in his view what is speed in the attack on for McCain by weeks or months 2 weeks later another reforms is impetuous subordinates major James grant letter 800 man reading force from 4000000 Americans forget Kane hoping to surprise the French and see the fork soon glory for himself for he was still miles to the rear attending to logistical matters did not know of this raid into more than a week after grant had suffered a stunning defeat at the hands of the French Indians on September 14 Forbes exploded anger both at Washington's insubordination which he denounced as no ways like a soldier and it grants folly what you saw was endangering his whole expedition yeah you know grants defeat prove to the fundamental soundness of forms is approach for not withstanding the fact in the third of grants men were killed wounded or captured including grant himself the troops who made it back to fort Lincoln there will soon be equipped reorganized and returned to duty on November 12 the army recovered even more rapidly from the last ditch frame shin Indian attack on the that is a symbol of Portland Forbes knowing that this contaminant postman now making the rounds in the various Ohio Indian villages trying to persuade local leaders to join in the piece ordered his army to March for the force just 3 days later a week after that and doesn't also forks forms in his man critics Splosion its signal that signal that the French and blown up for Kane and retreated at the Alameda for a show in the miles away Forbes took possession of the ruins of forget cane on 11/24/1758 without firing a shot 3 months later he was dead Forbes had in fact been dying by degrees since June when he began to experience violent abdominal pains and dysentery symptoms of what may have been cancer in the stomach by August you can no longer ride indeed could hardly walk for the remainder to campaign had to be carried from place to place on a litter slung between horses in November during the last advanced for decaying he was so weak that is Mandelson little hot with a fireplace in every now for fear that he might otherwise down the toughest encouraging show in as he persisted in the face of mortal illness earned him the universal admiration of his Karl Henry bouquet his second in command commented that all his life he has shown the greatest prunes furnace inability even George Washington still smarting from forms is your view ultimately acknowledged that forms had great merit the Pennsylvania because that's final estimate of him seems warranted as an officer it needs he was quick to discern his phone and useful measures generally soon both at first you but open the information council in command he had to believe without supercilious and a perfectly master in the forms he never hesitated to drop them when the spirit and the more essential parts of the service required most of all Forbes had not hesitated to drop the conventional view that wars can or should be won by force alone in the vast majority of white Pennsylvanians understood the warriors who had laid waste in their frontier as nothing more than savages you deserve to be exterminated form sent out to cultivate contacts with those same Indians and I hope of persuading to make peace when his fellow officers and their superiors dismissed the Quakers who dominated the Pennsylvania legislature before 17 a 6 pack schools and blame them for the carnage on the frontier because they had never attended a militia Forbes made the province's leading Quaker his chief ally in negotiating with any Indians trust in the word of the Delaware chief who said his kinsman on the Ohio can be persuaded to make a separate peace and turned to a pacifist Moravian preacher to carry any offer of peace to the Ohio country when subordinates like Washington person to move more quickly or when grant set out on his own in folly in an attempt to speed the campaign to its conclusion Forbes only move more deliberately because he knew that the time would be necessary if diplomacy where you succeed hand in hand informs changes greatest victory without firing a shot what happened after forms accomplished his mission illustrates the ironies in historical outcomes how do you like to see it he surely would have transferred the vast scope of Britain's victory in the war and gratifying to understand the critical part that the undertaking that the taking of the fort forks played in achieving it it is impossible to imagine however that forms when regarding what followed that triumph as anything the tragic the last thing he intended for his road was that it should become the main Avenue along which white settlers would pour into the west to dispossess unions and their lands but that is precisely when it became make the Pittsburgh the jumping off point for the conquest of the Ohio valley nor can forms of well imagine that Britain's post were attempts to control what's on we settlers and impose fiscal and territorial control on the newly expanded empire would drive the European the American colonists into rebellion and ultimately into revolution in this sense Forbes is accomplishment mark the real turning point of the 7 years war and I think one of the great turning points in American history as a whole his road 13 to his victory was in effect a conduit through which an unstoppable demographic surge of Anglo American and other white settlers moved into the Ohio valley it was a time of settlers to greatly restrained by the words of a treaty too great to be restrained by the proclamation of 1763 and ultimately that determined the fate of the Ohio valley and ultimately that determines the fate of the Indian peoples who inhabited it who wanted nothing more in the end in their own independence so perhaps there is no better time than the present to visit forms road insights of memory then room that its route defines and some of the loveliest country sign in Pennsylvania and then do the nation those who don't retrace his route can acquaint themselves of the life of a man of extraordinary moral courage who indeed an intractable frontier war by building a road to his enemies home and then offering in peace it may be those that travel this road can also discern unit connections between a time of terror but John Forbes Lyndon in the time of terror that we do it may even be that those who contemplate the life of the man I don't this road can find in it cause for hope the troubles in the present day so seemingly intractable may also be susceptible of resolution so John Forbes could have no more fitting memorial in the room that bears his name but we should also remember that history goes on never ends and as always ironic its outcome and I don't want achievements people can claim ... they're always unpredictable unanticipated circumstances that will in fact define the future I we talk about rather spiffy what about products to on this day Charles we so you know survivor well sure I did it in a sense it they'd one officer many of them easily because he's I think my sleep price paid for it I and then and then ultimately you know it result was Paramus high class has a pain reliever and in that has said it was hard because there is a principle lessons you can teach people who live alone and when I think it's a matter of relatively peaceful area and you know we have never had anything worth his name and he had seen was as I am working on is a second century several years our own people who listen to it taught them was radiation burns and and in that response Arab leaders here hole in phases I was only most valuable because was 8 including Israeli air he says related across and Hannah was with how to silence him the orderly I think I think a nation who he is and that has a terrible was in the world a like I say that had been the one thing I I finals so I'm awful about 74 was at its head much of my life studying ... easily greeted which I'm for all the kind of frozen from its no there has been a great and then the real life issues that were I n't she Indian relations and it was tremendous interface course and which has a license papers on ... well into his his fury and he's really only 1890 it's only and Nicholas so is it is a great success story and it had only been in the rise ultimately throughout most of all NDEs it was partly because from live news earlier rally and and released Scott Simon his version NDA also from work generally speaking the please or first all these people are fighting is right here fox closer to them than well also love ironically skies Irish meaning that area if you live in surely he deserves its rivals and Sharon if there was no pressed because our home yeah the question I was outside Irish and that was it really was course the Mormon on him and he knows his fighter half mine is and that and their ... a serious a crime here was a little and you know who experiences of the British a grateful was well and had the very least ... so I did what I did when I criticize you know the her comment she said our lives are like season 7 years war more high quality anyway receivers are you talking about his people who are who were either government hall but included who adds it was certainly hobbles was charged I think we can go ahead and time is not right the moon Palmyra inner inner Ennodius you talk and and almost with regards to square that a motivated by her religion I am absolutely managing they behave Spain homelands ... Israel is rather than on I didn't really hating on a man who is this is a fun isn't as and ... and their hands because of religious mission writer per per pacifists and he said I say lately happens in 7 of its partners in 6 years that the Quakers who actually ... basically harm Pennsylvania politics since 1630 ... head itself as a writer because is whether they will continue to help because I think you hit it out and then they would have to pay me on selling houses because they're not substantial majority of those present serious artists Hans and then in the assembly umbrage data and so handwritten and and others I'm we have room sunlight and now only if it had not bring me anything power so we had to use the word slip through but neither is that he has played n't I'm just right here in Oregon and I think he's able anymore Selanne Moynihan north side of the allies to doing that so I kinda agree that hate is out of all the good there jeeps ironically he has a horse without anything without he gets home went even further with it now Adam no easy withdrawal from there on the Heller's is Chinese and enables on Ohio hookers alliance was at hand and you know the risks as a severity of silence so everything is that she is helping bring about how he's had all his he's is profound airline because he has his in his arms when it went out of his grief check for Israel answers his arms a senators to ask why things happen the settlers the west in the end he I exist in the west you know and it was a little so there's no street ironies that is fine Israel have risen an average ... is very cross radio Michael Hayden had in his ... so far as to state ... NDEs ... and ultimately I think so we'll take one more your all yes could you elaborate a little role models here is a part of this petition other than this class how nice it is one of the men grizzled paces line each of the sports and even greasy expansion ports ... decision was amazing supplies however tense fodder for her horses and livestock pardon us over here as long as he's anywhere else Terry staging areas hasn't him of their mouths a man in our why some are necessary movies license plates so handsome humor pieces powdery this is a first grader wrote tennis west at about play over his love for you miles and I distances maybe none of and only living areas Alaskan opinion he cited it's hard for ... lesson here is the last one and I had a good age for his size for one it's in here and Carl on so is crucial in this exhibition and it wasn't me Carla Hanrahan forces base operations and it's here in these are superior because it is wrong in these arms to move west to join the army she and and I think you know there is a statue forces Carla how shitty I have ever made one thing is a great honor Moore college here program grounds and that's fine this was an important here is more of a focus on a and it would be easy I see it as Stephenson with general enforce grounds that's how you learn how a general who is able to understand is that it has had you know who is in poor health in order to her house animal or a general who preferred behind her you know that if I shot well her I am going to influence anything because everybody knew in his heart he's very good at at like him you know one positive things and emerges from inside her mind I actually do have one more question his journey down the length of stay okay if you may have heard he the oh yeah I think if it is a question was I mean anything is has anyone ever taken him on and there are any other tool that I think of our pay to take a leave work with me and I stand science class who is that 0.5 there might have the other hand it is a force in Ohio it's a haven for and take us on Mohammed here financing his views her as a person in the early he's trying to manage his plans for and the French are showing on the V. English in their everybody wants staff is on hand fourth and force him the Delawares and Shawnees even made us hadn't lived there ... thing and this is supposed to be in charge of it's also more then 100 heads went out from under the Uruguay home and it's a hidden here this is very good later on highland spread through emotionally so that's carefully really maneuvers her Washington as his only potential ally 80 physician was you guys have more so if anything or anyone else's house in a very hostile resign as early and he's doing it because he's an ally and Washington energy needs faded crazily on he's a pack hike is completely and it has run could I just follow and then about 6 months to I'm still hangs in some ways he's had his aides are hoping anymore SAS on elderly person you know ahead Susquehanna an Israeli that an 8 persons holes responsible for anymore other friends here and then I see someone who makes the first paper added overtures valances came his has and at that exports he's the one who cooperates with him he's the one who negotiates on fora holier freeze people ask her 0 acres now is please promise her moral and it was easy for nurses level alcohol in his some relief from both who believe that another person was capable of actually bringing about peace so we have a system in Pennsylvania his tunes then they go away hacking and the teller leaders he's got a lower and if you get a big thing or opens ncredible sort of sound and and the problem is awaiting my money away his story once I was told seats hands free Louis and a great climax homes on the plains of Abraham it's our solemn orphanage gloriously and ... NMO anybody I sizing this time on my war ... my Morrison this year long I wasn't working in which all paid only working out how I need and those who were principally as far as really story I in our midst I want to quickly announce so that you join us as well veils here's you give you an example of ... how popular your is this is the largest crowd we've ever had way off nnst the I in American history and in in our history those of us who are historians I know we find a ruse what you got for us tonight is not only help us commemorate and where sharia the roots of Carlisle barracks and but you also mated absent touchstone for the president CNY many of our literature here past forms present that that's what you got 8 with hers so I'm half of akheron yells and really great to be on okay center her staff life was issued commemorative your poster outside yeah like you for right discussions will find someone he hadn maneuver you had earlier if you're saying is here rights I think is it is //



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